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Batteries by ardit & erdoan


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A school chemistry project about batteries

Published in: Education
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Batteries by ardit & erdoan

  1. 1. Presantation on working of batteries<br />Submitted by: <br />ArditMeti & ErdoanMuca<br />
  2. 2. What is BATTERY?<br />A system which converts chemical energy into electrical energy. <br />More correctly, a battery is an electrochemical cell:<br />Galvanic Cells<br /> Electrolytic Cells<br />
  3. 3. HISTORY OF BATTERIES<br />1800 Voltaic pile: silver zinc <br />1836 Daniellcell <br />1899 Junger: nickel cadmium cell <br />1946 Neumann: sealed NiCd<br />1960s Alkaline, rechargeable NiCd<br />1970s Lithium, sealed lead acid <br />1990 Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) <br />1991 Lithium ion <br />1992 Rechargeable alkaline <br />1999 Lithium ion polymer<br />
  4. 4. TYPES OF BATTERY <br />There are really only two types:<br /><ul><li>Disposable (Primary Cell) </li></ul> For e.g :-Zinc-chloride batteries <br /> Alkaline batteries <br /> Button cells<br /> Lithium-ion batteries<br /><ul><li>Rechargeable (Secondary cell) </li></ul> For e.g:-Accumulators<br />
  5. 5. PARTS OF BATTERIES<br />A cell has four main parts:<br /><ul><li>ELECTROLYTE
  6. 6. ANODE
  7. 7. CATHODE 
  8. 8. SEPARATOR</li></li></ul><li>TERMS RELATING TO BATTERIES<br />Oxidation:- Loss of Electrons is Oxidation <br />Reduction:- Gain of Electrons is Reduction<br />Anode:- where oxidation takes place.<br />Cathode:- where reduction takes place<br />Voltage:- is the electrical energy that it gives off, measured in volts (V)<br />Current:- is the rate at which electrons pass through the cell, measured in amperes (A)<br />
  9. 9. WORKING OF BATTERIES<br />Nickel-Cadmium Battery<br />Cathode NiO(OH) <br />Anode Cd<br />Separator NaOH<br />
  10. 10. WORKING OF BATTERIES<br />Nickel-Cadmium battery:- the reactions look something like this: <br />Oxidation:- <br /> Cd(s) + 2 OH- (aq) -> Cd(OH)2(s) + 2 e- <br />Reduction:- <br /> 2NiO(OH)(s) + 2 H2O(l) + 2 e- -> 2Ni(OH)2(s) + 2 OH- (aq) <br />Net:- <br /> Cd(s) + 2NiO(OH)(s) + 2 H2O(l) -> Cd(OH)2(s) + 2Ni(OH)2(s)<br />Electrons moving from one place to another – this is electricity<br />Numbers of electrons in oxidation and reduction must be same.<br />
  11. 11. Contd…<br />Alkaline Battery <br />They all have the same voltage, because they’re all based on the same electrochemical cell<br />
  12. 12. Contd…<br />Reactions in Alkaline Batteries:<br />Oxidation <br /> Zn(s) + 2 OH- (aq) -> Zn(OH)2(s) + 2 e- <br />Reduction <br /> 2 MnO2(s) + H2O(l) + 2 e- -> Mn2O3(s) + 2 OH- (aq) <br />Net <br /> Zn(s) + 2 MnO2(s) + H2O(l) -> Zn(OH)2(s) + Mn2O3(s)<br />
  13. 13. BATTERIES ARRANGMENTS <br />Serial arrangements :- In serial arrangements voltages add up <br />Parallel arrangements:- In parallel arrangements currents add up.<br />
  14. 14. WHY RECHARGEBLE BATTERIES?<br />Purchasing rechargeable batteries saves money. <br />Protects the environment <br />They can be reused many times ,reducing operating cost.<br />
  15. 15. WHEN NOT TO USE RECHARGEBLE BATTERY? <br />They lose up to 1% of their power capacity per day. <br />Emergency equipment (flashlights, radios, emergency medical devices, etc…). <br />Low-power-use devices in difficult-to-access areas (field monitoring devices).<br />
  16. 16. HOW IT IS RECHARGED? <br />Recharge process is the reverse of the discharge process. <br />An external source of direct electrical current supplies electrons to the anode and removes them from cathode, forcing the chemical reactions into reverse<br />
  17. 17. REASONS OF BATTERY DEGRADATION<br />Battery is connected to a device <br />Battery is charged   <br />Battery is opened   <br />Battery is chemically activated<br />
  18. 18. World of batteries<br />
  19. 19. Types of batteries:-<br /><ul><li>Nickel oxyhydroxide battery
  20. 20. Lemon battery
  21. 21. Molten salt battery
  22. 22. Lead-acid battery
  23. 23. Lithium-sulfur battery
  24. 24. Lithium-titanate battery
  25. 25. Nickel hydrogen battery
  26. 26. Nickel-iron battery
  27. 27. Nickel-zinc battery
  28. 28. Organic radical battery</li></li></ul><li>Zinc matrix battery<br />Biobattery<br />Flow batteries<br />Thin film rechargeable lithium battery<br />Silver-oxide battery<br />Water-activated battery<br />Polysulfide bromide battery<br />Polysulfide bromide battery<br />
  29. 29. Need for battery exploring<br />In excess of seven million barrels of gasoline are consumed by vehicles in the United States every day. As scientists race to find environmentally sound solutions to fuel the world's ever-growing transportation needs, battery researchers are exploring the promise of lithium-air battery technology.<br />
  30. 30. The graph showing energy saved by each battery<br />
  31. 31. Simple diagram showing mechanism in li-air battery<br />
  32. 32. Mechanism in li-air battery<br />Li-air batteries use a catalytic air cathode that supplies oxygen, an electrolyte and a lithium anode. The technology has the potential to store almost as much energy as a tank of gasoline, and will have a capacity for energy storage that is five to 10 times greater than that of Li-ion batteries, a bridge technology. That potential, however, will not be realized until critical scientific challenges have been solved.<br />
  33. 33. Discharge capacity of li-air battery<br />To 0.1A / g discharge rate of discharge, the discharge capacity is about 9000mAh / g. The previous lithium - air battery discharge capacity of only 700 ~ 3000mAh / g, can be said to achieve a substantial increase.The better than li-ion batteries(thinkpad t60 battery)<br />
  34. 34. Focus on the reactions in li-air battery<br /> The project is confused on understanding more about how the chemical reaction of the battery works and investigating how to improve it. The research team is also working towards making a STAIR cell prototype suited, in the first instance, for small applications, such as mobile phones or MP3 players.<br />
  35. 35. Thanks<br />For<br />Your Attention<br />