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"Outliers" - Malcolm Gladwell Book Review


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This is a book review of the International Bestseller written by Malcolm Gladwell prepared by me and my friends for a presentation.

Published in: Education, Technology

"Outliers" - Malcolm Gladwell Book Review

  1. 1. Book Summary by:<br />Archit Rathi<br />AbhishekDhiman<br />GauravRakawat<br />Prashant Singh<br />
  2. 2. About The Book<br />Genre – Pop Sociology<br />Scientifically sound<br />Comprehensible to the target audience<br />Entertaining to the target audience<br />Relevant to the target audience<br />Well written<br />It's a study of success. What does it take to be successful? How do you get to be the best of the best? <br />
  3. 3. out lier-,lī(-ə)r noun<br />Something that is situated away from or classed differently from a main or related body<br />A statistical observation that is markedly different in value from the others of the sample<br />“Outlier” is a term used to describe things, people, or phenomenon that lie outside of normal experience.<br />This book is concerned with people who are outliers in terms of success.<br />
  4. 4. Outliers are men and women who do things out of the ordinary<br />To understand why certain people become outliers we must look at factors beyond innate talent. We must also look at:<br />Where they were reared<br />When they grew up<br />The culture they belonged to<br />The characteristics passed down by their forebears<br />
  5. 5. The Ecology of Organisms<br />The tallest tree in the forest probably came from a hardy acorn, but other factors also contributed to its height. <br />Factors such as:<br />No other trees blocked sunlight from getting through to the tree<br />The soil around the tree was rich in nutrients<br />No animals chewed through its bark when it was a young tree<br />No one cut it down before it matured<br />
  6. 6. “The Roseto Mystery”<br /><ul><li>No suicide
  7. 7. No alcoholism
  8. 8. No addiction
  9. 9. No welfare
  10. 10. No crime
  11. 11. No ulcers
  12. 12. 41% of calories from fat
  13. 13. Big fat smokers
  14. 14. Must have been genetics
  15. 15. Must have been diet
  16. 16. Must have been exercise
  17. 17. Must have been the area the lived
  18. 18. Must have been….
  19. 19. “These people were dying from old age, that’s it</li></li></ul><li>“The Roseto Mystery”<br />What caused it?<br /><ul><li>22 Civic organizations
  20. 20. Three generations under one roof
  21. 21. Friends talking on the street
  22. 22. Transplanted the Paesani culture from Southern Italy </li></ul>Insulated them from the pressures of the modern world<br />
  23. 23. Effects of “When You Are Born” <br />Of the seventy-five richest people of human history, fourteen were born between 1831 and 1840.<br />To become a Computer Mogul, a person needed to be born between 1952 and 1958.<br />An analysis of a highly successful Canadian hockey team found:<br />40% of the players were born between January and March<br />30% were born between April and June<br />20% were born between July and September<br />10% were born between October and December<br />
  24. 24. “Birth Date” Matters<br />In Canada the eligibility cut off for age-class (club) hockey is January 1<br />Those players born early in the year are bigger and more mature than those born later in the year<br />As a consequence, the older players perform better and are picked for advanced placement where they receive better coaching and more playing time<br />In the U.S., the cutoff for almost all non-school baseball leagues is July 31 <br />As a result, more major league players are born in August than in any other month<br />
  25. 25. Accumulated Advantage<br />“For unto everyone that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance. But from him that hath not shall be taken away even which he hath.” – The Matthew Effect<br />The rich have a natural advantage<br />The best students get the best teachers and the most attention<br />Some people start off a little bit superior to their peers<br />This initial small difference leads to more opportunities, which makes them more superior, which leads to more opportunities, etc., etc., etc.<br />
  26. 26. 10,000 Hour Rule<br />To become an expert in something it takes 10,000 hours of practice<br />10,000 hours = 3 hours/day x 10 years <br />The closer psychologists look at the careers of outliers, the less important is innate talent and the more important is preparation<br />Ten thousand hours is the magic number for expertise in most areas<br />
  27. 27. 10,000 Hours<br />BILL GATES<br />Parents – Wealthy Lawyer/Banker’s daughter<br />7th grade - Private School/Computer club<br />1968 - Mother’s Club bought computer terminal for mainframe in downtown Seattle<br />U. Wash – Computer Center Corp. – leased mainframe time (founder’s son @ same school)<br />ISI – Free time for working on payroll app<br />TRW – Independent study semester, writing code for Bonneville power station app<br />Dropped out of Harvard – had 7 years’ programming experience<br />BEATLES<br />Before they became famous, the Beatles played eight hours a day, seven days a week in a club in Hamburg<br />
  28. 28. Effect of “Timing”<br />The most important date in the history of the personal computer revolution is January 1975 when the Altair 8800 was introduced.<br />If you were too old for the personal computer revolution in 1975 you were probably born before 1952.<br />If you were born after 1959 you were probably too young<br />Leaders of the personal computer revolution:<br /><ul><li>Bill Gates – 1955 (Microsoft)
  29. 29. Paul Allen – 1953 (Microsoft #2)
  30. 30. Steve Ballmer – 1956 (Microsoft #24)
  31. 31. Steve Jobs – 1955 (Apple)
  32. 32. Eric Schmidt – 1955 (PARC, Sun (Java), Novell, Google)
  33. 33. VinodKhosla– 1955 (Sun Microsystems – IIT Delhi)</li></li></ul><li>“The Troubles with Genius”<br />Knowledge of a boy’s IQ is of little help if you are faced with a formful of clever boys.<br />“The relationship between success and IQ works only up to a point”. There are other factors that may come into play, such as creativity<br />One raised in wealth and opportunity is more likely to be successful than one raised in poverty. <br />Social Skills may be the difference in success between two people of high intelligence<br />Practical Intelligence Matters: Knowing What to say, Whom to say it to, When to say & How to say it?<br />
  34. 34. The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes<br />Late 90's - Korean Airlines - statistically far too many crashes. <br />The planes are not of poor quality, it is the people and the process. <br />Korean culture - person with higher authority should not be questioned. <br />Differences – If an American co-pilot says, "We are dangerously low on fuel", a Korean might have said something like, "This plane is flying light." <br />The submissive nature in the Korean culture didn't allow for the balance check that co-pilot was supposed to provide.<br />Effect of Culture was responsible for the crashes <br />
  35. 35. Lessons Learnt<br /><ul><li>Timing can be critical to an outlier's success.
  36. 36. Outliers have the opportunity and put in the work to be the best of the best.
  37. 37. High intelligence as measured by IQ tests do not necessarily lead to success
  38. 38. If you want to be successful, be born to a wealthy family and work on your social skills.</li></li></ul><li>Style of Writing<br />Series of anecdotes<br />Often within the digestions in a story there is other related stories. Towards the end it becomes a manifesto for the fostering of success<br />Uses sound data from reputable sources<br />Covers a subject important to almost everyone, especially budding intellectuals about to start their careers.<br />Combines research from many sources and uses them to create a fresh portrait of something so basic and well studied<br />Written plainly and clearly<br />It is quick moving and highly entertaining <br />
  39. 39. Other Books by The Author<br /><ul><li>The Tipping Point
  40. 40. Blink
  41. 41. What The Dog Saw
  42. 42. READ IT</li>