Herb Gardening in the Low Desert

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A survey of everything you need to know to start or maintain an herb garden in the Low (Sonoran) Desert from the Arizona Herb Association.

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Herb Gardening in the Low Desert

  1. 1. Herb Gardening in the Low Desert Mike & Carolyn Hills Arizona Herb Association & Maricopa County Master Gardeners
  2. 2. Mike C a r ol y n
  3. 3. AZHerb.org @HerbArizona Facebook/ArizonaHerb info@azherb.org
  4. 4. And, there’s ROSEMARY ….That’s for remembrance. W.Shakespeare http://www.nothyme.com/herbs/rosemary.cfm
  5. 5. Our Personal Soapbox Sun Protection Tools Arizona has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the USA, with 300+ sun days per year http:azcc.arizona.edu/prevent/ Skin_Prevent.htm
  6. 6. AZ Gardening Tools Regular skin checkup
  7. 7. And, it’s not just about skin cancer • Excess sun exposure can cause: • premature aging • wrinkled, leathery and rough skin • sunburn • skin cancer
  8. 8. Sun Protective Clothing www.sunprotectiveclothing.com BAKER NURSERY and Other Local, Family Owned Gardener Friendly Nurseries & Garden Shops PLUS, Sports Stores
  9. 9. What We’ll Talk About Today • Intro to MGs & AHA • What’s an Herb? • Where to Plant/How to Grow • Top Reasons Why Herbs Die Here • Recommended Gardens to Tour • Recommended Books
  10. 10. What We’ll Talk About Today • Where to Buy/Botanical Names • Pop Quiz • Garden Tour • Break • Parade of Herbs • Summary • Questions
  11. 11. Maricopa County Master Gardeners • 600 Volunteers who “help promote environmentally responsible gardening & landscaping in the Low Desert” – Desert Garden Institute – Ambassadors – Speakers Bureau – Hotline, Website, List Serve, Publications • http://cals.arizona.edu/maricopa/garden/ • Garden Questions 602-470-8086
  12. 12. Maricopa County Master Gardeners • Become a Master Gardener Volunteer! • Call 602-470-8086 for next training • http://cals.arizona.edu/maricopa/garden/ html/mgs/mg-broch.htm
  13. 13. Arizona Herb Association est. 1988 • 100-200 herb enthusiasts • Meet 1st Thursday of each month (except Summer) 7:00 p.m. • Speakers on all aspects of herbs • Demonstration Garden • Scholarships & Public Service • www.azherb.org for location & topic • Or 602-470-8086 ext 830
  14. 14. Arizona Herb Association Herb Demonstration Garden
  15. 15. Arizona Herb Association Culinary Group
  16. 16. “Herb” vs. “Erb” (and “Yerba”) • Oxford English Dictionary -- “Herb” • Webster’s American Dictionary – either pronunciation accepted. • “Yerba” is the Spanish word for herb – Yerba Anis (Mexican Tarragon) – Yerba Mansa (Swamp Root) – Yerba Buena (Spearmint)
  17. 17. What is an Herb? • An Herb is a PLANT: – Trees – Shrubs and sub-shrubs – Vines – Woody-stemmed perennials – Herbaceous plants – annual, perennial and biennual – Ferns – Fungi (current research for sunscreen pill extract)
  18. 18. What is an Herb? • A Herb is a USEFUL Plant: – Culinary – Medicinal – Crafting – Dyes – Religious/Cultural/Ceremonial – Beauty/Personal Care – Aroma
  19. 19. What Part of the Herb is Used? • Roots • Stems • Leaves • Flowers • Fruits (Seeds or Bark = Spices)
  20. 20. Where do Herbs Come From? Every Land Mass – Every Culture
  21. 21. Climate Origin Clues for Growing Herbs • Central Europe – cool & moist • Eurasia – cool and moderate moisture • Mediterranean – dry & hot • Africa – dry & hot OR tropical & wet • Central America – tropical hot & wet • South America – variable – Where? • Mexico – dry & hot OR tropical & wet • North America – variable – Where? • Southeast Asia – tropical hot & wet • China – variable – Where?
  22. 22. Herbs are Easy to Grow in the Low Desert • Many popular & common herbs originated in the Mediterranean or North Africa, places with: – hot climates – low rainfall – alkaline soils • Just like Southwest USA Green French Lavender Culinary Sage
  23. 23. Herbs are Easy to Grow in the Low Desert • Many other herbs originated in tropical Southeast Asia, Equatorial Africa, or tropical South & Central America. • Love our heat, but need additional: – organic matter – water – fertilizer Lemongrass Basil
  24. 24. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Traditional Herb Garden from “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
  25. 25. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Cloister Garden from “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
  26. 26. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Tudor “Knot” Garden from “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
  27. 27. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Mesquite Herb Garden
  28. 28. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Another Mesquite Herb Garden
  29. 29. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Aloe vera in a Xeriscape Landscape
  30. 30. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Chaparral Sage in a Landscape
  31. 31. Where Should You Plant Herbs? African Blue Basil on a Patio
  32. 32. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Apple Mint as Garden Art
  33. 33. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Rosemary Trailing Over a Wall
  34. 34. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Rosemary Trailing Over a Parking Garage
  35. 35. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Rosemary at a Gas Station
  36. 36. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Rosemary as a hedge
  37. 37. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Breadseed (Opium) & California Poppies in a Wildflower Mix
  38. 38. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Breadseed Poppies in a Wildflower Mix
  39. 39. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Yerba Mansa in a Pond Environment
  40. 40. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Anywhere!! Yerba Mansa in a Birdbath
  41. 41. Top Reasons Why Herbs Die #1 • You planted at the wrong time! • Our planting calendar is “backward” Fall is primary planting season here – Parsley – Dill – Fennel – Cilantro – Onions/Garlics
  42. 42. Top Reasons Why Herbs Die #2 • You chose the wrong site for your variety. Variegated Sage Can’t Survive full sun or bad drainage
  43. 43. Top Reasons Why Herbs Die #3 • You over-watered! French Lavender Dead from Root Rot
  44. 44. Top Reasons Why Herbs Die #4 • Perennial/Bienniel elsewhere, Annual here! Parsley Transplants Just Can’t Survive our Hot Summers Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com Plant from seed for best success!
