Acronyms 1


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Acronyms 1

  1. 1. International Air Transport Association (IATA)<br />   <br />Definition<br />Private organization promoting cooperation among theworld's scheduled airlines to ensure safe, secure, reliable, and economical air services. Through IATA, local airlines have combined their individual ticketing and  HYPERLINK "" reservationnetworks into a global system that overcomes differences incurrencies, customs, languages, and laws. Founded in Hague in 1919 as International Air Traffic Association, it was given the current name in 1945 in Havana and now includes280 airlines from 130 countries which handle over 95percent of the world's scheduled air traffic. IATA accredits the travel agents all over the world, except the US where a local organization (Airline Reporting Corporation) providesaccreditation. IATA's headquarters are in Montreal, Canada and the executive offices are in Geneva, Switzerland. Not to be confused with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) which is a governmental organization.<br />Airport<br />An airport is a location where aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport. An airport consists of at least one surface such as a runway for a plane to take off and land, a helipad, or water for takeoffs and landings, and often includes buildings such as control towers, hangars and terminal buildings.<br />Larger airports may have fixed base operator services, seaplane docks and ramps, air traffic control, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, and emergency services. A military airport is known as an airbase or air station. The terms aerodrome, airdrome, airfield, and airstrip may also be used to refer to airports, and the terms heliport, seaplane base, and  HYPERLINK "" o "STOLport" STOLport refer to airports dedicated exclusively to helicopters, seaplanes, or short take-off and landing aircraft.<br />Runway<br />1. A strip of level, usually paved ground on which aircraft take off and land.<br />2. A path, channel, or track over which something runs.<br />3. The channel of a stream.<br />4. A chute down which logs are skidded.<br />5. A narrow track in a bowling lane on which balls are returned after they are bowled.<br />6. A smooth ramp for wheeled vehicles.<br />7. A narrow walkway extending from a stage into an auditorium.<br />4. Taxiways<br />Taxiway<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />F-22 Raptors taxiing at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, USA<br />A taxiway is a path on an airport connecting runways with ramps,  HYPERLINK "" o "Hangar" hangars, HYPERLINK "" o "Airport terminal" terminals and other facilities. They mostly have hard surface such as asphalt orconcrete, although smaller airports sometimes use gravel or grass.<br />Busy airports typically construct high-speed or rapid-exit taxiways in order to allow aircraft to leave the runway at higher speeds. This allows the aircraft to vacate the runway quicker, permitting another to land or depart in a shorter space of time.<br />5.apron<br />1.<br />a. A garment, usually fastened in the back, worn over all or part of the front of the body to protect clothing.<br />b. Something, such as a protective shield for a machine, that resembles this garment in appearance or function.<br />2. The paved strip in front of and around airport hangars and terminal buildings.<br />3. The part of a stage in a theater extending in front of the curtain.<br />4. A platform, as of planking, at the entrance to a dock.<br />5.<br />a. A covering or structure along a shoreline for protection against erosion.<br />b. A platform serving a similar purpose below a dam or in a sluiceway.<br />6. A continuous conveyor belt.<br />7. An area covered by sand and gravel deposited at the front of a glacial moraine.<br />8. A border of slightly longer grass that surrounds a green on a golf course.<br />9. The part of a boxing ring floor that extends beyond the ropes.<br />6.Airport Location Factors<br />The location of an airport site in the case of an isotropic plain can be viewed as a balance between two opposing forces:<br />Benefits. The closer an airport is to the city center, the more benefits are derived because of shorter average commuting times from the airport to centers of activity. The airport is then able to conveniently service a metropolitan area. The commuting radius represents a tolerable commuting distance / time from the city center, which is in the range of 1 hour. Beyond that threshold an airport does not serve its metropolitan area well as an undue amount of time must be spent to reach it. The integration of rail systems with airport development, such as in Hong Kong and Paris, reduces this friction of distance by connecting it efficiently to the urban core. However, many airports, especially Narita and New York-JFK, still have poor connections with their metropolitan areas because of congestion and the lack of alternatives to road access.