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Renewable Energy
Sources
composed by
Dragica Vasileska
In the last 100 years, the Earth
warmed up by ~1° C
100 years is nothing by geological time scales!
Climate change due
to natural causes
(solar variations,
volcanoes, etc.)
Climate change due
to natural causes
and human
generated
greenhouse gases
Can we predict the past?
CO2 Concentration, Temperature, and Sea Level
Continue to Rise Long after Emissions are Reduced
100 years
1,000 years
Sea-level rise due to ice
melting: several millennia
Sea-level rise due to
thermal expansion:
centuries to millennia
Temperature stabilization:
a few centuries
CO2 stabilization:
100 to 300 years
CO2 emissions
CO2 emissions peak
0 to 100 years
Today
The possibility / likelihood of
global warming is disturbing …
… but there may be a bigger problem!
Chu
Consumption of Energy Increased by 85%
Between 1970 and 1999
2020
2015
2010
2005
1999
1995
1990
1985
1980
1975
1970
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Quadrillion Btu
History Projections
By 2020, Consumption will Triple
World production of oil and gas is
predicted to peak within 10 - 40 years
2010
Energy conservation and
efficiency can buy time
(a factor of ~2)
but the fundamental problem remains
Electrical generation
Switch from petroleum to coal
and natural gas
Why has hydroelectric
declined?
When did nuclear go up?
Numbers = how long it would last if all energy came from one source
Resource recoverable recoverable and hoped for
Coal 125 1300
Petroleum 5 50?
Natural gas 5 50?
Oil shale 0 2500
Conventional reactors 3 15
Breeder reactors 115 750
Fusion 106 to 109
Geothermal surface 0.2 60
deep rock 0 600
Estimates of depletable energy resources in the U.S.
Numbers = proportion of current U.S. energy needs that could be supplied for
an indefinite period.
Tidal energy 0.1
Organic Waste 0.1
Photosynthesis 0.23
Hydropower 0.14
Wind Power 5
Solar radiation 740
Estimates of renewable energy
(in the U.S. in 2002)
1-4 ¢ 2.3-5.0 ¢
6-8 ¢ 5-7 ¢
Today: Production Cost of Electricity
6-7 ¢
25-50 ¢
Courtesy Nate Lewis
0
5
10
15
20
25
Coal Gas Oil Wind Nuclear Solar
Cost
Energy Costs
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
$/GJ
Coal Oil Biomass Elect
Brazil
Europe
$0.05/kW-hr
www.undp.org/seed/eap/activities/wea
Courtesy Nate Lewis
Potential Sources of Energy when
Fossil Fuels Run Out
Nuclear
Fission
Magnetic Plasma
Confinement,
Inertial Fusion
Waste &
Nuclear Proliferation
Nuclear
Fusion
10 TW = 10,000 new 1 GW
reactors: i.e., a new
reactor every other day for
the next 50 years
Solar, Wind and Water
We do not know how to store electrical
energy on a massive scale
Geothermal
Heat near surface of
the earth = geysers,
volcanoes, hot
springs
Photosynthesis Photovoltaic and
electricity to
chemical
H O
O H
2
2
2
sc M
e
sc
e
M
CO
Sugar
H O
O
2
2
2
Solar to Chemical Energy
Semiconductor/
liquid junctions
Energy gained in corn
ethanol production
Total CO2 emissions
From Summary of Renewable Fuel
Options (NCEP)
“Unlike corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol has
potential to achieve near-zero net carbon
emissions.
Cultivation of cellulosic feedstocks requires
very low energy inputs and, if sustainably
managed, the carbon released during fuel
combustion is reabsorbed by the growth of
new feedstocks.”
Use heat to make steam to turn
turbine for electrical generation
Note: deep hot waters are
corrosive to best to inject clean
water in a closed system and bring
it back to the surface as steam.
Geothermal Energy in More Details
In U.S., much done on
public land = cheap
Very little potential in east
and mid west
World wide distribution of
volcanos, hot springs, etc.
Japan, Iceland,New Zealand
big users of geothermal.
Although hot areas near surface are limited, the earth is hot
everywhere if you go down far enough.
Bright idea!? – drill deep enough to find heat. Since rock is a poor conductor of
heat, set off a big bomb to crack the rock and allow heat to move – then pump
down water to make steam.