  45. 45. Local Herb Gardens to Tour • Desert Botanical Garden • Boyce Thompson Arboretum • Tucson Botanical Garden • Arboretum at Flagstaff • Tohono Chul Park – Tucson • Maricopa County Extension
  46. 46. Beware of Most Herb Books and Magazines • Written in U.K. or Northeastern U.S. • Poor guidelines for Low Desert – planting/harvesting calendars – sunlight/water requirements • Great for photos, uses, history, design ideas, recipes, etc. • CHECK www.herbsociety.org
  47. 47. Recommended Gardening & Herb Books • Desert Gardening for Beginners (Arizona Master Gardener Press) – How to grow vegetables, flowers and herbs in an arid climate – Covers all the basics for desert gardeners
  48. 48. Recommended Gardening & Herb Books • Gardening in the Desert (Mary F. Irish, U of A Press) – How to grow vegetables, flowers and herbs in an arid climate – Practical advice on plants and gardening practices for anyone who lives in the Southwest
  49. 49. Recommended Gardening & Herb Books • Low-Desert Herb Gardening Handbook (Arizona Herb Association) – Herb planting & harvesting month by month – Specifically written for low- desert herb gardening
  50. 50. Recommended Gardening & Herb Books • Desert Landscaping for Beginners (Arizona Master Gardener Press) – Tips and techniques for success in an arid climate – Ch. 12 - Rose Care – Appendix B - Rose Varieties for the Low Desert
  51. 51. Recommended Gardening & Herb Books • Earth-Friendly Desert Gardening (Arizona Master Gardener Press) – Environmentally responsible gardening & landscaping in the low desert – Growing in harmony with nature saves time, money, and resources
  52. 52. Shopping for Herbs to Plant • “Big Box” Stores – Good for “basic” herb plants/seeds... standard culinary • Chain Nurseries – Nice herb selection. Shop around! • Local family-owned nursery – If they don’t have it, they’ll order it! Wider selection • Botanical Garden or Arboretum Plant Sale – Interesting “native” or “regional” herbs • Arizona Herb Association – Hard-to-find herbs, cheap!
  53. 53. Shopping for Herbs to Plant • Pinch, sniff and taste the culinary herbs! • Won’t taste any different when growing in your garden • Make sure you like them before you buy! • Catalog/Internet - Caution - wrong planting season & transit damage
  54. 54. Botanical (Latin) Names • Many unrelated plants have similar common names • One plant may have multiple common names (different languages/dialects) • Learn the botanical name to be sure you get the CORRECT PLANT
  55. 55. Botanical (Latin) Names • Common Names Can Be Confusing! • “Basil Mint” • “Cinnamon Basil” • “Oregano Thyme” • “Cuban Oregano” (also called “Spanish Thyme”) – NOT Oregano – NOT Thyme (Plectranthus amboinicus) – NOT from Cuba – NOT from Spain
  56. 56. Botanical (Latin) Names • Common Names Can Be Confusing! • Mexican Bush Oregano – NOT Origanum (Lippia graveolens) – But, does contain oregano essential oils • “Real” Oreganos (Origanum spp.) – Dittany of Crete – Wooly Oregano – Not recommended for cooking!! • Mexican Tarragon – Root beer Plant --Yerbanis --Pericon – Winter Tarragon --Poor Man’s Tarragon
  57. 57. • Aztec/Nahuatl – Tzitziqui, Teyatli • Chinese (Cantonese) • 甜 菊萬壽 [tìhm maahn sauh gūk] • Chinese (Mandarin) • 甜 菊萬壽 [tián wàn shòu jú] • Danish - Mexikansk Esdragon • German - Samtblume, Winterestragon, Mexicanischer Estragon • French - Tagète, Estragon du Mexique • English - Pericon, Mexican mint marigold, Winter tarragon, Mexican tarragon, Sweet mace, Spanish tarragon, Florida tarragon, Texas tarragon • Spanish/Mexican - Yauhtli, Pericón Amarillo, Yerba Anis, Yerba Santa Maria, Anisillo • Swedish - Mexikansk dragon
  58. 58. Botanical (Latin) Names G E N U S M e n t h a F O R M L . s t o e c h a s f. le u c a n t h a S U B S P E C I E S L . s t o e c h a s s u b s p . p e d u n c u la t a S P E C I E S L . s t o e c h a s C U L T I V A R L . x in t e r m e d ia 'G r a p p e n h a ll' C U L T I V A R L . x in t e r m e d ia 'S e a l' H Y B R I D L . x in t e r m e d ia S P E C I E S L . la t ifo lia C U L T I V A R L . a n g u s t ifo lia 'H id c o t e ' C U L T I V A R L . a n g u s t ifo lia 'M u n s t e a d ' S P E C I E S L . a n g u s t ifo lia V A R I E T Y L . d e n t a t a v a r . c a n d ic a n s S P E C I E S L . d e n t a t a G E N U S L a v a n d u la G E N U S A c h ille a F A M I L Y L A B I A T A E / L A M I A C E A E Chart Courtesy of “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
  59. 59. Soil Preparation • DRAINAGE is KEY! • Do NOT discard your native soil • Add organic amendments • Add phosphorous containing fertilizer when preparing beds • Only add Nitrogen fertilizers to tropical, fast-growing herbs • Add gravel, coarse sand, pumice to increase drainage where needed » SEE ROOT ROT PREVENTION HANDOUT
  60. 60. Watering Considerations • Check references to see if your herb choices are from dry or tropical areas • Group the plants in the garden with others with similar water needs • Dry origin herbs will thrive on drip irrigation, especially with more drainage • Mulch around ROOTS to maintain uniform moisture - do NOT mulch stems • Adjust watering as seasons change
  61. 61. Note: • We ain’t doctors! • We ain’t herbalists! • We ain’t naturopaths! • We ain’t shamen! • We ARE providing information on historical and traditional uses of herbs.