<br />Externalities. As the location of an airport gets closer to the city center, more externalities are incurred. The opportunity cost for the land devoted to the airport, the number of people adversely affected by noise, and incompatibilities with local land uses all rise. Externalities have been a strong factor in recent airport development, such as Denver and Hong Kong. Under such circumstances, an airport site should be as far as possible from the city center. In the case of Hong Kong for instance, approximately 380,000 people lived within the 65 dB noise contour of the old Kai Tak airport; but no one lived within the 65 dB contour of the new airport when it opened.<br />Suitability. Benefits and externalities functions tend to be inversely proportional to the other. Consequently, a compromise is sought by choosing a site that is close enough to provide significant benefits and far enough to minimize externalities. A location ring of high suitability is derived from an overlay of the benefits and externalities curves.<br />Clearway<br />An area at the end of the take-off run available, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aircraft may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.  ICAO<br />(1) For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after August 29, 1959, an area beyond the runway, not less than 500 feet wide, centrally located about the extended centerline of the runway, and under the control of the airport authorities. The clearway is expressed in terms of a clearway plane, extending from the end of the runway with an upward slope not exceeding 1.25 percent, above which no object nor any terrain protrudes. However, threshold lights may protrude above the plane if their height above the end of the runway is 26 inches or less and if they are located to each side of the runway.<br />(2) For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after September 30, 1958, but before August 30, 1959, an area beyond the takeoff runway extending no less than 300 feet on either side of the extended centerline of the runway, at an elevation no higher than the elevation of the end of the runway, clear of all fixed obstacles, and under the control of the airport authorities. <br />Stop way<br />Stopway means an area beyond the takeoff runway, no less wide than the runway and centered upon the extended centerline of the runway, able to support the airplane during an aborted takeoff, without causing structural damage to the airplane, and designated by the airport authorities for use in decelerating the airplane during an aborted takeoff.<br />TORA [4]<br />Takeoff Run Available – The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an airplane taking off.[5]<br />TODA [4]<br />Takeoff Distance Available – The length of the takeoff run available plus the length of theclearway, if clearway is provided.HYPERLINK "" l "cite_note-FAR25.189.28c.29-4"[5]<br />(The clearway length allowed must lie within the aerodrome or airport boundary. According to the Federal Aviation Regulations and Joint Aviation Requirements (JAR) TODA is the lesser of TORA plus clearway or 1.5 times TORA).<br />ASDA <br />Hmc Hanger Heliport Charter Flights and Air Charter Service<br />Private Jets Charter is able to handle all of your air charter services to or from Hmc Hanger Heliport. We will make sure that the flight you pick is the right one for you. The staff we use has years of experience in the air charter industry and will be sure that the flight you choose to or from Hmc Hanger Heliport is the right one for you.<br />Visual flight rules<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Visual flight rules (VFR) are a set of regulations which allow a pilot to operate an aircraft in weather conditions generally clear enough to allow the pilot to see where the aircraft is going. Specifically, the weather must be better than basic VFR weather minimums, as specified in the rules of the relevant aviation authority.[1] If the weather is worse than VFR minimums, pilots are required to use instrument flight rules.<br />[edit]Requirements<br />VFR require a pilot to be able to see outside the cockpit, to control the aircraft's attitude, navigate, and avoid obstacles and other aircraft. [2]<br />To avoid collisions, the VFR pilot is expected to "see and avoid" obstacles and other aircraft. Pilots flying under VFR assume responsibility for their separation from all other aircraft and are generally not assigned routes or altitudes by air traffic control. Near busier airports, and while operating within certain types of airspace, VFR aircraft are required to have a transponder to help identify the aircraft on radar. Governing agencies establish specific requirements for VFR flight, including minimum visibility, and distance from clouds, to ensure that aircraft operating under VFR are visible from enough distance to ensure safety.