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Skelatal systerm by Arfan Ahmed Shourov


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Skelatal systerm

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Skelatal systerm by Arfan Ahmed Shourov

  1. 1. Skeletal System Prepared by Arfan Ahmed Shourov Radiant pharmaceutical Ltd
  2. 2. Skeletal System
  3. 3. Skeletal System Composed of the body’s bones and associated ligaments, tendons, and cartilages Functions 1. Support 2. Protection 3. Movement 4. Hematopoiesis 5. Reservoir for minerals and adipose tissue
  4. 4. Functions 1. Support framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs 2. Protection For delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain 3. Movement Bones act as levers for muscles
  5. 5. Functions 4. Hematopoiesis Blood cell formation- 5. Reservoir for minerals and adipose tissue calcium & phosphate
  6. 6. Bone Classification 206 named bones in the human body Each belongs to one of 2 large groups: 1. Axial skeleton (80 bones) : Forms long axis of the body. Includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. 2. Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) : Bones of upper & lower limbs and the girdles (shoulder bones and hip bones) that attach them to the axial skeleton.
  7. 7. Bone Classification 4 types of bones: 1. Long Bones:    Much longer than they are wide. All bones of the limbs except for the patella (kneecap), and the bones of the wrist and ankle. Consists of a shaft plus 2 expanded ends. Example: metacarples, metatarsals, phelangies, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula, Femur Femur
  8. 8. Bone Classification 2. Short Bones:  Roughly cube shaped.  Bones of the wrist and the ankle. Example: carpals, tarsals
  9. 9. Bone Classification 3. Flat Bones  Thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved. Example: rib, scapula, skull, sternum scapula
  10. 10. Bone Classification 3. Irregular Bones Have weird shapes that fit none of the 3 previous classes. Vertebrae Example: vertebrae, some facial bones,, hip bones 2 skull bones ( sphenoid and the ethmoid bones). vertebrae Hip bones
  11. 11. Bone Structure All bones consist of a dense, solid outer layer known as compact bone and an inner layer of spongy bone – a honeycomb of flat, needle-like projections called trabeculae.
  12. 12. Bone cell Types Osteoblast Osteoclast Osteocyte Bone forming cells. Bone resorption cells. Mature bone cells.
  13. 13. Bone cells 1.Osteoblasts: Bone-building cells. Synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components of bone matrix. Initiate the process of calcification. Found in both the periosteum and the endosteum
  14. 14. Bone cells 2. Osteoclasts Huge cells derived from the fusion of as many as 50 monocytes (a type of white blood cell). Cells that digest bone matrix – this process is called bone resorption and is part of normal bone growth, development, maintenance, and repair.
  15. 15. Bone cells 3. Osteocytes: Mature bone cells. Osteoblasts that have become trapped by the secretion of matrix. No longer secrete matrix. Responsible for maintaining the bone tissue.
  16. 16. Bone structure Bone Matrix: Consists of organic and inorganic components. 1/3 organic and 2/3 inorganic by weight. Organic component consists of several materials that are secreted by the osteoblasts: Collagen fibers and other organic materials These (particularly the collagen) provide the bone with resilience and the ability to resist stretching and twisting.
  17. 17. Bone structure Inorganic component of bone matrix Consists mainly of 2 salts: calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide. These 2 salts interact to form a compound called hydroxyapatite. Bone also contains smaller amounts of magnesium, fluoride, and sodium. These minerals give bone its characteristic hardness and the ability to resist compression.