  62. 62. Pop Quiz Are These Herbs?? ?
  63. 63. Mesquite • Prosopis spp. • YES!! – Beans ground into a nutritious flour, beneficial to diabetics – Sap used as a dye by Native Americans – Bark boiled into a medicinal tea by Native Americans
  64. 64. Prickly Pear/Indian Fig Cactus • Opuntia ficus-indica • YES!! – Pads used to treat wounds and sunburn – Pads and fruit are eaten as a slow- digesting carbohydrate, beneficial to diabetics – Cochineal scale host
  65. 65. Bermudagrass • Cynodon dactylon • YES!! – Underground stems / rhizomes used as medicinal diuretic – Used in Hindu wedding ceremonies
  66. 66. Vinca-Madagascar Periwinkle • Catharanthus roseus • YES!! – Anti-witchcraft herb – Contains vincamine • dilates blood vessels • reduces blood pressure – Treats cardiovascular disorders – Research to treat several viral diseases
  67. 67. Poppy-California • Eschscholzia californica • YES!! – Sedative – Topical pain reliever – Relieves anxiety, nervous tension & insomnia – Diuretic properties – Promotes perspiration – Edible seeds Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
  68. 68. Sage-Texas Ranger • Leucophyllum frutescens • NO!! Got You!! • Well, maybe...... Possible Native American historical medicinal uses......
  69. 69. Lemon • Citrus limonum • YES!! – Juice is natural antibiotic – Oil from peel removes sticky labels – Many culinary uses for juice and peel – Leaves are a culinary flavoring in soups & stir fries – Edible flower
  70. 70. Agave-Century Plant • Agave americana • YES!! – Sap has anti-inflammatory properties • relieves burns, bites & stings – Roots used for washing clothes as a traditional “soap” substitute – Fibers woven into rope – Powdered leaf makes snuffPhoto Courtesy Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
  71. 71. How Many Did You Get Right?? ? Are you already suspecting that you may be a “secret “ herb gardener, unbeknownst to yourself?
  72. 72. B R E A K
  73. 73. Let’s Look at Some Herbs! • Remember -- pinch, sniff & taste the culinary herbs!! • All samples organically grown • Parade of Herbs
  74. 74. Agave-Century Plant • Agave americana – N. American desert origin – Full sun/drainage – Sap has anti-inflammatory properties • relieves burns, bites & stings – Roots used for washing clothes & as a traditional “soap” substitute – Fibers woven into rope – Powdered leaf makes snuff Photo Courtesy Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
  75. 75. Aloe • Aloe vera or Aloe barbadensis – African desert origin – Filtered shade – Exceptional healing properties • apply externally to wounds, burns, sunburn, eczema, etc. – Anti-inflammatory & anti- microbial agents – Taken internally for digestive tract problems – Laxative properties
  76. 76. Arugula - “Rocket” • Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa – Central Europe – Garden soil & water – edible flower – fresh leaves as a flavoring for salads – seeds as mustard substitute Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  77. 77. Basil • Ocimum basillicum – Tropical Asia & Africa – Add water, fertilizer & O.M. – Prune blooms HARD & use – Antidepressant, antiseptic, soothing properties – Fresh leaves rubbed on insect bites and stings relieves itching – Made into a cough syrup with honey – Leaves used in steam inhalations for decongestion – Many culinary uses!
  78. 78. Basil - many varieties & flavors Magical Michael African Variegated Mrs. Burns’ Lemon
  79. 79. Bay-Greek Laurel • Laurus nobilis – Mediterranean origin – Harm from salt & wind – Deep irrigations helpful – Very effective in controlling bacterial growth – Culinary herb in soups, stews and beans, plus always used in bouquet garni
  80. 80. Calendula-Pot Marigold • Calendula officinalis – Eurasia origin – Garden soil and care – Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic properties – Antibacterial and antifungal – Ointment sooths irritated chapped skin, eczema, insect bites & sunburn – “Poor man’s saffron” – Petals used in salads for peppery taste – Used in some herbal teas Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
  81. 81. Caper • Capparis spinosa – Mediterranean origin – Frost sensitive – edible flowers, buds and young leaves – contains anti-oxidant flavinoid: Rutin – researchers are investigating the potential as an extract and a pulp in cosmetics
  82. 82. Caper Photo Courtesy of www.australiacapers.com.auPhoto A.H.A.