<br />From a regulatory perspective, airspace is categorized as controlled and uncontrolled. In controlled airspace known as Class B for example (note that Class B does not exist in the UK), Air Traffic Control (ATC) will separate VFR aircraft from all other aircraft. In most other types of controlled airspace, ATC is only required to maintain separation to aircraft operating under instrument flight rules (IFR), but workload permitting will assist all aircraft. In the United States, a pilot operating VFR outside of class B airspace can request "VFR flight following" from ATC. This service is provided by ATC if workload permits it, but is an advisory service only. The responsibility for maintaining separation with other aircraft and proper navigation still remains with the pilot. In the United Kingdom, a pilot can request for "Deconfliction Service", which is similar to flight following.<br />Meteorological conditions that meet the minimum requirements for VFR flight are termed visual meteorological conditions (VMC). If they are not met, the conditions are considered instrument meteorological conditions(IMC), and a flight may only operate under IFR.<br />IFR operations have specific training requirements—usually placing a pilot in simulated IMC environment using a view limiting device and recency of experience, equipment, and inspection requirements for both the pilot and aircraft. Additionally, an IFR flight plan must usually be filed in advance. For efficiency of operations, some ATC operations will routinely provide "pop-up" IFR clearances for aircraft operating VFR, but that are arriving at an airport that does not meet VMC requirements. For example, in the United States, at least California's Oakland (KOAK), Monterey (KMRY) and Santa Ana (KSNA) airports do so routinely when a low coastal overcast forces instrument approaches while essentially the entire state of California is basking in sunshine.<br />In the United States and Canada, VFR pilots also have an option for requesting Special VFR when meteorological conditions at an airport are below normal VMC minimums, but above Special VFR requirements. Special VFR is only intended to enable takeoffs and landings from airports that are near to VMC conditions, and may only be performed during daytime hours if a pilot does not possess an instrument rating.<br />VFR flight is not allowed in airspace known as class A, regardless of the meteorological conditions. In the United States, class A airspace begins at 18,000 feet  HYPERLINK "" o "Sea level" msl, and extends to an altitude of 60,000 feet  HYPERLINK "" o "Sea level" msl.<br />[edit]Pilot certifications<br />In the United States and Canada, any certified pilot who meets specific recency of experience criteria may operate an airworthy aircraft under VFR.<br />[edit]Controlled visual flight rules<br />Section of CVFR flight routes map of Tel Aviv (Israel) area. Flight altitude in each direction is notated in yellow arrow-box. Compulsory reporting points are marked with triangles and airports are marked by yellow circles.<br />CVFR flight is used in locations where aviation authorities have determined that VFR flight should be allowed, but that ATC separation and minimal guidance are necessary. In this respect, CVFR is similar to Instrument flight rules (IFR) in that ATC will give pilots headings and altitudes at which to fly, and will provide separation and conflict resolution. However, pilots and aircraft do not need to be IFR rated to fly in CVFR areas, which is highly advantageous. An example of airspace where CVFR is common would be Canadian Class B airspace.[3]<br />The CVFR concept is used in Canada and certain European countries, but not in theU.S., where the Private Pilot certificate itself authorizes the pilot to accept clearances under VFR.<br />In Israel and the Palestinian territory, for example, VFR does not exist. All visual flights must be performed under CVFR rules.<br />[edit]Low Flying Rules<br />In the UK, the Rules of the Air define clearly in the principles of Low Flying Rules in Rule 5. The main principle is that an aircraft must always be able to perform an emergency landing in a case of engine failure. Hence these three criteria:<br />500ft provision An aircraft must not fly closer than 500ft to any person, vessel, vehicle, building or structure.<br />1000ft provision If an aircraft is flying over a congested area (town, settlement, etc.) it must fly high enough so that in the case of an engine failure, it is able to land clear without being a danger to people or it must not fly less than 1000ft above the highest fixed object within 600m of the aircraft.<br />Instrument flight rules<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />"IFR" redirects here. For other uses, see IFR (disambiguation).<br />Instrument flight rules (IFR) are one of two sets of regulations governing all aspects of civil aviation aircraft operations; the other are visual flight rules (VFR).<br />Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) defines IFR as: “Rules and regulations established by the FAA to govern flight under conditions in which flight by outside visual reference is not safe. IFR flight depends upon flying by reference to instruments in the flight deck, and navigation is accomplished by reference to electronic signals.