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In2 inthinking secret life of organization

Organizational Culture and the Secret Life: Culture influences everything we do and think within the organization surmounting geographic and social barriers. Culture is the social container in which everything in an organization takes place. Culture is the greatest hindrance to change but can also be the greatest help. The essence of culture is people.

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Non-Positional Thinking:
Thinking Beyond the Obvious
Today you’ll see
 that you don’t really know what you think you know
…and you’ll learn
 how to “see” what you’ve never been able to see
before
Shrink-Wrapped in Our Own Thinking:
Thinking That Transforms
Presented by
Ariane David, PhD
Senior Partner
The Veritas Group
Senior Lecturer
California State University, Northridge
ADavid@TheVeritasGroup.com
Non-Positional Thinking
In2:In Thinking 2015
In2:In Thinking
Ariane David, PhD
The VERITAS Group
California State University, Northridge
ADavid@TheVeritasGroup.com www.theveritasgroup.com
In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD
Organizational Culture…
 Culture influences everything we do and think within the
organization surmounting geographic and social barriers.
 Culture is the social container in which everything in an
organization takes place.
 Culture is the greatest hindrance to change but can also be
the greatest help.
 The essence of culture is people.
…and the Secret Life
In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD
The Life of Organizations
 Understanding how we think
 Understanding culture
 Visible life
 Secret life
 Unlocking the secret life
 Transforming the secret life
Today we’ll focus on…
In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD
…and How Did it Evolve?
 To contain the sum of organizational/societal experience
 To transmit knowledge, norms and values
…and as a result
 To maintain order and the status quo
 To contain group anxiety by fostering predictability
Culture is all about how people THINK
Why is There Culture…
In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD
The Science of the Brain
A Quick Tour
In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD
Max Wertheimer’s Stroboscope
The whole is more than the sum of the parts.

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In2 inthinking secret life of organization

  • 1. Non-Positional Thinking: Thinking Beyond the Obvious Today you’ll see  that you don’t really know what you think you know …and you’ll learn  how to “see” what you’ve never been able to see before Shrink-Wrapped in Our Own Thinking: Thinking That Transforms Presented by Ariane David, PhD Senior Partner The Veritas Group Senior Lecturer California State University, Northridge ADavid@TheVeritasGroup.com Non-Positional Thinking In2:In Thinking 2015 In2:In Thinking Ariane David, PhD The VERITAS Group California State University, Northridge ADavid@TheVeritasGroup.com www.theveritasgroup.com
  • 2. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizational Culture…  Culture influences everything we do and think within the organization surmounting geographic and social barriers.  Culture is the social container in which everything in an organization takes place.  Culture is the greatest hindrance to change but can also be the greatest help.  The essence of culture is people. …and the Secret Life
  • 3. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Life of Organizations  Understanding how we think  Understanding culture  Visible life  Secret life  Unlocking the secret life  Transforming the secret life Today we’ll focus on…
  • 4. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD …and How Did it Evolve?  To contain the sum of organizational/societal experience  To transmit knowledge, norms and values …and as a result  To maintain order and the status quo  To contain group anxiety by fostering predictability Culture is all about how people THINK Why is There Culture…
  • 5. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Science of the Brain A Quick Tour
  • 6. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Max Wertheimer’s Stroboscope The whole is more than the sum of the parts.
  • 7. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Sir Frederick Bartlett  The War of the Ghosts - Sydney  “Asian” mask *  Schemas Making Memory, Meaning, & Schemas
  • 8. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Sir Frederick Bartlett
  • 9. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Sir Frederick Bartlett  The War of the Ghosts - Sydney  “Asian” mask *  Schemas Making Memory, Meaning, & Schemas
  • 10. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Elizabeth Loftus Eyewitness Testimony Memory is affected by:  Pre-existing knowledge  Post-event information and language What we remember might never have happened.
  • 11. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Neurobiology of Thinking Perception  Millions of bits of information every minute; we can perceive only a tiny number.  We focus only on what is relevant, what moves us emotionally NOW.  Present perception is shaped by the past: based on what we believe is so, not on what actually is so.
  • 12. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Antonio Damasio The Neurobiology of Thinking Emotions are:  Body reactions to what’s happening  Paired with every sensory impression as an emotional tag at the moment of perception  The pair become memory
  • 13. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Neurobiology of Thinking Emotions  Purpose: rapid response  Govern decision-making (myth of rational decision- making)
  • 14. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Have you ever wondered what memory is? The Neurobiology of Thinking
  • 15. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Memory  NOT a video  NOT stored complete anywhere in the brain.  Is “a trick of timing”!  Neurons carry only the pattern code (think TV) The Neurobiology of Thinking
  • 16. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD …thus  Memories are a subjective and creative fabrication.  Memories change every time we recall them.  We can never be certain about what we remember.  Confidence doesn’t mean accuracy: memories can be completely fabricated and seem absolutely real.