  83. 83. Cardamom • Elettaria cardamomum – Tropical Asia – Enriched soil, shade – Antidepressant properties – Digestive aid – Relieves hiccups – Seeds are chewed to freshen the breath – Seeds are ground for culinary spice use
  84. 84. Carnation • Dianthus caryophyllus – Eurasian origins – Garden soil & care – Historical medicinal uses • not used for that today – Fresh flowers added to salads, floated in drinks – Crystallized flowers garnish cakes & dessertsPhoto Courtesy of www.thegardenhelper.com
  85. 85. Castor Bean • Ricinus communis • Asia & Africa • Varied conditions • Frost sensitive small tree • POISONOUS!!! – Castor oil is a laxative – Castor oil also used in contraceptive creams and eye medications – Used in insecticides & lubricants – Seeds ground into ricin, a blood coagulant Photo Courtesy of www.cambridge2000.com
  86. 86. Catmint • Nepeta sibirica or Nepeta mussinii – Eurasian origin – Garden soil & care – Lowers fever, increases perspiration, mildly sedative – Treats colds, influenza, nervous tension, anxiety & gastric upsets – Applied externally to cuts and bruises – Stimulating, minty tea – Edible flowers Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  87. 87. Catnip • Nepeta cataria – Eurasian origin – Garden soil & care – Short-lived perennial – Uses similar to Catmint – Also used as a salad ingredient – Relaxing tea herb - Primary ingredient in “Sleepytime” type herbal teas – Stimulant for some felines, all speciesPhoto courtesy of www.ontariowildflowers.com
  88. 88. Chamomile • Matricaria recutita (German)/Annual & Chamaemelum nobile (Roman)/Perennial • Central European origin • Garden soil & care • Shade required in heat – Antiseptic, anti- inflammatory – Tea helps with nausea & indigestion – Tea promotes calm, stress reduction and sound sleep – Edible flower Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
  89. 89. Chaste Tree (Vitex) (Monk’s Pepper Tree) • Vitex agnus-castus – Mediterranean – Landscape tree – Relaxant – Pain-relieving properties – Reduces libido – Dried seeds used as a substitute for black peppercorns
  90. 90. Chaste Tree (Vitex)
  91. 91. Chervil • Anthriscus cerefolium – Eurasian origin – Garden soil & care – Winter annual – Mild digestive properties – Very delicate flavor for salads & culinary – Part of fines herbes combination Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  92. 92. Chicory • Chichorium intybus – Eurasian origins – Improved garden soil – Bitter tonic herb – Dried, crushed root made into infusions for digestive upset & to improve appetite – Mild stimulant & laxative – Added to salads
  93. 93. Chili/Chile Peppers Nahuatl/Aztec = Chilli Spanish = Chile • Capsicum spp. – Central & S. America – Good soil, fert. & water – Analgesic properties – Increases perspiration – Beneficial with heart attack victims – Many culinary uses fresh or dried Photos Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  94. 94. Chives-Edible Blossom • Allium schoenoprasum – Eurasia origins – Improved garden soil – No medical applications – Culinary uses – Edible flower Photos Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  95. 95. Chives-Garlic (Chives-Chinese) • Allium tuberosum – ALL GARDENS SHOULD HAVE!!! – Garden soil & care – many culinary uses fresh, as a garlic or chives substitute
  96. 96. Cilantro(leaf-herb)/Coriander(seed-spice) • Coriandrum sativum • WINTER ANNUAL • Eurasian origins • Garden soil & care – digestive aid – appetite stimulant – fungicidal and antibacterial uses – seed extract lowers blood cholesterol – Many culinary uses around the world
  97. 97. Cilantro/Coriander-Vietnamese • Polygonum odoratum • Tropical Asia • Summer Harvest • Garden soil & care • Frost sensitive – fresh leaves used as a perennial substitute for cilantro in many Asian recipes Photo Courtesy of www.mountainvalleygrowers.com
  98. 98. Clematis Vine • Clematis recta • POISONOUS!!! – Traditional and historic medicinal uses for a variety of ailments Photo Courtesy of www.ces.ncsu.edu
  99. 99. Coreopsis – Lance Leaved • Coreopsis lanceolata • N. American prairies • Garden soil & care or on drip in xeriscape – traditional dye plant for natural fibers - cotton, wool and plant fibers for linen and baskets
  100. 100. Creosote • Larrea tridentata • N. American deserts • Xeriscape planting – anti-oxidant properties – cancer treatment – immune system stimulant – general tonic
  101. 101. Dandelion • Taraxacum officinale • Garden soil and care • Central Europe – Medicinal tonics – Diuretic and urinary infections – Appetite stimulant – Digestive aid – Edible leaf for salads – Edible flower – Flowers for wine Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
  102. 102. Datura-Sacred (Jimson Weed - Devil’s Apple) • Datura innoxia or Datura wrightii or Datura strammonium • POISONOUS!!! – N. American deserts – Xeriscape plantings – Traditional Native American ceremonial and medicinal uses – EXTREMELY toxic – Preferred food plant for larval Hawk and Sphinx Moths
  103. 103. Devil’s Claw • Proboscidea louisianica • N. American deserts • Xeriscape plantings – Dried black fibers used in basket weaving – Traditional medicinal uses – Edible pods when young and tender
  104. 104. Dianthus - (Clove Pink) • Dianthus spp. • Eurasian origin • Garden soil & care – Traditional medicinal use as tonic, but not used this way today – Edible flower to decorate salads, cakes and ice cream Photo Courtesy of www.flowersandfauna.com
  105. 105. Dill (Dill Weed) • Anethum graveolens • Central Europe • Garden soil & care – Dried seeds are the spice “Dill Seed” – Digestive aid – Treatment for diarrhea and dysentery – Seeds chewed for bad breath – Fresh leaves used in salads and cooking
