of enzymes in
Business enterprise established for the harvesting & processing of animal
milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffalo, sheep, horses or
camels – for human consumption.
The word dairy refers to milk-based products, veil, derivatives and
processes, and the animals and workers involved in their production
viz., dairy cattle, dairy goat.
A dairy farm produces milk and a dairy factory processes it into a variety
of dairy products. These establishments constitute the dairy industry, a
component of the food industry.
Enzymes are Bio-catalysts that bind temporarily to one or more of the reactants —
the substrate thereby lowering the activation energy needed and thus speed up
Uses of Enzymes in Industries
Enzymes allow certain industrial processes to be carried out at normal
temperatures and pressures, thereby reducing the amount of energy and
expensive equipment needed.
Enzymes are also used in the home, for example, in detergents
Lipases and proteases are used in detergents, and enzymes are also used in the
manufacture of food and drink.
used to pre-digest proteins during the manufacture of baby foods
used - together with protease - in biological detergents to break
down - digest - the substances in stains into smaller, water soluble
used to convert starch syrup, which is relatively cheap, into sugar
syrup, which is more valuable - for example, as an ingredient in
used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup fructose is sweeter than glucose, so it can be used in smaller
amounts in slimming foods
In the dairy industry, some enzymes are required for the production of cheeses, yogurt
and other dairy products, while others are used in a more specialized fashion to improve
texture or flavour.
Five of the more common types of enzymes and their role in the dairy industry are:
Bio protective Enzymes
Yield- Enhancing Enzymes
The function of these enzymes varies widely from coagulants, which are used to make
cheese, to bio protective enzymes to enhance the shelf life and safety of dairy
• Coagulants are proteases which break down the milk protein - kappa casein, resulting
in the formation of a cheese curd.
• Coagulants may be segmented into four categories according to enzyme source and
• The type of coagulant used has a direct influence on the cost, quality and yield of the
Fermentation –Produced Chymosin
RENNET Animal rennet manufactured from the vells
(fourth stomach) of calves, adult bovines or lamb
Animal rennet was discovered around 5.000 B.C. when nomads stored milk in the
stomach of ruminant animals for transportation.
Chymosin and pepsin in the stomach coagulated the milk, inadvertently contributing
to the first production of cheese.
Milking calves produce high levels of chymosin while adult cows produce higher
pepsin results in bitterness, hence cheese producers desire animal. rennet with a
high chymosin, low pepsin content.
Animal rennet may be used in Halal, Organic and GMO-Free products but is not
suitable for Kosher or Vegetarian products.
Microbial coagulants produced by
either R. miehei or C. parasitica.
Microbial coagulants are proteases
such as Mucor pepsin and endopesin
produced by the fungi Rhizomucor
miehei and Cryphonectria
They are used primarily in nonindustrial applications and in the
manufacture of fresh cheeses.
Low-priced coagulants, microbial
proteases break down additional milk
proteins other than kappa casein.
Unpurified microbial coagulants may
also exhibit secondary effects such
as amylase, lipase and cellulase sideactivities.
(FPC) is a highly-purified chymosin
produced by fermentation using a
host organism such as Aspergillus
FPCs offer a lower cost-inuse, reduced bitterness and higher
production yield than other
coagulants as a result of their higher
purity and specificity towards kappacasein.
• Vegetable coagulants are plant extracts which contain a mixture of proteolytic
enzymes and contribute unique characteristics to cheese.
• Vegetable coagulants are used primarily in niche products where specific flavours
and consistency are desired, or in remote regions where other coagulants are
• Extracts of the Cardo flower (Cynara cardunculus) used in Spain and Portugal for
the production of some DOP (Denominación de Origen Protegida) cheeses, these
cheeses are often very soft or semi-liquid and may be spoonable. The flavour
profile is strong, with some bitterness.
• Extracts of the Calotropis procera plant used in Ghana for the production of Wara
or Wagashi cheese, having a hard texture and high melting point suitable
Due to high production costs, low yield and development of off-flavors, vegetable
coagulants are not used in industrial cheese production.
• Milk contains the sugar lactose which must be broken down by the enzyme
lactase prior to digestion. Although infants produce lactase to break down
lactose in breast milk, but over 70% of the global adult population,
have reduced lactase production, resulting in lactose sensitivity or intolerance.
• Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal bloating, cramps, diarrhoea
• As a result, sufferers may refrain from consuming milk despite it serving as an
important source of proteins, vitamins and minerals (such as calcium).
• Lactose intolerance may be overcome by consuming dairy products in smaller
quantities, consuming them with other foods or by consuming dairy products
containing low levels of lactose such as hard cheeses, yoghurt and reducedlactose milk.
• Unpasteurized milk contains lipoprotein lipase which contributes to a piquant flavor
in aged cheese by breaking down milk fat to free fatty acids.
• However, lipoprotein lipase is inactivated by heat treatment such as pasteurization,
resulting in a more bland flavor in aged, pasteurized cheeses.
• To counteract this, external lipases may be added to ripened cheeses during
production to enhance flavour.
• Although exact mechanisms remain unclear, it is believed that lipases which
generate short chain fatty acids contribute to a more desirable, piquant flavour
Classes of Lipases
Lipolytic enzymes extracted from the
throat of cows, sheep or goats which
enhance cheese flavour.
These are very expensive
Lipolytic enzymes extracted from
microbial sources such as R. miehei
which enhance cheese flavour.
results in rancidity and soapy
Despite these limitations, they
provide a balance between flavour
enhancement and cost and are
suitable for use
Bio Protective enzymes
Bio protective enzymes offer a natural means to improve food safety and
reduce costs associated with microbial contamination, especially in aged products.
There are 3 different Bio Protective enzymes commonly used:
An antimicrobial enzyme which limits growth of Clostridia in aged cheeses.
An antimicrobial peptide effective against Gram positive and spore-forming bacteria
An antimicrobial enzymes used to preserve raw milk in developing countries
Yield Enhancing Enzymes
A variety of additional enzymes are approved for use in the diary industry. These
include enzymes for improved cheese yield and enhanced whey value.
Yield may be enhanced through increased fat, protein or moisture retention in
the curd, provided parameters remain within legal limits
Examples: YieldMAX® and CHY-MAX® M.
Whey value may be enhanced by enzymatic conversion s of whey components to
value-added ingredients. Examples: LactoYield®.
Leptospirosis: the most common disease of milkers, became worse since the
introduction of herringbone sheds, because of unavoidable direct contact with bovine
Tuberculosis: transmitted from cattle via unpasteurised milk products.
Brucellosis: bacterial disease transmitted to humans by dairy products and direct
Listeria: bacterial disease associated with unpasteurised milk, and can affect some
cheeses made in traditional ways.
Johne's Disease: contagious, chronic and sometimes fatal infection
in ruminants caused by a bacterium named Mycobacterium paratuberculosis The
bacteria are present in retail milk, and are believed by some researchers to be the
primary cause of Crohn's disease in humans. This disease is not known to infect animals
in Australia and New Zealand.