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Leadership Burbank 2016

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Non-positional Problem and Critical Thinking

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Leadership Burbank 2016

  1. 1. Non-positional Thinking: Thinking Beyond the Obvious Today you’ll see  that you don’t really know what you think you know …and you’ll learn  how to “see” what you’ve never been able to see before Shrink-Wrapped in Our Own Thinking: Thinking That Transforms Presented by Ariane David, PhD Senior Partner The Veritas Group Senior Lecturer California State University, Northridge ADavid@TheVeritasGroup.com Non-positional Problem Solving Leadership Burbank 2016 Leadership Burbank 2016 Ariane David, PhD The VERITAS Group Woodbury University ADavid@TheVeritasGroup.com TheVeritasGroup.com ArianeDavid.com
  2. 2. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Life of Organizations  The four principles of non-positional thinking  Non-positional problem solving and decision making  Critical listening and reading Today we’ll focus on…
  3. 3. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-positional thinking is Based on Four Principles
  4. 4. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Principles of Non-positionalThinking and Intellectual Virtues Uncertainty > intellectual humility Curiosity > intellectual openness Discernment > wisdom Courage > commitment
  5. 5. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Science of the Brain Why should we be uncertain? A Quick History of the Thinking
  6. 6. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Max Wertheimer’s Stroboscope The whole is more than the sum of the parts.
  7. 7. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Sir Frederick Bartlett  The War of the Ghosts  “Asian” mask *  Schemas Making Memory, Meaning, & Schemas
  8. 8. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Sir Frederick Bartlett
  9. 9. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Sir Frederick Bartlett  The War of the Ghosts  “Asian” mask *  Schemas Making Memory, Meaning, & Schemas
  10. 10. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Elizabeth Loftus Eyewitness Testimony Memory is affected by:  Pre-existing knowledge  Post-event information and language What we remember might never have happened.
  11. 11. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Thinking: The Process Perception, Emotions, Memory The Neurobiology of Thinking
  12. 12. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Perception  Millions of bits of information every minute; we can perceive only a tiny number.  We focus only on what is relevant, what moves us emotionally NOW.  Present perception is shaped by the past: based on what we believe is so, not on what actually is so. The Neurobiology of Thinking
  13. 13. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Emotions  Body reactions to what’s happening  Paired with every sensory impression as an emotional tag at the moment of perception  The pair become memory  Purpose: rapid response  Govern decision-making (myth of rational decision-making) The Neurobiology of Thinking
  14. 14. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Memory  NOT a video  NOT stored complete anywhere in the brain.  Neurons carry only the pattern code.  “Memory Is a trick of timing”! (Antonio Damasio) like the image on your TV screen. The Neurobiology of Thinking
  15. 15. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD …thus  Memories are a subjective and creative fabrications.  Memories change every time we recall them. We can never be certain our memories are accurate.  Confidence doesn’t mean accuracy: memories can be completely fabricated and seem absolutely real.
  16. 16. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns  Organizing patterns: templates that allow us to organize everything; are constructed out of our beliefs about the world (similar to Bartlett’s schemas).  We start making them at birth; the first are the most persistent, resilient, and powerful.  All future organizing patterns are formed within the first.  The totality of all our organizing patterns creates our constructed universe – the only reality we know. A working model of the brain.
  17. 17. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  No impartial evidence needed.  What we perceive is taken as proof that our position/beliefs are right.  Organizing patterns (beliefs) dictate what we see, what we see reinforces the organizing patterns. Organizing Patterns Reinforce themselves.
  18. 18. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Examples of Simple Organizing Patterns Organizing Patterns
  19. 19. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns
  20. 20. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns
  21. 21. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD View from Apollo 17
  22. 22. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns
  23. 23. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns
  24. 24. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD …and my favorite “Sensible and responsible women do not want to vote.” – Grover Cleveland, US President 1905 Say WHAT?
  25. 25. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  We each live in a universe of our own making.  Its organizing patterns and logic are perfect for physical survival but tend to hamper good thinking. Why is it important to know this?
  26. 26. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Challenges to Good Thinking  Tyranny of Knowledge  Tyranny of Emotion  Tyranny of Logic
  27. 27. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  What is logic?  What determines if something is logical?  Can anything be illogical? Tyranny of Logic
  28. 28. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Example: Zero Sum Illusion  Believing that only one position can be right – if I am right then you must be wrong  Believing that there is a limited number of solutions How many “accurate” points of view can there actually be on any given issue? Tyranny of Logic
  29. 29. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Tyranny of Logic
  30. 30. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Tyranny of Logic
  31. 31. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Tyranny of Logic
  32. 32. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Tyranny of Logic
  33. 33. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Nothing is … either/or It’s always … both/and Non-positional Thinking in a Box In complex situations…
  34. 34. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Principles of Non-positionalThinking and Intellectual Virtues Uncertainty > intellectual humility Curiosity > intellectual openness Discernment > wisdom Courage > commitment
  35. 35. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Uncertainty Principle  Uncertainty: realizing our constructed universe is not the world, just a good-enough representation of it that allows us to survive(ish).  Certainty that our constructed universe is the world leads to almost all of the world’s problems. Uncertainty doesn’t mean being paralyzed by doubt, but rather being aware of the fallibility of our knowledge.