  106. 106. Elephant Tree (Torote) • Bursera microphylla • N. American deserts • Xeriscape landscape • Frost sensitive – Traditional incense plant among Native American tribes and Mexican cultures – Medicinal uses as anti-microbial and anti-fungus Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
  107. 107. Epasote/Epazote • Chenopodium ambrosiodes • N. America & Mexican origin • Garden soil & care – Aztecs used to treat internal parasites (“skunk sweat”) – bitter, musky, “lemon peel” flavor – Digestive aid – Natural Bean-O! Photo Courtesy of www.mountainvalleygrowers.com
  108. 108. Eucalyptus (Gum Tree) • Eucalyptus spp. • Australian – varied climatic conditions • Some prefer dry, some prefer moist • Many species, sizes and bloom colors are well adapted here – Decongestant and expectorant properties – Antiseptic – Topical for painful joints, inflammation and arthritis – Craft & floral uses
  109. 109. Evening Primrose • Oenethera biennis • N. American prairie • Garden soil & care – Seed oil has anti-oxidant benefits – Immune booster – Menopause benefits – High blood pressure – Cosmetic uses for fresh flowers Photo Courtesy of www.usda.gov
  110. 110. Fennel • Foeniculum vulgare • Central Europe & Eurasia • Garden soil & care • PLANT IN FALL – Dried seeds are used to treat bad breath – Seeds used to improve digestion and aid indigestion – Edible flower and leaves in salds and cooking – Flowers are host for beneficial insects - ladybird beetles, lace wings and butterflies
  111. 111. Feverfew • Tanacetum parthenium or Chrysanthemum parthenium • Mediterranean origin • Garden soil & care • Frost tender Perennial – Migraine headache treatment – Fever reduce – Rheumatism treatment – Bitter salad leaf
  112. 112. Flax-Scarlet • Linum grandiflorum • Related to Linum usitatissimum - source of fiber for linen and oil as linseed oil – Central European – Garden soil & care – Winter annual – seeds eaten for anti- oxidant, essential fatty acids & vitamins and as a laxative – sore throats and gastric upset
  113. 113. Garlic-Culinary • Allium sativum • Many varieties and also many related sub-species grown – Eurasian origin – Garden soil & care – Plant deep in Fall – Harvest June – NO Water – Immune system enhancer – Antibiotic – Lowers blood pressure and cholesterol – Many culinary uses
  114. 114. Garlic-Elephant • Allium ampeloprasum – Same origin, planting and care – Not garlic! It’s actually a leek! – Similar medicinal uses and benefits to related garlic – Culinary substitute for a more mild, less pungent garlic taste Photo Courtesy of www.elephantgarlic.com
  115. 115. Garlic-Society • Tulbaghia violacea – Mediterranean origin – Garden soil & care – Not garlic! – Not culinary for most people. – Edible flowers
  116. 116. Ginger Root • Zingiber officinale – Tropical Asia – Enriched soil & water – Frost tender – Anti-nausea for motion sickness and pregnancy – Antiseptic and expectorant – Promotes sweating for colds & flus – Perfume industry and food flavoring – Many culinary uses
  117. 117. Globe Artichoke • Cynara cardunculus scolymus – Eurasian origin – Heat tender Perennial – Drainage – Root Rot – Leaves have some beneficial constituents for liver de-toxifier – Lowers blood pressure – EDIBLE flower bud – Dried flower for craft projects
  118. 118. Globe Artichoke Attracts Butterflies
  119. 119. Gotu Kola • Hydrocotyle asiatica major – Southeast Asia – Tropical conditions – Prefers shade – Memory enhancer according to ancient Chinese medicine – Increases blood flow to the brain – Edible as bitter leaf in salads
  120. 120. Grass-Bermuda (aka Devil’s Grass) • Cynodon dactylon – Asia & Africa – Strong perennial – Underground stems / rhizomes used as medicinal diuretic – Surface stems / stolons used in Hindu wedding ceremonies
  121. 121. Grass-Citronella • Cymbopogon nardus – Southeast Asia – Enriched soil and extra water – Frost sensitive – Essential oil used in perfume trade – Essential oil used as insect repellant – Craft projects and potpourri uses
  122. 122. Grass-Lemon • Cymbopogon citratus – Southeast Asia – Enriched soil and extra water – Frost sensitive – Topical antiseptic & antibiotic uses – Externally for rheumatism – Internally for gastric upset & indigestion – CULINARY uses
  123. 123. Grass-Lemon
  124. 124. Grass-Lemon
  125. 125. Grass-Palmarosa “Rose Scented Grass” • Cymbopogon martinii motia – Southeast Asia – Enriched soil and extra water – Frost sensitive – Topical antiseptic and antibiotic uses – Essential oil used in perfume industry – Craft uses for dried floral and potpourri
  126. 126. Grass-Vetiver • Vetivera zizanoides – Southeast Asia – Tolerates all soil and water conditions – Turns red in winter – Traditional uses in weaving reed mats – Essential oil from roots used widely in perfume industry – Insect repellant – Dried stems and blooms used in craft industry
  127. 127. Henna • Lawsonia inermis – N. African deserts – Frost tender shrub – Dried foliage used to color hair, as well as to improve hair health – Natural dye plant for cloth or other fiber or temporary tattoos
  128. 128. Hibiscus (Spanish - Jamaica) • Hibiscus spp. – Tropical Americas – VERY Prone to Root Rot – Drainage – Frost tender – Natural lemon-tasting tea of flowers – Beneficial tonic – Natural food colorant
  129. 129. Hollyhock • Althaea rosea – Central China origin – Short-lived perennial – Easy from seed in Spring or Fall – rich soil – Blooms second year – Demulcent to sooth sore throat – Historical uses for chest complaints – Dye plant for natural fibers and cloth
  130. 130. Honeysuckle • Lonicera caprifolium – N. America & Europe – Frost tender vine – Former use for expectorant and laxative properties – Related Chinese species used as toxin cleanser Photo Courtesy of www.davesgarden.com
  131. 131. Jerusalem Artichoke • Helianthus tuberosus – N. American prairies – Perennial Sunflower – 6-10 feet tall – Tubers dried and used as an edible starch substitute, especially for diabetics – Tubers are edible fresh in salads, steamed or stir-fried
  132. 132. Lamb’s Ear • Stachys byzantina – Eurasian origin – Root Rot Prone – Filtered shade – Traditional use for headaches & nervous tension – Healing use in lotions or ointments
  133. 133. Lavender-Desert • Hyptis emoryi • AZ NATIVE PLANT – Well drained soil – 5-8 feet tall – Hummingbird attractant – Substitute for Mediterranean lavender in all craft, cosmetic and culinary uses – Native American use in tonic teas Photo Courtesy of www.fireflyforest.com
  134. 134. Lavender • Lavandula spp. – Mediterranean origin – VERY Prone to Root Rot – DRAINAGE!!! – Perennial plants 3-5 years – Traditional use in headache and nervous anxiety preparations – Cosmetic and personal care uses, plus perfumes – Culinary uses in baking, salads, teas – Dried craft uses Lavandula multifida Fernleaf Lavender
  135. 135. Lavender ….for the garden and the xeriscape landscape design
  136. 136. Lavender Lavandula dentata-French Lavandula stoechas-Spanish Photo Courtesy of www.mediterraneangardensociety.org Hummingbird attractants
  137. 137. Lemon • Citrus limonum – Tropical Asia – Frost sensitive – Good drainage critical – Juice is natural antibiotic – Oil from peel removes sticky labels – Many culinary uses for juice and peel – Leaves are a culinary flavoring in Asian soups & stir fries – Edible flower
  138. 138. Lemon Balm (aka Melissa) • Melissa officinalis – Eurasian origin – Requires shade and enriched soil with extra moisture – Anti-viral preparations, especially for the various Herpes types – Relaxing & sedative properties – Depression and headache treatments – Fresh leaves for lemon flavor to salads, soups, etc. – Dried leaves for teas Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
  139. 139. Lemon Verbena • Aloysia triphylla or Aloysia citriodora – Higher elevations of Tropical America – VERY Prone to Root Rot – Drainage!! – Frost sensitive – Flavorful teas, as well as other culinary uses – Perfume industry – Insect deterrant when dried – Dried craft use in sachets & potpourri Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
  140. 140. Lion’s Tail / Lion’s Ear • Leonotis leonaurus – Tropical Asia & Africa – Garden soil & care – Perennial 2-3 years – Readily re-seeds – Seeds relished by birds – Hummingbird Flowers – Traditional medicinal and skin tonic uses in Asia – Smoked in its native South Africa as a mild narcotic – Dried flower and craft uses
  141. 141. Madder / Dyer’s Madder • Rubia tinctorum – Central European – Improved soil & water – VERY INVASIVE – Traditional RED dye plant - roots used throughout Europe prior to New World discovery of Cochineal scale as superior RED dye
  142. 142. Marjoram • Origanum majorana – Mediterranean origin – Drainage & Pruning – Antiseptic properties when used topically – Internally for relaxation and nervous tension – Many CULINARY uses worldwide Knot Marjoram Sweet Marjoram in Bloom
  143. 143. Mesquite • Prosopis spp. – North, South & Central American deserts native – Fast growing trees – Do NOT stake and DO water deeply for best growth – Beans ground into a nutritious flour, beneficial to diabetics – Sap used as a dye by Native Americans – Bark &/or leaves boiled into a medicinal tea by some Native Americans
  144. 144. Milk Thistle • Silybum marianum – Eurasian origin – Garden soil & care – Winter/Spring Annual – Seeds used as a liver de-toxifier – Appetite stimulant Photo Courtesy of www.nwcb.wa.gov
  145. 145. Mint • Mentha spp. – European & Medit. – Garden soil & care – Can be invasive – Tea for colds & flu – Useful for indigestion – Breath freshener – Decongestant & antiseptic properties – Insect repellant – Many craft uses – Many CULINARY uses fresh and dried Pineapple Mint
  146. 146. Mint – garden control
  147. 147. Mint Moroccan Mint Apple Mint variegated Orange Mint
  148. 148. Mormon Tea • Ephedra sp. – N. American deserts – Drainage critical – Slow growing at first – Contains pseudo-ephedrine substances, useful in treating respiratory problems – Tonic, somewhat minty tasting tea – NOTE: The related Chinese species contains ephedrine and is illegal in USA
  149. 149. Nasturtium • Tropaeolum majus – Tropical C.&S. America – Plant soaked seeds Fall – Protect from frost – Garden soil & care – Seeds for antiseptic and antibacterial properties – Seeds used for upper respiratory infections – Fresh leaves and flowers edible in salads and appetizers Photo Courtesy www.hear.org
  150. 150. Onion & Shallot • Allium cepa – European & Mediterranean origins – Plant in Sept/Oct/Nov – Harvest June/July – Antibiotic uses in traditional medicine – Respiratory benefits – Many CULINARY uses worldwide – TOXIC to dogs
  151. 151. Onion & Shallot Egyptian Walking Onion
  152. 152. Papago I’itoi Onion (shallot) Every gardener should have these!!! Spanish priests gave them to the Tohono O’odham farming tribes around 1700 AD Plant Fall/early Spring Dig as green onions all Winter/Spring May/June allow plants to dry down – NO water Harvest June/July a 25- 50 times increase
  153. 153. Oregano-Cuban • Plectranthus amboinicus – Caribbean Mexico & C. America origin – Extremely frost sensitive – protect!! – Enriched soil & water – Traditional medicinal uses throughout Caribbean – Culinary use fresh as a substitute for European Oregano
  154. 154. Oregano-Dittany of Crete • Origanum dictamnus – Mediterranean origin – Drainage critical – Filtered shade best – Traditional medicinal uses rarely practiced now – Decorative and dried craft uses
