Is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Indian religions, representing
In common use, "mandala" has become a generic term for any
diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos
metaphysically or symbolically; a microcosm of the universe.
Is the sanctum sanctorum, the innermost sanctum of a Hindu
temple where resides the murti (idol or icon) of the primary
deity of the temple.
Literally the word means "womb chamber", from the Sanskrit
words garbha for womb and griha for house. Only 'priests'
(pujari) are allowed to enter this chamber.
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of
Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the
Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed
over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia,
between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the
4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th
Is a traditional Hindu system of architecture, which literally translates
to "science of architecture.“
These are texts found on the Indian subcontinent that describe
principles of design, layout, measurements, ground preparation, space
arrangement and spatial geometry.
Vastu Shastras incorporate traditional Hindu and in some cases
The designs are intended to integrate architecture with nature, the
relative functions of various parts of the structure, and ancient beliefs
utilizing geometric patterns (yantra), symmetry and directional
Le Corbusier had a social agenda behind his theories. He believed that there is a
scientific, universal basis for everything including the needs and preferences of
Thus, the same design scheme would be applicable all around. He “proclaimed
democracy and equality through the built environment” and believed that “good
or enlightened buildings would elicit similar attitudes or behaviors in individuals
interacting with those buildings” (Birmingham, 1999, 296).
The notion that the physical environment impacts human behavior remains highly
contested. The relatively new discipline, related to urban planning and design, is
known as ‘Design Influencing Social Practice (DiSP)’.
Le Corbusier theories are criticized on many grounds. He contradicts himself
when he claims to be a proponent of democracy, yet paternalistically imposes an
order upon people with his vision of an advanced built environment.
Scholars such as Jane Jacobs claim that Le Corbusier’s vision of cities is
disassociated from popular input.
Jacobs says “The materiality of the building is a relational effect.
It is a building event rather than simply a building” (Jacobs, 2006, 11). This means
that social interactions and contexts have much to do with the nature of a
building and merely providing a technical concept and “purity” of design, such as
Le Corbusier’s emphasis on geometry, cannot solely predict the impacts a
building will have on its inhabitants.