  36. 36. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  hold in our minds that our knowledge, beliefs and assumptions are fallible.  doubt constructively, with the intention of learning.  realize that our beliefs cannot tell us with certainty anything about the world.  keep ALL conclusions, no matter how excellent, open to scrutiny. The Ability To: Uncertainty Principle
  37. 37. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The uncertainty principle makes us realize that we can’t be certain what color the ball actually is no matter how obvious it seems. The curiosity principle makes us want to find out. Uncertainty Principle
  38. 38. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Means we are eager to discover what we don’t know, and…  That we are determined to see the merit in others’ points of view.  Leads to the impartial gathering of relevant information. Curiosity Principle
  39. 39. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Enthusiastically and impartially gather information.  Be open-minded with respect to the assertions of others and questioning of our own beliefs.  Honestly ask, “What is it that I am not seeing the seeing of which might change everything?”  Honestly answer, “Do I really want to know?” Curiosity Principle The Ability To:
  40. 40. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  The desire to weigh evidence impartially, without favoring confirming evidence.  Recognizing/questioning our own assumptions and biases, and seeking to go beyond them.  Judging the merits of others’ points of view by the same standards we use to judge our own. Discernment Principle Wisdom
  41. 41. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Be truthful with ourselves, and weigh information fairly.  Recognize when information is factual, provable, anecdotal, or opinion.  Assess the credibility of the all sources.  Identify and question all assumptions including our own.  Seek an impartial solution. Discernment Principle The Ability To:
  42. 42. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Means being determined to move beyond our own point of view, even in the face of our own fear, and  Having the courage to acknowledge and act on those discoveries, and being willing to change our dearly held position, and  Having tolerance for differing, even opposing, points of view. Commitment Principle Courage: The Overarching Principle
  43. 43. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  be open to new evidence even if it conflicts with our beliefs; have courage to acknowledge it.  discard inadequate hypotheses no matter how dear to us  adapt oneself to new facts.  persevere even when it’s uncomfortable.  operate in a demonstrably fair and tolerant way. Commitment Principle The Ability To:
  44. 44. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Individual Breakout 5 minutes Written: Briefly describe an ongoing/recurring problem at work. What do people/you think the problem is?
  45. 45. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-positional Problem Solving and Decision Making The Myth of Rational Problem Solving and Decision Making
  46. 46. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD There’s one thing, and ONLY one thing that keeps a complex problem in place: How we THINK about it.
  47. 47. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Bridge Bat Problem
  48. 48. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Bridge-Bats Bind
  49. 49. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Bridge-Bats Bind
  50. 50. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  What is the issue or problem?  What are the decision criteria?  How important are each of those criteria?  What are possible solutions?  What are pros and cons of each solution?  What is the best solution? How we usually solve problems: Rational Problem Solving Method Bridge-Bats Bind
  51. 51. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Faulty assumptions  Problem clarity  All relevant options are known  Preferences are clear and unchanging  Maximum payoff is unambiguous and known  Emotions play not part  Doesn’t work for a complex problem; never has! The Problem with Rational Problem Solving Bridge-Bats Bind
  52. 52. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-positional Problem Solving
  53. 53. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Beneath every apparent problem is a hard to see condition that fosters the problem.  Discovering the actual condition/problem is the most important part of finding the solution!  The actual condition/problem involves people and how they think about the problem, including their attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about the problem.  Solving only the apparent problem (the symptom) leads to worse problems. Foundations of non-positional problem solving Non-positional Problem Solving
  54. 54. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Challenges to Good Thinking  Tyranny of Knowledge  Tyranny of Emotion  Tyranny of Logic The Tyrant Brain
  55. 55. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Principles of Non-positional Thinking and Intellectual Virtues Uncertainty > intellectual humility Curiosity > intellectual openness Discernment > wisdom Courage > commitment
  56. 56. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  What do people/I think the problem is?  What are the factual issues (technical; human dynamics)?  How are we thinking about the problem?  What information is there?  How does the system operate?  What will we do to remedy the problem? Process of non-positional problem solving Non-positional Problem Solving
  57. 57. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Design a plan that fits the actual issue  Examine the consequences of the plan on a systemic level  Decide on measures that measure what counts not what’s easy to measure Non-positional Solutions Finally…
  58. 58. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Group Breakout (teams of 3) 15 minutes • Finish filling in your worksheet • Each person will take 2 minutes to share their results
  59. 59. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Solving the Bridge Bat Problem
  60. 60. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Bat Facts  500,000 bats eat 10,000 pounds of bugs a day.  Bats are no more prone to rabies than squirrels or chipmunks.  No cases of rabid bats were reported in the area.  The four reported bat bites did not break the skin.  All cases involved people trying to handle or interfere with bats. This information was readily available at the time:
  61. 61. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Bridge Bats What do you think the real problem is?
