Dr Sue Hignett Architects for Health Designing for Impairment


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Ergonomics /Human Factors (HFE) Disability and Inclusive Design

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Dr Sue Hignett Architects for Health Designing for Impairment

  1. 1. Ergonomics / Human Factors (HFE) Disability and Inclusive DesignDr. Sue HignettReader in Healthcare Ergonomics & Patient SafetyLoughborough Design School
  2. 2. International Ergonomics Association (IEA) Scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theoretical principles, data and methods to design in order to optimise human well-being and overall system performance (IEA, 2000)Loughborough Design School
  3. 3. Ergonomics v Human Factors ‘ergonomics’ sometimes used to refer to interactions with the physical environment ‘human factors’ sometimes used in connection with psychological / organisational issues can not sensibly consider one without the other so terms now mostly used interchangeablyKey words: safety, performance, comfort and satisfactionLoughborough Design School
  4. 4. 2012 Paralympics Change in public perception of disability How much has it changed practice? What is the latest thinking about rehabilitation? What does it mean for design?Loughborough Design School
  5. 5. Models of Disability Medical Model: Individual physical or mental limitations • Solutions are found by focussing on the individual • Service provider prescribes and acts for a passive client Economic model: Policy making • Perception of a person’s inability to participate in work • Assess the degree to which impairment affects individual productivity Social Model: Effects of environmental, social and attitudinal barriers • Prevention of participation in society • Failure of society to adjust to meet needs and aspirations • If a wheelchair user cannot use a bus….. the bus must be redesignedhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/gallery/2012/aug/31/paralympics-press-association-sport-graphics#/?picture=395465841&index=5Loughborough Design School
  6. 6. Design Approaches Accessible Design Meets mandatory requirements for accessibility Service specific user groups Adaptable Design Readily adjustable when need arises Considers possible change of use during life span Inclusive (Universal) Design Serves every user in the safest possible and most convenient way by providing for an independent and equal way of living Goes beyond the minimum requirements of accessible designLoughborough Design School
  7. 7. Loughborough Design School
  8. 8. Loughborough Design School
  9. 9. What does this mean for design?Loughborough Design School
  10. 10. 1. Equitable UseThe design is useful and marketable to any group of users Provide the same means of use for all users; identical whenever possible, equivalent when not Avoid segregating or stigmatising any users Provisions for privacy, security and safety should be equally available to all users2. Flexibility in UseThe design accommodates a wide rangeof individual preferences and abilities Provide choice in methods of use Accommodate right and left handed access and use Facilitate the user’s accuracy and precision Provide adaptability to the user’s paceLoughborough Design School
  11. 11. 3. Simple and Intuitive UseUse of the design is easy to understand, regardless of theuser’s experience, knowledge, language skills orcurrent concentration level Eliminate unnecessary complexity Be consistent with user expectations and intuition Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills Provide effective prompting for sequential actions Provide timely feedback during and after task completionLoughborough Design School
  12. 12. 4. Perceptible InformationThe design communicates the necessary informationeffectively to the user regardless of ambient conditionsof the user’s sensory abilities Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for presentation of essential information Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings Maximise ‘legibility’ of essential information in all sensory modalities Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (easy to give instructions or directions) Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitationsLoughborough Design School
  13. 13. 5. Tolerance for ErrorThe design minimises hazards and the adverseconsequences of accidents or unintended actions Arrange elements to minimise hazards and errors most used elements, most accessible hazardous elements eliminated, isolated or shielded Provide warnings of hazards and errors Provide fail-safe features Discourage unconscious actions in tasks that require vigilanceLoughborough Design School
  14. 14. 6. Low Physical EffortThe design can be used efficiently and comfortably andwith a minimum of fatigue Allow user to maintain a neutral body position Use reasonable operating forces Minimise repetitive actions Minimise sustained physical effortLoughborough Design School
  15. 15. 7. Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space are provided for approach, reachmanipulation and use regardless of user’s body size,posture or mobility Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user Accommodate variations in hand and grip size Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistanceLoughborough Design School
  16. 16. Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient SafetyLoughborough Design School
  17. 17. DIAL-F model with service users as activemembers in a falls management system Loughborough Design School 17
  18. 18. Falls Risks through the Eyes of an OlderHospital In-Patient: Hierarchical Task Analysis HTA developed iteratively with visits to: Coronary Care Unit Medical Ward (Older People) Orthopaedic (Trauma) Top level activities:Loughborough Design School
  19. 19. Step 1: Decide to go to the toiletLoughborough Design School
  20. 20. Step 4: Locate the ToiletLoughborough Design School
  21. 21. 2012 Paralympics How much has it changed practice? Individual – yes (especially younger & sports players) Society – legacy design and plans to improve access What does it mean for design? Opportunity to make a step change from medical/economic models of disability using accessible/adaptable design to…. Inclusive Design (social model of disability) as the minimum standardLoughborough Design School
  22. 22. Thank youLoughborough Design School