  • 17. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD You can never be certain that what you remember happened the way you remember it. In fact, you can be certain that it didn't! As a result…
  • 18. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns  Organizing patterns: templates that allow us to organize everything and are made of beliefs.  We start making them at birth; the first are the most persistent, resilient, and powerful.  All future organizing patterns are formed within the first.  The totality of all our organizing patterns creates our constructed universe – our entire reality. A working model of the brain.
  • 19. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  No impartial evidence needed.  What we perceive is taken as proof that our position/beliefs are right.  Organizing patterns (beliefs) dictate what we see, what we see reinforces the organizing patterns. Organizing Patterns Reinforce themselves.
  • 20. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns Reinforce themselves.
  • 21. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Examples of Simple Organizing Patterns Organizing Patterns
  • 22. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns
  • 23. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns
  • 24. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns
  • 25. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD View from Apollo 17
  • 26. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns
  • 27. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns
  • 28. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD “Who the hell wants to hear actors talk?” – HM Warner, Warner Bros, 1927 "I think there is a world market for about five computers” – Thomas Watson, CEO, IBM 1958 …and the winner “Sensible and responsible women do not want to vote.” – Grover Cleveland, US President 1905 Say WHAT?
  • 29. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  We each live in a universe of our own making.  Its organizing patterns and logic are perfect for physical survival but often hamper critical thinking. Why is it important to know this?
  • 30. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Organizing Patterns  Tyranny of Knowledge*  Tyranny of Emotion*  Tyranny of Logic * The Tyrant Brain Positional Thinking
  • 31. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Tyranny of Knowledge  Choosing existing knowledge simply because it’s what we have.  Doing what worked in the past only because it worked in the past;  Assuming the future will be like the past.  Assuming OUR knowledge is better than others’ knowledge.
  • 32. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Everything we do and think is permanently grounded in emotions.  Emotions affect logic, but cannot be dealt with logically. Tyranny of Emotion
  • 33. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Examples: cognitive shortcuts help us make sense quickly (survival), but fail to verify accuracy. Shortcut error:  Biases  Stereotyping Tyranny of Emotion
  • 34. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Allport & Postman 1942
  • 35. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  What is logic?  What determines if something is logical?  Can anything be illogical? Tyranny of Logic
  • 36. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Logic is the rules you’ve made up for your constructed universe!  Thoughts that connect easily are seen to be logical.  There are as many different systems of logic as there are beings.  Logic is subjective like taste: nothing is ever illogical, just differently-logical. Why does this matter in non-positional thinking? Tyranny of Logic
  • 37. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Example: Zero Sum Illusion  Believing that there is a limited amount of “solution”, including “either/or”, “middle-of-the-road”, and “fixed position” thinking. Tyranny of Logic
  • 38. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Tyranny of Logic
  • 39. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Tyranny of Logic
  • 40. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Tyranny of Logic
  • 41. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Tyranny of Logic
  • 42. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Visible Life of Organizations
  • 43. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD What Makes Up Culture Visible Life  Tangible artifacts: including stated mission and vision statements  Stated rules of the Game including espoused behavioral norms, standards, values, language, customs, traditions, shared stated assumptions  Organizational knowledge, stories, and history  Formal performance plans and measures, rewards and punishment, distribution of power and leadership  Sanctioned/formal communication including social media
  • 44. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Secret Life of Organizations
  • 45. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The secret life is the container for everything that’s most magical and exciting about an organization.  Creativity  Engagement  Real communication  Commitment …it’s also the container for everything that holds it back. The Secret Life
  • 46. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD What makes up the secret life. The Secret Life  The actual rules of the Game: actual norms, standards and values  Shared unexpressed basic assumptions, meanings, and metaphors and symbols  What people know  Unsanctioned communication including gossip, un-discussables (more about this later), and social media
  • 47. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Secret Life What makes up the secret life.  De facto rewards and punishment  How leaders actually lead, and how power is distributed  What really motivates and de-motivates *  Hidden individual and group dynamics *  Hidden organizational thinking including how we solve problems, handle conflict, and make decisions *
  • 48. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Hidden Motivators: What Employees Want  Interesting/meaningful work  Recognition Feeling “in”/relationship  Job security  Good pay  Career growth  Good working conditions  Trust in managers and fairness  Personal responsibility and autonomy  Personal values =organizational values  Feeling that managers care about them personally The Secret Life
  • 49. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Hidden Demotivators  Poor work conditions  Poor relationship with peers  The supervisor!  Lack of career future  Meaningless or unsatisfying work  Poor salary The Secret Life The absence of demotivation does not equate to motivation.
