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Egyptian Feminism


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Women's Studies report on Feminism in Egypt.

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Egyptian Feminism

  1. 1. Egypt and Feminism Aris Kaleps-Clark
  2. 2. Women in Egyptian History <ul><li>Two main areas of focus: </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers and Royalty </li></ul><ul><li>Women in Society </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rulers <ul><li>Throughout all dynasty’s, up until Alexander the Great, only four women ever took the mantle of Pharaoh. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen Nitokerty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen Sobekneferu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen Hatshepsut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen Tausret </li></ul></ul>1
  4. 4. Queen Hatshepsut 1 2 3
  5. 5. Royalty <ul><li>Queen Kentkaus </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Iput I </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Tiye </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Nefertiti </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Nefertari </li></ul>1
  6. 6. Queen Nefertiti 1 4
  7. 7. Women in Society <ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Childbirth & Motherhood </li></ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Women at Work </li></ul>1
  8. 8. Changes in Egyptian Society <ul><li>War- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French Conquest and Napoleon Bonaparte </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reform- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Muhammad Ali and Egyptian reform </li></ul></ul>5
  9. 9. Egypt 1919-2010 <ul><li>Egyptian Feminist Union (1923-1939) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparable to the first wave in American Feminism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on education, social welfare, and changes in private law in order to provide equality between Egyptian men and women. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critiqued as being to charity based and primarily run by the middle to upper classes. </li></ul></ul>5
  10. 10. Egypt 1919-2010 <ul><li>Post WWII Feminism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1942 Foundation of the Egyptian Feminist Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bint El-Nil (daughter of the Nile) was another feminist association created in 1948. </li></ul></ul>5
  11. 11. Egypt 1919-2010 <ul><li>In 1952 after a military coups, all political parties were disbanded and the Nasserist regime took control. </li></ul><ul><li>However, in 1956, the constitution was amended for women to vote and hold political office. </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Naasserist government, radical groups once more started to form and feminism once more was off and rolling. New groups were formed, with different missions in pursuing justice and equality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Woman Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee for the Defence of Women and Family Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Progressive Women's Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s Secretariat of the Labor Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Woman Research Centre and Bint El Ard (Daughter of the Land) Association </li></ul></ul>5
  12. 12. Egyptian Feminisms <ul><li>Secular Feminism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firmly believe in grounding their discourse outside of all religion, Muslim, Christian or otherwise, instead focusing on international human rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muslim Feminism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the equality of men and women as dictated in holy texts. Also try to find common ground between sociopolitical and cultural realities according to Islam and human rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islamist Feminism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strives for a society that recognizes and respects the compatibility between the sexes instead of competition. </li></ul></ul>6
  13. 13. Revolution in Egypt <ul><li>In January of 2011, protests began in Egypt to remove dictator Hosni Mubarak. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Egyptian women took part in the protests and rallied for the resignation of Mubarak. </li></ul><ul><li>On February 11, 2011, Mubarak stepped out of power and fled the country. </li></ul>7
  14. 14. Closing Thoughts <ul><li>Egypt has a rich history, being one of the first civilizations on this planet. Their struggles have shaped nations. Now, their revolution has inspired millions. As this country creates a new government, perhaps we will see great change come in terms of sex and gender equity. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Work Cited <ul><li>(6)&quot;Egypt.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>(5)&quot;Feminism in Egypt.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>(3)Hatshepsut Statuette. Photograph. Mueseum of Fine Arts, Boston. Wikipedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Hawass, Zahi A., and Suzanne Mubarak. Silent Images: Women in Pharaonic Egypt. New York: Abrams, 2000. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Karam, Azza M. Women, Islamisms and the State: Contemporary Feminisms in Egypt. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan [u.a., 1998. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>(4)Nefertiti. Photograph. Neues Museum. Wikipedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>(2)Queen Hatshepsut. Photograph. Wikipedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul>