App of enzymes in dairy industry


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Industrial Applications of enzymes in Dairy Industry. . different classes of dairy enzymes and their uses

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App of enzymes in dairy industry

  1. 1. Industrial applications of enzymes in Dairy industry Archa Dave 12031G1901 Microbiology
  2. 2. Dairy Industry:  Business enterprise established for the harvesting & processing of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffalo, sheep, horses or camels – for human consumption.  The word dairy refers to milk-based products, veil, derivatives and processes, and the animals and workers involved in their production viz., dairy cattle, dairy goat.  A dairy farm produces milk and a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products. These establishments constitute the dairy industry, a component of the food industry.
  3. 3. Applications of enzymes In dairy industry
  4. 4. Enzymes  Enzymes are Bio-catalysts that bind temporarily to one or more of the reactants — the substrate thereby lowering the activation energy needed and thus speed up the reaction. Uses of Enzymes in Industries  Enzymes allow certain industrial processes to be carried out at normal temperatures and pressures, thereby reducing the amount of energy and expensive equipment needed.  Enzymes are also used in the home, for example, in detergents  Lipases and proteases are used in detergents, and enzymes are also used in the manufacture of food and drink.
  5. 5. ENZYME USE Protease used to pre-digest proteins during the manufacture of baby foods Lipase used - together with protease - in biological detergents to break down - digest - the substances in stains into smaller, water soluble substances Carbohydrase used to convert starch syrup, which is relatively cheap, into sugar syrup, which is more valuable - for example, as an ingredient in sports drinks Isomerase used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup fructose is sweeter than glucose, so it can be used in smaller amounts in slimming foods
  6. 6. In the dairy industry, some enzymes are required for the production of cheeses, yogurt and other dairy products, while others are used in a more specialized fashion to improve texture or flavour. Five of the more common types of enzymes and their role in the dairy industry are: • • • • • Coagulant Enzymes Lactase Lipases Bio protective Enzymes Yield- Enhancing Enzymes The function of these enzymes varies widely from coagulants, which are used to make cheese, to bio protective enzymes to enhance the shelf life and safety of dairy products.
  7. 7. Coagulant Enzymes: • Coagulants are proteases which break down the milk protein - kappa casein, resulting in the formation of a cheese curd. • Coagulants may be segmented into four categories according to enzyme source and production method. • The type of coagulant used has a direct influence on the cost, quality and yield of the final product. Categories: • • • • Animal Rennet Microbial Coagulants Fermentation –Produced Chymosin Vegetable Coagulants
  8. 8. RENNET Animal rennet manufactured from the vells (fourth stomach) of calves, adult bovines or lamb • • • • • Animal rennet was discovered around 5.000 B.C. when nomads stored milk in the stomach of ruminant animals for transportation. Chymosin and pepsin in the stomach coagulated the milk, inadvertently contributing to the first production of cheese. Milking calves produce high levels of chymosin while adult cows produce higher pepsin content. pepsin results in bitterness, hence cheese producers desire animal. rennet with a high chymosin, low pepsin content. Animal rennet may be used in Halal, Organic and GMO-Free products but is not suitable for Kosher or Vegetarian products.
  9. 9. MICROBIAL COAGULANT • • • • • Microbial coagulants produced by either R. miehei or C. parasitica. Microbial coagulants are proteases such as Mucor pepsin and endopesin produced by the fungi Rhizomucor miehei and Cryphonectria parasitica, respectively. They are used primarily in nonindustrial applications and in the manufacture of fresh cheeses. Low-priced coagulants, microbial proteases break down additional milk proteins other than kappa casein. Unpurified microbial coagulants may also exhibit secondary effects such as amylase, lipase and cellulase sideactivities. FPC • • Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) is a highly-purified chymosin produced by fermentation using a host organism such as Aspergillus niger. FPCs offer a lower cost-inuse, reduced bitterness and higher production yield than other coagulants as a result of their higher purity and specificity towards kappacasein.
  10. 10. VEGETABLE COAGULANTS • Vegetable coagulants are plant extracts which contain a mixture of proteolytic enzymes and contribute unique characteristics to cheese. • Vegetable coagulants are used primarily in niche products where specific flavours and consistency are desired, or in remote regions where other coagulants are unavailable. • Extracts of the Cardo flower (Cynara cardunculus) used in Spain and Portugal for the production of some DOP (Denominación de Origen Protegida) cheeses, these cheeses are often very soft or semi-liquid and may be spoonable. The flavour profile is strong, with some bitterness. • Extracts of the Calotropis procera plant used in Ghana for the production of Wara or Wagashi cheese, having a hard texture and high melting point suitable for grilling. Due to high production costs, low yield and development of off-flavors, vegetable coagulants are not used in industrial cheese production.
  11. 11. LACTASE • Milk contains the sugar lactose which must be broken down by the enzyme lactase prior to digestion. Although infants produce lactase to break down lactose in breast milk, but over 70% of the global adult population, have reduced lactase production, resulting in lactose sensitivity or intolerance. • Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal bloating, cramps, diarrhoea and flatulence. • As a result, sufferers may refrain from consuming milk despite it serving as an important source of proteins, vitamins and minerals (such as calcium). • Lactose intolerance may be overcome by consuming dairy products in smaller quantities, consuming them with other foods or by consuming dairy products containing low levels of lactose such as hard cheeses, yoghurt and reducedlactose milk.
  12. 12. Acc to 2011-12 stats
  13. 13. Lipases • Unpasteurized milk contains lipoprotein lipase which contributes to a piquant flavor in aged cheese by breaking down milk fat to free fatty acids. • However, lipoprotein lipase is inactivated by heat treatment such as pasteurization, resulting in a more bland flavor in aged, pasteurized cheeses. • To counteract this, external lipases may be added to ripened cheeses during production to enhance flavour. • Although exact mechanisms remain unclear, it is believed that lipases which generate short chain fatty acids contribute to a more desirable, piquant flavour profile
  14. 14. Classes of Lipases Animal Lipases • • Lipolytic enzymes extracted from the throat of cows, sheep or goats which enhance cheese flavour. These are very expensive Microbial Lipases • • • Lipolytic enzymes extracted from microbial sources such as R. miehei which enhance cheese flavour. results in rancidity and soapy flavours. Despite these limitations, they provide a balance between flavour enhancement and cost and are suitable for use
  15. 15. Bio Protective enzymes Bio protective enzymes offer a natural means to improve food safety and reduce costs associated with microbial contamination, especially in aged products. There are 3 different Bio Protective enzymes commonly used: LYSOZYME: An antimicrobial enzyme which limits growth of Clostridia in aged cheeses. NISIN: An antimicrobial peptide effective against Gram positive and spore-forming bacteria in cheese LACTOPEROXIDASE: An antimicrobial enzymes used to preserve raw milk in developing countries
  16. 16. Yield Enhancing Enzymes A variety of additional enzymes are approved for use in the diary industry. These include enzymes for improved cheese yield and enhanced whey value. Yield may be enhanced through increased fat, protein or moisture retention in the curd, provided parameters remain within legal limits Examples: YieldMAX® and CHY-MAX® M. Whey value may be enhanced by enzymatic conversion s of whey components to value-added ingredients. Examples: LactoYield®.
  17. 17. Associated diseases: Leptospirosis: the most common disease of milkers, became worse since the introduction of herringbone sheds, because of unavoidable direct contact with bovine urine Tuberculosis: transmitted from cattle via unpasteurised milk products. Brucellosis: bacterial disease transmitted to humans by dairy products and direct animal contact. Listeria: bacterial disease associated with unpasteurised milk, and can affect some cheeses made in traditional ways. Johne's Disease: contagious, chronic and sometimes fatal infection in ruminants caused by a bacterium named Mycobacterium paratuberculosis The bacteria are present in retail milk, and are believed by some researchers to be the primary cause of Crohn's disease in humans. This disease is not known to infect animals in Australia and New Zealand.
  18. 18. Amul Dairy Factory, Anand, Gujarat.
  19. 19. Thank You 