  155. 155. Oregano-Mexican Bush • Lippia graveolens – Southwest USA & Mexican deserts – Very frost sensitive – Large shrub to 6 feet – Traditional Native American uses in several medicines – Major component in most dried, culinary packaged Oregano – Excellent in all CULINARY uses fresh or dried
  156. 156. Oregano-Native American (Beebalm/Bergamot) • Monarda spp. – N. American prairies, meadows and forests – Enriched soil & water – Traditional uses in topical treatments as antibiotic & antiseptic – Relaxing tea – Replacement for English tea imports during American Revolution – Culinary uses in cooking meats and vegetables Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
  157. 157. Oregano-Rosemarymint • Poliomintha maderensis cv. ‘Lavender Spice’ – Mexican native – Filtered shade – Prune hard after bloom – Traditional medicinal and ceremonial uses among Native Americans – Culinary uses in preparation of meats – Excellent edible flower and leaf in salads Photo Courtesy Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
  158. 158. Oregano-Syrian (Bible Hyssop) • Organum maru or Origanum syriaca – N. African origin – Drainage important – Semi-dormant Winter – Loves hot weather – Historic uses as a topical antiseptic tea – Culinary uses as a strong oregano for meats, dried beans & vegetable dishes
  159. 159. Oregano-Wooly • Origanum rotundifolium x dictamnus – Mediterranean origin – Drainage critical – Prefers heat & filtered or afternoon shade – Traditional medicinal uses, no longer practiced – Crafting and dried floral uses
  160. 160. Papaya • Carica papaya – Tropical Americas origins – Frost sensitive – Drainage critical – SALT sensitive – Many traditional medicinal uses, both internal and topical – Wart removal, and also used as skin treatment for freckles & sun damage – Insecticide uses – Contains “papain”, a natural digestive and meat tenderizer – Edible fruit
  161. 161. Parsley • Petroselinum crispum – Eurasian origins – Biennial at best, usually Winter annual – Best planted Fall from pre-soaked seed – Blooms attract ladybugs – Traditional medicinal and tonic uses – Rich source of vitamin A & C, plus anti- oxidants – Culinary uses fresh and cooked, plus seed Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  162. 162. Passion Vine • Passiflora incarnata – N., C. & S. American native species – Enriched soil & water – Frost tender – Butterfly attractant – Religious significance in Native & Christian religious ceremonies – Traditional medicinal uses – Aphrodisiac – Edible flower & fruit
  163. 163. Patchouli • Pogostemon cablin or Pogostemon heyneanyus – Southeast Asian origin – Frost & Salt sensitive – Filtered shade – Historic medicinal and insect repellant uses – Cosmetic and body care uses – Perfume industry Photo Courtesy of www.oller.net
  164. 164. Poppy-Breadseed • Papaver somniferum – Eurasian origins – Garden soil & care – Winter ANNUAL – Readily re-seeds Fall – Edible seeds for baking, salads, etc. (no alkaloid) – Sap collected as base for heroin, opium and related illegal narcotics, but the flower can be grown for decorative use – Traditional medicinal uses for pain and sedative
  165. 165. Poppy - Breadseed Food and Medicine
  166. 166. “Poppies, my pretty……”
  167. 167. Poppy- California & Mexican Gold • Eschscholzia californica & Eschscholzia mexicana – N. American native – Winter ANNUAL – Varied soil & water – Sedative – Topical pain reliever – Relieves anxiety, nervous tension & insomnia – Diuretic properties – Promotes perspiration – Edible seeds
  168. 168. Prickly Pear/Indian Fig Cactus • Opuntia ficus-indica – Mexico & N. America – Frost sensitive – Full sun – good drainage – Pads used to treat wounds and sunburn – Pads and fruit are eaten as a slow-digesting carbohydrate, beneficial to diabetics – Cochineal scale host
  169. 169. Rose • Rosa spp. – Europe, Eurasia, China and N. America – Garden soil & care – Prune HARD in January – Local Rose Societies – Many species and hybrids and varieties – Traditional uses in medicinal and personal care products – Edible flowers fresh or in jams and teas – Edible fruit with high Vitamin C
  170. 170. Rosemary • Rosemary officinalis – Mediterranean origin – Drainage critical – Variable cold tolerance – Historical association with memory/learning – Improves blood flow in the brain – Myth and legend relates to friendship – Hair & scalp tonic – Many culinary uses!
  171. 171. Rosemary – many varieties & uses ‘Tuscan’ ‘Huntington Blue’ ‘Arp’ ‘Madelene Hill’ ‘Spice Islands’
  172. 172. Saffron Crocus • Crocus sativus • Eurasia & Meditteranean • Drainage critical • Improved soil, some shade • NOTE - leaves show in Spring, bulb is dormant in Summer and flowers appear in Fall – mark planting well – Medicinal uses as a digestive aid – Improves circulation & blood pressure – Many CULINARY uses Photo Courtesy of www-ang.kfunigraz.ac.at
  173. 173. Sage-Culinary • Salvia officinalis • NOT all salvias are edible or same uses – Mediterranean origin – DRAINAGE Critical – Frost sensitive – Traditional medicinal uses as topical antiseptic – Cold & Flu treatment – Perfume and personal care uses – CULINARY uses in cooking and teas Berggarten Sage
  174. 174. Sage-Culinary Variegated Sage Purple Sage Sage Blooms
  175. 175. Sage-Chaparral or Cleveland • Salvia clevelandii • EXCELLENT xeriscape plant for low water use – Texas & Mexico native – DRAINAGE critical – Prune hard after bloom – similar historic medicinal uses to Culinary Sage – Also used in teas and cooking, although flavor is different – Craft, potpourri and dried floral uses – Hummingbird attractant
  176. 176. Sage-Jerusalem • Phlomis fruticosa – Mediterranean native – Drainage critical – Prune hard after bloom – Traditional medicinal preparations as topical antiseptic – Primarily crafter and dried floral plant – Bright yellow blooms in Spring / early Summer