  • 50. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD When the Secret Life Trumps the Visible Life The Secret Life The Case of Levi Strauss
  • 51. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Thinking in the Secret Life of Organizations
  • 52. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Hidden Organizational Thinking  What we say vs. what we do  Organizational defense patterns (hiding failure and errors)  Undiscussables  Blame (the buck doesn’t stop)  Mixed messages and fancy footwork  Groupthink, group shift, and conformity  The cycle of defensiveness*
  • 53. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Cycle of Defensiveness Blame Something happens. Fear: Areacts defensively Breacts defensively to A Areacts defensively to B Breacts defensively to A Fear /Blame No communication can take place in the space of blame.
  • 54. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Breakout Exercise How is/isn’t your organization a learning organization? What defense patterns are present in your organization? Strategic Believing and Doubting
  • 55. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Creating a Learning Organization
  • 56. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Two Kinds of Learning Adaptive learning  Based in fear; blame  Purpose is survival  Defensive Generative learning  Based in curiosity and openness; accountability  Purpose is growth and self-expression  Creative
  • 57. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-Learning Organization Blame Problem Fear Blame / Fault DefensivenessDenial Distorted Information Ineffective Action / No Learning Fear /Blame No learning can take place in the space of blame. Positional Problem Solving
  • 58. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-positional Problem Solving Problem Quality information and communication CollaborationEffective action Organizational learning Openness / Curiosity Accountability Mistakes are the price we pay for learning. Learning Organization
  • 59. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Problem Solving and Decision Making
  • 60. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD The Bridge Bat Problem
  • 61. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Bridge-Bats Bind
  • 62. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Bridge-Bats Bind
  • 63. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  What is the issue or problem?  What are the decision criteria?  How important are each of those criteria?  What are possible solutions?  What are pros and cons of each solution?  What is the best solution? How we usually solve problems: Rational Problem Solving Method Bridge-Bats Bind
  • 64. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Assumptions of this model:  Problem clarity  All relevant options are known  Preferences are clear and unchanging  Maximum payoff is unambiguous and known  Doesn’t work for a complex problem; never has! Rational Problem Solving Method Bridge-Bats Bind
  • 65. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-positional Problem Solving
  • 66. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Beneath every apparent problem is a condition that fosters the problem, complex and hard to see. Solving only the apparent problem (the symptom) leads to worse problems.  The actual problem involves culture and people and how they think about the problem.  Discovering what the actual problem is is the most important part of finding the solution! A new way of solving problems. Non-positional Problem Solving
  • 67. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Uncovering Attitude  What is the goal of solving the problem? Is the goal to solve the real problem or something else? What is my/our attitude?  Do I think I know what’s going on?  What will we lose if we are wrong?  Do we really want to know, or do we have my minds made up? Is there anything that could persuade me I’m wrong? Non-positional Problem Solving
  • 68. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Finding the Actual Issue Uncover the layers of the problem (see handout)  Uncover the symptoms (presenting problem) and explanations  Uncover the the thinking  Uncover the system  Uncover the human dynamics There is no problem that doesn’t have a solution if we are willing to change the way we think about it. Constantin David Non-positional Problem Solving
  • 69. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Design a plan that fits the actual problem.  Examine the consequences of the plan  Decide on measures that measure what count Non-positional Solutions The easy part…
  • 70. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Solving the Bridge Bat Problem
  • 71. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Bat Facts  500,000 bats eat 10,000 pounds of bugs a day.  Bats are no more prone to rabies than squirrels or chipmunks.  No cases of rabid bats were reported in the area.  The four reported bat bites did not break the skin.  All cases involved people trying to handle or interfere with bats. This information was readily available at the time:
  • 72. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Bridge Bats What do you think the real problem is?
  • 73. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Austin Bats Create an Industry
  • 74. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Changing Organizations and the Secret Life
  • 75. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-positional Organizational Change Based in the knowledge that:  Human thought is fallible: we cannot trust what we think we know.  Organizations ARE the people in them.  Organizational thinking IS human thinking  If you want to create permanent change you need to transform the people/culture to support it. A different way.
