Visual Dictionary Author: Arch Materials, Methods, and Equipment 1
The air barrier paper is a wrap (green in the picture above) that completely covers the exterior walls of a building and aids in retarding wind and water, yet still permits the passage of water vapor that accumulates inside the wall.
The soffit vent shown above is a way to vent excess heat from the attic space. Soffit Vent
<ul><li>Ridge Vent </li></ul>A ridge vent is an option for exhausting excess heat and humidity from an attic.
<ul><li>Gable Vent </li></ul>The gable vent shown above is needed to exhaust excess heat and humidity from the attic space.
<ul><li>Roof Turbine </li></ul>A roof turbine is an option for exhausting excess heat and humidity from the attic space
<ul><li>A backhoe is a piece of construction equipment used to excavate large amounts of earth efficiently, many times for slab-on-grade foundations. The bucket on the end of the 2-part arm can be changed to accommodate most any size. </li></ul>Width of Bucket: 1’-10”
<ul><li>Batter boards are temporary frame work built just outside the corner of an excavation (and hence the building itself) that are used to establish the position, shape, and size of the building on the site. </li></ul>
<ul><li> Arch Centering </li></ul>Centering is temporary formwork used to hold up arches, domes, or vaults while they are constructed. In the photograph above, workers have cut a sheet of plywood to fit the size of the arch.
<ul><li> Flemish Bond </li></ul>A flemish bond consists of bricks that are laid by alternating stretchers and headers for an entire course. In the photograph above, the header bricks are differentiated from the stretchers by a darker tone in the brick.
<ul><li> Running Bond </li></ul>A running bond consists of stretchers laid end to end. Each course is offset half the length of the stretcher which causes the head joints in each course to be equally offset.
<ul><li> Stretcher Rowlock (Shiner) Position </li></ul>
<ul><li> Engineer Standard Brick </li></ul>An engineer standard brick has dimensions of (WxHxL) 3 5/8” x 2 3/4” x 8” The brick photographed above has face dimensions of (HxL) 2 2/3” x 8”. Based on Figure 5.26, it’s width is approximately 3 1/2” - 3 5/8”.
<ul><li> Queen Brick </li></ul>Queen Brick has dimensions of (WxHxL) 3” x 2 3/4” x 8”. The brick photographed above has face dimensions (HxL) of 3” x 8 1/4”. Based on Figure 5.26 it’s width is approximately 3”.
<ul><li>A bulldozer is a piece of construction equipment that has a metal plate, called a blade, and is used to push large quantities of dirt around a construction site. </li></ul>
<ul><li> Wood Shingles </li></ul>Wood Shingles have smooth surfaces and neatly cut edges. Wood Shakes have rougher texture and sides because they are formed by splitting wood. I believe the photograph above to portray wood shingles.
<ul><li> Egress Window </li></ul>27.5” 27.5” 21” AFF The window in my bedroom at my apartment is located on the second storey and has an open horizontal measurement of 27.5” and an open vertical measurement of 27.5” with a full screen attached on the exterior. This gives the window an open area of 756.25 square inches, or 5.252 square feet. The bottom of the window is 21” above finish floor. Requirements for an egress window (according to the IBC code) state that any window more than 72” above the finish grade (outside) must have a minimum sill height of 24” or an approved window guard that protects falls up to 24” above finish floor. In addition, the window must have a minimum net opening size of 5.7 feet when the sill is more than 44” above the finish grade with a net opening width not less than 20” and net opening height not less than 24”. The screen attached to the exterior of my window allows the 21” AFF sill height to be compatible with IBC egress code, however the minimum net opening size of 5.252 square feet does not meet the required 5.7 square feet, thereby causing my window to not be suitable as a means of egress.
<ul><li> Stairs </li></ul>The stairs photographed above have a riser height of 6” and a tread length of 12”. IBC code requires a maximum riser height of 7 3/4” and a minimum tread length of 10”. Thus, these stairs meet the IBC code standards. 12” 6”
<ul><li>A control joint is an intentional fracture (in concrete in the photograph above) that is designed to cause the concrete to crack in the fracture, thereby minimizing the cracks in the main surface of the concrete. </li></ul>Crack Joint Control Joint
<ul><li> Isolation Joint </li></ul>An isolation joint separates construction in different planes so that the material in each plane is “isolated” enough to expand and contract without interfering with material in another plane. In the photograph above, a vertical brick column is isolated from a horizontal concrete slab with an exposed aggregate finish.
<ul><li>1 CMU = 3 Bricks </li></ul>10” CMU 6” CMU A concrete masonry unit (CMU) is a block of hardened concrete, usually with a hollow core, designed to be laid in the same manner as brick and stone. The nominal dimensions of a common CMU is 8” wide x 8” high x 16” long. Typically, the height and length of a CMU remain at 8” and 16”, respectively, and only the depth (width) changes.
<ul><li>Exterior Flush Door </li></ul>Exterior Panel Door A transom is a window located directly above a door. A sidelight is a tall, narrow window located alongside a door. Sidelight Transom Panel Lock Rail Top Rail Stile Bottom Rail
<ul><li>Underground Transformer Box </li></ul><ul><li>The transformer box is an electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating current. (usually decreases voltage to 110V - 220V) </li></ul>Meter The meter measures the amount of electricity that is supplied to the building. Service Head The service head receives overhead power lines from the transformer into the house, minimizing the negative aesthetic impact of the power lines.