  62. 62. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Austin Bats Create an Industry
  63. 63. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Four Principles of Non-positional Thinking And Organizations
  64. 64. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Hidden Organizational Thinking What usually happens in organizations  Organizational defense patterns (hiding failure and errors)  Undiscussables  Blame (the buck doesn’t stop)  Mixed messages  Groupthink, group shift, and conformity  Espoused theory vs. actual theory  When culture trumps change (Levi Strauss)
  65. 65. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Two Kinds of Learning Adaptive learning  Based in fear; blame  Purpose is survival  Defensive Generative learning  Based in curiosity and openness; accountability  Purpose is growth and self-expression  Creative
  66. 66. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-Learning Organization Blame Problem Fear Blame / Fault DefensivenessDenial Distorted Information Ineffective Action / No Learning Fear /Blame Problems are met with uncertainty and defensiveness. Positional Problem Solving
  67. 67. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-positional Problem Solving Problem Quality information and communication CollaborationEffective action Organizational learning Openness / Curiosity Accountability Problems are met with uncertainty and curiosity. Learning Organization
  68. 68. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Changing Organizations
  69. 69. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-positional Organizational Change Based in the knowledge that:  Human thought is fallible: we cannot trust what we think we know.  Organizations ARE the people in them.  Organizational thinking IS human thinking  If you want to create permanent change you need to transform the people/culture to support it. A different way.
  70. 70. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Clearly define where you are now (This is what you figured out about the secret life)  Clearly define where you want to be  For each change that you want to introduce, ask  What in the culture needs to change?  What are the behaviors associated with these?  How can we strengthen the things that will help us and minimalize the one that will hinder us?  Identify “resistance” Transforming the Secret Life
  71. 71. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Define a strategy for the change including how to overcome cultural obstacles and resistance, and reinforce allies*  Include how to engage people  Communication: up and down  Ask for people’s ideas  Find out what people need  Find out what really motivates them  Be consistent in upholding changes Transforming the Secret Life
  72. 72. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Resistance
  73. 73. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Overcoming Resistance News Flash!
  74. 74. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Overcoming Resistance Resistance Does Not Exist!
  75. 75. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Resistance is an illusion - it does not exist. Only reactions to change exist. Overcoming Resistance
  76. 76. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD All change generates reactions that:  Reinforce the change (positive feedback), or  Push back on the change (negative feedback) Push-back cannot be managed by bull-dozing it. It can only be handled by understanding what it’s made up of. Reactions to Change
  77. 77. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Reactions to Change News Flash! It is not human nature to resist change or fear the unknown.
  78. 78. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Reactions to Change How, then, do we deal with push-back?
  79. 79. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Resistance is a natural, inevitable and unavoidable human reaction to disruption.  How much of it we have relates to the size of the disruption and the way in which it is being handled.  Begins immediately when people become aware of the change.  It is neither good nor bad.  It can be overt or covert Reactions to Change Perception is reality!
  80. 80. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD • Don’t assume you know what’s going on. Resistance is very rarely what we think it is. • Identify specific resistors: people, conditions, fears, motives (think “fruit”) • Identify the underlying causes of each of these resistors. • Identify specific enablers. • Make a Force Field Analysis for resistors and enablers. • Find ways of weakening resistors and strengthening enablers. Managing Resistance to Change Non-positionally
  81. 81. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Resistors (weaken resistors)  List RESISTORS and assign a value from 1 to 6, 6 being strongest Enablers (strengthen enablers)  List ENABLERS and assign a value from 1 to 6, 6 being strongest 5 4 3 2 1 ITEM ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 Change Force Field Analysis
  82. 82. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD How can you take this back to your workplace?
  83. 83. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD It ain’t what you don’t know that gets you into trouble, it’s what you know for sure that just ain’t so. – Mark Twain Parting Thoughts…
  84. 84. Leadership Burbank Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-positional Thinking: Thinking Beyond the Obvious Today you’ll see  that you don’t really know what you think you know …and you’ll learn  how to “see” what you’ve never been able to see before Shrink-Wrapped in Our Own Thinking: Thinking That Transforms Presented by Ariane David, PhD Senior Partner The Veritas Group Senior Lecturer California State University, Northridge ADavid@TheVeritasGroup.com Non-positional Problem Solving Leadership Burbank 2016 Questions? Ariane David, PhD The VERITAS Group Woodbury University ADavid@TheVeritasGroup.com TheVeritasGroup.com ArianeDavid.com

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