Hydropower in More Details
Hydropower = dams
Not much used in world,
why??
Norway,
Zambia,
Ghana big
users
Most unused hydropower in U.S. = Alaska,
In World = Canada, Russia
Problems with hydroelectric
• Location = unused rivers are in extreme
north or low population areas
• Competition with recreational uses (U.S.)
and environmental concerns
• Hard to build dams in populated river
valleys
• Siltation of dams – limited life.
Tidal Power
1. In areas of large tides
2. Anywhere – build
offshore dam
Highest tides in the
world = Bay of Fundy
16 meters = 48+ feet!
Tidal power anywhere
1. No dam – but a turbine.
Problems:
1. Corrosion
2. Navigation
3. Appearance
4. Amount of energy available
is low
5. Best tides are near poles –
away from people.
Banning Pass
Wind Power in More Details
Wind Power Generation
Best wind location = Aleutian Islands,
why no wind development there?
Best U.S. localities
Midwest, mountains
And coastal areas.
Netherlands =
coastal
development
England = off shore
Wind energy problems
• Location – near population center
• Bird migration –
• Visual
• Must be coupled with other sources of
electricity (intermittent supply)
Solar Energy in More Details
1. Solar Thermal
At focal point = heat liquid – steam
to turn turbine
Solar Resource for a Concentrating
Collector
Big Plants
2. Solar Photovoltaics
‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths
Hard =
1. Big plants
2. Centralized production
Soft =
1. Decentralized
2. units per household
Big Plants
Energy efficient house; wind
power on roof. Solar panels
for heat and electricity.
Decentralized
Solar electricity generation
Solar water heating solar air heating
Solar house problems
• The Los Angeles air = smog
• Retrofitting- very expensive
• Hard for big hotels, Walmarts, etc.
Solar house economics
• Add $16,000 to price of house
• Pay back - $1500 per year in energy costs
• 15 years to break even
Federal tax incentive; 40% of investment can be written off. Discontinued in
1986
City of Claremont – solar energy ordinance. 60% of hot water – solar
Exceptions for equivalent savings of energy = Colleges approach. Why not
trust solar?

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Renewable_Energy_Sources.ppt

  • 2. In the last 100 years, the Earth warmed up by ~1° C 100 years is nothing by geological time scales!
  • 3. Climate change due to natural causes (solar variations, volcanoes, etc.) Climate change due to natural causes and human generated greenhouse gases Can we predict the past?
  • 4. CO2 Concentration, Temperature, and Sea Level Continue to Rise Long after Emissions are Reduced 100 years 1,000 years Sea-level rise due to ice melting: several millennia Sea-level rise due to thermal expansion: centuries to millennia Temperature stabilization: a few centuries CO2 stabilization: 100 to 300 years CO2 emissions CO2 emissions peak 0 to 100 years Today
  • 5. The possibility / likelihood of global warming is disturbing … … but there may be a bigger problem! Chu
  • 6. Consumption of Energy Increased by 85% Between 1970 and 1999 2020 2015 2010 2005 1999 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Quadrillion Btu History Projections By 2020, Consumption will Triple
  • 7. World production of oil and gas is predicted to peak within 10 - 40 years 2010
  • 8. Energy conservation and efficiency can buy time (a factor of ~2) but the fundamental problem remains
  • 9.
  • 10. Electrical generation Switch from petroleum to coal and natural gas Why has hydroelectric declined? When did nuclear go up?
  • 11. Numbers = how long it would last if all energy came from one source Resource recoverable recoverable and hoped for Coal 125 1300 Petroleum 5 50? Natural gas 5 50? Oil shale 0 2500 Conventional reactors 3 15 Breeder reactors 115 750 Fusion 106 to 109 Geothermal surface 0.2 60 deep rock 0 600 Estimates of depletable energy resources in the U.S.