<ul><li> Service Panel </li></ul><ul><li>The service panel receives the three wires from the meter and aides in distributing electricity into each part of the building, providing circuit on/off switches to allow the owner more control of the flow of electricity. </li></ul> Duplex Receptacle A duplex receptacle allows easy access for electrical appliances to plug into the building’s electrical system and receive power to operate.
<ul><li>Front end loaders have a bucket supported by two arms that allows for dirt, gravel, etc. to be picked up and moved to another location without pushing it across the ground, thus differing them from a bulldozer. The front end loader does not do digging, thus differing it from a backhoe. It is also useful for loading dump trucks. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Gypsum Board is an interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum (mineral) core sandwiched between paper faces. It is taped and mudded and commonly used for interior walls in buildings. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Advantageously, the forced air system has rapid response time. The heat pump is noisy, however, and the its location on the exterior of the building has to be planned so that it is not placed next to a bedroom or desired quiet space. </li></ul>Air compressor/condensor Air Handling Unit Heat pumps can change the temperature of the refrigerant to accommodate cold, winter months and if run in reverse can cool the refrigerant in warm, summer months The air handling unit is used to circulate and force air through the ducts and into the rooms of the building.
<ul><li>Batt Insulation </li></ul>Loose Fill Insulation Rigid Board Insulation Foamed Insulation Insulation materials have low thermal conductivity and are included in construction to reduce heat flow both in and out of the building. Each insulating material has an R value which enables the buyer to compare the effectiveness of similar products.
<ul><li>A lintel is most commonly a steel or concrete beam (steel in the photograph above) that is used to carry a load across a window or door opening. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Raked Joint </li></ul><ul><li>Tooled </li></ul><ul><li>3/8” Joint </li></ul><ul><li>2-storey residential home </li></ul><ul><li>Type S Mortar </li></ul>Flush Joint Trowled 1/2” Joint 2-storey residential home Type S Mortar
<ul><li>OSB is an engineered wood product formed by layering strands of wood to increase strength. It is a non-veneered panel product that is manufactured by stripping wood into pieces and then adhering them in layers on top of each other to the desired thickness. </li></ul>
Lavatory Standard drain piping is 1-1/2” Water Closet Standard drain piping is 3” Manufactured Tub in Framing
Plumbing Vent Through Roof The VTR is depressurizing the waste piping of the indoor plumbing, thereby preventing the passage of sewer gas into the home. Kitchen Drop-in Sink
Plywood is an engineered wood product in which layers of wood are heated and compressed at right angles to each other to increase the strength of the board and reduce warping. Plywood comes in a variety of veneers. A veneer is covering over another surface that usually enhances the aesthetic appeal of the surface. Perpendicular Layers
The purpose of the deformations in the rebar is to create more surface area for the steel rebar to adhere to the concrete into which the rebar is set. The rebar photographed above is ½” in diameter. It is #4 rebar.
Gutter Downspout Splashblock A gutter is a metal or plastic tubing attached to the eaves of a building designed to collect rainwater from the roof. The gutter is sloped down slightly to allow the water to flow towards the downspout. The downspout is a metal or plastic tube connected to the gutter. It collects the rainwater from the gutter and directs it neatly to the ground. The splashblock is a concrete block located on the ground that helps to prevent the erosion of the soil caused by water exiting the downspout.
Underlayment The underlayment is normally a tar paper used to enhance the water and air resistance of the roof. Clay Tile Roof
Wood Shingle Roof Shingles are a roof covering that is neatly cut on its edges to increase uniformity. They are laid from the eave to the ridge in order to allow rainwater to drain.
Metal Pane Roof Galvanized Steel is typically used for Metal Pane Roofing because the zinc coat helps prevent corrosion of the steel.
Ridge Eave Valley Rake A ridge is the horizontal plane where the rafters meet. A valley is a depression in the roof caused by two angled sides joining along a plane. A rake is the a board placed along the sloping sides of a gable. An eave is the lowest overhanging edge of a roof and is imaginary in the sense that no material celebrates it’s exact location.
Fascia Soffit The soffit is the underneath side of the overhang of the roof. The fascia is the board that runs horizontally at the end of the roof overhang that sometimes hides the ends of the rafters.
Building without a fascia board A building without a fascia does not have a board or any material running horizontally at the end of the roof overhang.
The vapor retarder helps to reduce the ability of moisture to pass into a building. To accomplish this task, it is placed on the “warm in winter” side of the insulation. In the photograph above, the vapor retarder is the brown wrapping around the batt insulation in an attic.
Waterproofing aids concrete, which is not naturally water-resistant, in preventing the passage of water and moisture into a building from underneath. The white color under the welded wire fabric (shown above) is a loosely applied waterproofing.
Weep holes are gaps in a masonry wall or veneer that allow water that has permeated the masonwork to drain to the exterior of the wall, preventing the decay and deterioration of the structural wall.
The WWF photographed above has a grid of 6” by 6”.
The widow photographed above is a single hung window because only one sash (bottom) is vertically movable. Single Hung Window
The window photographed above is an outswinging casement window because it is hinged on one side like a door and opens outward via a crank handle. Casement Window
Hopper Window The window photographed above is a hopper window because it is hinged on the bottom and opens inwards.