  • 76. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Clearly define where you are now (This is what you figured out about the secret life)  Clearly define where you want to be  For each change that you want to introduce, ask  What in the culture needs to change?  What are the behaviors associated with these?  How can we strengthen the things that will help us and minimalize the one that will hinder us?  Identify “resistance” Transforming the Secret Life
  • 77. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Define a strategy for the change including how to overcome cultural obstacles and resistance, and reinforce allies*  Include how to engage people  Communication: up and down  Ask for people’s ideas  Find out what people need  Find out what really motivates them  Be consistent in upholding changes Transforming the Secret Life
  • 78. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Resistance
  • 79. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Overcoming Resistance News Flash!
  • 80. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Overcoming Resistance Resistance Does Not Exist!
  • 81. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Resistance is an illusion - it does not exist. Only reactions to change exist. Overcoming Resistance
  • 82. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  All change generates reactions that reinforce sand/ or push back on the change .  Reinforcers are called ENABLERS.  Things that push back are called RESISTORS. Resistors create resistance.  Resistance cannot be managed by bull-dozing it. It can only be handled by understanding what it’s made up of. Reactions to Change News Flash! It is not human nature to resist change or fear the unknown.
  • 83. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Reactions to Change How, then, do we deal with resistance?
  • 84. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD  Resistance is a natural, inevitable and unavoidable human reaction to disruption.  How much of it we have relates to the size of the disruption and the way in which it is being handled.  Begins immediately when people become aware of the change.  It is neither good nor bad.  It can be overt or covert Reactions to Change Perception is reality!
  • 85. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD • Don’t assume you know what’s going on. Resistance is very rarely what we think it is. • Identify specific resistors: people, conditions, fears, motives (think “fruit”) • Identify the underlying causes of each of these resistors. • Identify specific enablers. • Make a Force Field Analysis for resistors and enablers. • Find ways of weakening resistors and strengthening enablers. Managing Resistance to Change Non-positionally
  • 86. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Resistors (weaken resistors)  List RESISTORS and assign a value from 1 to 6, 6 being strongest Enablers (strengthen enablers)  List ENABLERS and assign a value from 1 to 6, 6 being strongest 5 4 3 2 1 ITEM ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 Change Force Field Analysis
  • 87. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD How can you take this back to your workplace?
  • 88. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD It ain’t what you don’t know that gets you into trouble, it’s what you know for sure that just ain’t so. – Mark Twain Parting Thoughts…
  • 89. In2:In Thinking 2015 Non-positional Thinking Ariane David PhD Non-Positional Thinking: Thinking Beyond the Obvious Today you’ll see  that you don’t really know what you think you know …and you’ll learn  how to “see” what you’ve never been able to see before Shrink-Wrapped in Our Own Thinking: Thinking That Transforms Presented by Ariane David, PhD Senior Partner The Veritas Group Senior Lecturer California State University, Northridge ADavid@TheVeritasGroup.com Non-Positional Thinking In2:In Thinking 2015 Questions? Ariane David, PhD The VERITAS Group California State University, Northridge ADavid@TheVeritasGroup.com www.theveritasgroup.com

Editor's Notes

  1. First, we can only take in a small amount of information that reaches our senses. Not only do physical conditions intervene, but historically, our survival depended on our focusing only on the most important phenomena.
  2. Non-conscious biases that allow us to respond instantaneously to situations because they carry a good or a bad feelings. Emotional tag tells us how our body responded to a particular event. If the feelings were good (endorphins) then the event carries a positive emotional tag that will make it more likely that the behavior will be reproduced. Emotional tag is literally a map of what was goin g on in oiur body during the evnt. We’ll talk more about emotions and rapid responses
  3. Imagine our prehistoric forebears on the savannah. They see something move in the grass. Some thought YIKES, a lion, and ran. Some thought, hmm, something moved, I wonder what it is. I’ll go investigate. Which ones do you suppose survived to pass on their genes? So we think the way we think because it worked in pre-historic times. Note: Schemas help us bypass slow and cumbersome cognitive processes and allow us to make instantaneous decisions, allowing us to escape life threatening situations. Movement in the grass.  
  4. This pattern makes the most sense as a circle, so the brain perceives a circle, but in reality it’s just dots. The brain fills in the rest.
  5. The way we think about things is often more important than the things themselves.
  6. Our current way of thinking is based on assumptions that are grossly erroneous.
  7. Logic is nothing more than the rules that govern the processes inside the constructed universe. There is no right or wrong logic no more than there is a right or wrong taste for mashed potatoes.
  8. Non-positional thinking is an ideal. As long as we live within our constructed universe being guided by schemas we will never be non-positional. However, in striving for it we become powerful thinkers.
  9. Curiosity is the desire to find out what it is we might not know….
  10. Non-positional thinking is an ideal. As long as we live within our constructed universe being guided by schemas we will never be non-positional. However, in striving for it we become powerful thinkers.