  177. 177. Sage-Mexican Bush • Salvia leucantha – Mexican native plant – Tolerates wide range of soils and water – Frost sensitive – Historic and current medicinal uses among Native American tribes throughout Central America & Mexico – Ceremonial uses in Day of the Dead ceremonies in parts of Mexico – Dried floral and craft uses, plus HUMMINGBIRDS
  178. 178. Sage-Pineapple • Salvia elegans – Tropical Americas – VERY Frost tender – Improved soil/water – Good drainage – History of similar medicinal uses to other sages – Edible flowers and leaves for salads – Some culinary uses – HUMMINGBIRDS
  179. 179. Sage-Russian • Perovskia atriplicifolia – Eurasian origin – Winter dormant – Drainage important – Prune hard after bloom – Historic and traditional medicinal uses, rarely practiced currently – Crafter and dried floral uses now
  180. 180. Salad Burnet • Poterium sanguisorba or Pimpinella saxifraga – Eurasian origin – Afternoon shade – Garden soil & care – Historic use as a digestive aid after meals – Seeds used in medicinal preparations – Edible flower and leaves for salads
  181. 181. Scented Geranium • Pelargonium spp. – Southern Africa origin – Garden soil & care – Frost sensitive – Smaller leaved varieties better as container plants – Medicinal uses in South Africa in teas and topical solutions – Dried craft uses – Perfume industry – Culinary uses in cakes and teas
  182. 182. Sesame • Sesamum indicum • Africa & Asia origin • Spring/Summer ANNUAL • Plant after last frost • 4-8 feet tall • Seeds ripen all summer • Sesame oil & seeds used in cooking – Rich in vitamins & minerals • eneficial for problem skin (eczema and psoriasis) – helps protect against harmful sun rays
  183. 183. Sorrel • Rumex acetosa – Central Europe – Shade in Summer – Garden soil & care – Short-lived perennial – Rheumatism and arthritis sufferers should NOT consume – Edible leaves for salads, soups, etc. and steamed as a “green” Photo Courtesy of www.sandmountainherbs.com
  184. 184. Southernwood-Powis Castle • Artemisia abrotanum ‘powis castle’ – Mediterranean origin – Drainage critical – Prune hard in Spring – Appetite stimulant and tonic as a mild tea – Historic medicinal uses as de-wormer – Insect repellant – Dried craft projects
  185. 185. Statice-Sea Lavender • Statice caroliniana or Statice limonium – Eurasia origin – Garden soil & care – Perennial bloomer – dried floral and crafting plant
  186. 186. Stevia • Stevia rebaudiana – Central America – Filtered shade – Enriched soil/water – Natural plant sweetener from the dried and powdered leaves, or as liquid extract drops – ZERO calories – Can substitute for sugar in all uses, including cookingPhoto Courtesy www.mountainvalleygrowers.com
  187. 187. Sunflower • Helianthus annus • North American native plant • Garden soil & care • Plant seeds EARLY Fall or EARLY Spring • Seeds ripen Summer – seeds and oil loaded with vitamin E – Antioxidant – Seed hulls a traditional dye source for Hopi – Traditionally used for coughs and bronchitis
  188. 188. Tarragon-French • Artemisia dracunculus var. sativa • CAUTION – French only from cuttings or root divisions - SEEDS are only for “Russian Tarragon” with NO flavor at all – Eurasian native – Frost and Heat sensitive – Drainage critical – Fresh or dried use as culinary herb Photo Courtesy of www.mobot.org
  189. 189. Tarragon-Mexican • Tagetes lucida • Many Common names due to the popularity of this herb – Mexico & C. America origin – Tropical – frost tender – Blooms Oct.-January – Enriched soil / extra water – Traditional medicinal tea uses in Mexican & Central American homes – Culinary substitute for French Tarragon in recipes – Excellent in teas – ice or hot
  190. 190. Thyme • Thymus spp. • MANY species and varieties & flavors – Mediterranean origin – Drainage critical – Prune regularly – Antiseptic and antibiotic uses – Coughs and colds – Beneficial mouthwash and for teeth/gums – CULINARY uses
  191. 191. Thyme-Conehead • Coriothymus capitalus • Or Thymbra capitata ‘Conehead Thyme’ • Mediterranean origin • Drainage critical • Blooms all summer • Source of much of the packaged commercial thyme & thyme oil in retail markets – Contains thymol as key constituent for health & antiseptic benefits – CULINARY uses fresh or dried - very strong
  192. 192. Vinca- Madagascar Periwinkle • Catharanthus roseus • Madagascar Island • Garden soil & care • Tender perennial • Re-seeds readily – Anti-witchcraft herb – Contains vincamine • dilates blood vessels • reduces blood pressure – Treats cardiovascular disorders – Research to treat several viral diseases
  193. 193. Viola / Pansy / Sweet Violet • Viola spp. – Europe, Eurasia, North America, Mediterranean – Garden soil & care – Filtered to Full Shade – Many traditional medicinal uses as anti- inflammatory – Expectorant – Skin care & Perfume – Edible flower & leaves in salads Photo Courtesy of www.gardenguides.com
  194. 194. Yarrow • Achillea spp. • Gold, White, Pastels – Europe, Eurasia, North America – Filtered shade – Enriched soil, water – Historic use in antiseptic medicinals and insecticides – Current use as dried floral and craft plant Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
  195. 195. Yerba Mansa – “Swamp Root” • Anemopsis californica • Native Arizona/Calif. wetlands plant – endangered • Moist conditions • Filtered shade • Long history of use in many different medicines, both internal and topically • Roots used for mouth and wound treatment • Popular pond plant
  196. 196. What Did We Learn? • Hundreds of herbs can easily be grown in the Low Desert landscape & garden • Our seasons are different • Our soils are “interesting” • Our waters are salty • Plant herbs in the right season & the right location for a successful garden!
  197. 197. Questions??

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