  • 12. Numbers = proportion of current U.S. energy needs that could be supplied for an indefinite period. Tidal energy 0.1 Organic Waste 0.1 Photosynthesis 0.23 Hydropower 0.14 Wind Power 5 Solar radiation 740 Estimates of renewable energy
  • 13. (in the U.S. in 2002) 1-4 ¢ 2.3-5.0 ¢ 6-8 ¢ 5-7 ¢ Today: Production Cost of Electricity 6-7 ¢ 25-50 ¢ Courtesy Nate Lewis 0 5 10 15 20 25 Coal Gas Oil Wind Nuclear Solar Cost
  • 14. Energy Costs 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 $/GJ Coal Oil Biomass Elect Brazil Europe $0.05/kW-hr www.undp.org/seed/eap/activities/wea Courtesy Nate Lewis
  • 15. Potential Sources of Energy when Fossil Fuels Run Out Nuclear Fission Magnetic Plasma Confinement, Inertial Fusion Waste & Nuclear Proliferation Nuclear Fusion 10 TW = 10,000 new 1 GW reactors: i.e., a new reactor every other day for the next 50 years
  • 16. Solar, Wind and Water We do not know how to store electrical energy on a massive scale
  • 17. Geothermal Heat near surface of the earth = geysers, volcanoes, hot springs
  • 18. Photosynthesis Photovoltaic and electricity to chemical H O O H 2 2 2 sc M e sc e M CO Sugar H O O 2 2 2 Solar to Chemical Energy Semiconductor/ liquid junctions
  • 19. Energy gained in corn ethanol production
  • 21. From Summary of Renewable Fuel Options (NCEP) “Unlike corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol has potential to achieve near-zero net carbon emissions. Cultivation of cellulosic feedstocks requires very low energy inputs and, if sustainably managed, the carbon released during fuel combustion is reabsorbed by the growth of new feedstocks.”
  • 22. Use heat to make steam to turn turbine for electrical generation Note: deep hot waters are corrosive to best to inject clean water in a closed system and bring it back to the surface as steam. Geothermal Energy in More Details
  • 23. In U.S., much done on public land = cheap Very little potential in east and mid west
  • 24. World wide distribution of volcanos, hot springs, etc. Japan, Iceland,New Zealand big users of geothermal.
  • 25.
  • 26. Although hot areas near surface are limited, the earth is hot everywhere if you go down far enough.
  • 27. Bright idea!? – drill deep enough to find heat. Since rock is a poor conductor of heat, set off a big bomb to crack the rock and allow heat to move – then pump down water to make steam.
  • 29. Hydropower = dams Not much used in world, why??
  • 31.
  • 32. Most unused hydropower in U.S. = Alaska, In World = Canada, Russia
  • 33. Problems with hydroelectric • Location = unused rivers are in extreme north or low population areas • Competition with recreational uses (U.S.) and environmental concerns • Hard to build dams in populated river valleys • Siltation of dams – limited life.
  • 34. Tidal Power 1. In areas of large tides 2. Anywhere – build offshore dam
  • 35. Highest tides in the world = Bay of Fundy 16 meters = 48+ feet!
  • 36. Tidal power anywhere 1. No dam – but a turbine. Problems: 1. Corrosion 2. Navigation 3. Appearance 4. Amount of energy available is low 5. Best tides are near poles – away from people.
  • 37. Banning Pass Wind Power in More Details
  • 39. Best wind location = Aleutian Islands, why no wind development there?
  • 40. Best U.S. localities Midwest, mountains And coastal areas.
  • 41.
  • 43. England = off shore
  • 44. Wind energy problems • Location – near population center • Bird migration – • Visual • Must be coupled with other sources of electricity (intermittent supply)
  • 45. Solar Energy in More Details 1. Solar Thermal
  • 46. At focal point = heat liquid – steam to turn turbine
  • 47.
  • 48. Solar Resource for a Concentrating Collector
  • 51. ‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths Hard = 1. Big plants 2. Centralized production Soft = 1. Decentralized 2. units per household
  • 53. Energy efficient house; wind power on roof. Solar panels for heat and electricity. Decentralized
  • 55. Solar water heating solar air heating
  • 56. Solar house problems • The Los Angeles air = smog • Retrofitting- very expensive • Hard for big hotels, Walmarts, etc.
  • 57. Solar house economics • Add $16,000 to price of house • Pay back - $1500 per year in energy costs • 15 years to break even Federal tax incentive; 40% of investment can be written off. Discontinued in 1986 City of Claremont – solar energy ordinance. 60% of hot water – solar Exceptions for equivalent savings of energy = Colleges approach. Why not trust solar?