[1]” It is also referred to as, “a term used by pilots and controllers to indicate the type of flight plan an aircraft is flying,” such as an IFR or VFR flight plan. HYPERLINK "" l "cite_note-1" [2]<br />Contents [hide]1 Basic Information1.1 Visual flight rules1.2 Instrument flight rules1.3 Confusing flight rules with weather conditions2 Separation and clearance3 Weather4 Navigation5 Procedures6 Qualifications7 References8 External links9 See also<br />[edit]Basic Information<br />[edit]Visual flight rules<br />To put instrument flight rules into context, a brief overview of VFR is necessary. Flights operating under VFR are flown solely by reference to outside visual cues, which permit navigation, orientation, and separation from terrain and other traffic. Thus, cloud ceiling and flight visibility are the most important variables for safe operations during all phases of flight.[3] The minimum weather conditions for ceiling and visibility for VFR flights are defined in FAR Part 91.155, and vary depending on the type of airspace in which the aircraft is operating, and on whether the flight is conducted during daytime or nighttime. However, typical daytime VFR minimums for most airspace is 3 statute miles of flight visibility and a cloud distance of 500' below, 1,000' above, and 2,000' feet horizontally.[4] Flight conditions reported as equal to or greater than these VFR minimums are referred to as visual meteorological conditions (VMC).<br />Visual flight rules are much simpler than IFR, and require significantly less training and practice. VFR provides a great degree of freedom, allowing pilots to go where they want, when they want, and allows them a much wider latitude in determining how they get there.[5] Pilots are not required to file a flight plan, do not have to communicate with ATC (unless flying in certain types of "busier" airspace), and are not limited to following predefined published routes or flight procedures.<br />VFR pilots may use cockpit instruments as secondary aids to navigation and orientation, but are not required to. Instead, the view outside of the aircraft is the primary source for keeping the aircraft straight and level (orientation), flying where you intended to fly (navigation), and for not hitting anything (separation).[6]<br />[edit]Instrument flight rules<br />Instrument flight rules permit an aircraft to operate in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), which have much lower weather minimums than VFR. Procedures and training are significantly more complex as a pilot must demonstrate competency in conducting an entire cross-country flight in IMC conditions, while controlling the aircraft solely by reference to instruments.[7]<br />As compared to VFR flight, instrument pilots must meticulously evaluate weather, create a very detailed flight plan based around specific instrument departure, en route, and arrival procedures, and dispatch the flight. Once airborne, the IFR pilot is then challenged to fly the aircraft in the same air traffic control (ATC) environment and weather systems that two-crew jet aircraft are using at the same time.[6][8]<br />[edit]Confusing flight rules with weather conditions<br />It is essential to differentiate between flight plan type (IFR or VFR) and weather conditions (VMC or IMC). While current and forecasted weather may be a factor in deciding which type of flight plan to file, weather conditions themselves do not affect one's filed flight plan. For example, an IFR flight that encounters VMC en route does not automatically change to a VFR flight, and the flight must still follow all IFR procedures regardless of weather conditions.<br />[edit]Separation and clearance<br />The distance by which an aircraft avoids obstacles or other aircraft is termed separation. The most important concept of IFR flying is that separation is maintained regardless of weather conditions. In controlled airspace, Air Traffic Control (ATC) separates IFR aircraft from obstacles and other aircraft using a flight clearance based on route, time, distance, speed, and altitude. ATC monitors IFR flights on radar, or through aircraft position reports in areas where radar coverage is not available. Aircraft position reports are sent as voice radio transmissions. Aircraft position reports are not necessary if ATC reports that the aircraft is in radar contact. In the United States, a flight operating under IFR is required to provide position reports unless ATC advises a pilot that the plane is in radar contact. The pilot must resume position reports after ATC advises that radar contact has been lost, or that radar services are terminated.<br />IFR flights in controlled airspace require an ATC clearance for each part of the flight. A clearance always specifies a clearance limit, which is the farthest the aircraft can fly without a new clearance. In addition, a clearance typically provides a heading or route to follow, altitude, and communication parameters, such as frequencies and transponder codes.<br />In uncontrolled airspace, ATC clearances are unavailable. In some states a form of separation is provided to certain aircraft in uncontrolled airspace as far as is practical (often known under ICAO as an advisory service in class F airspace), but separation is not mandated nor widely provided.<br />Despite the protection offered by flight in controlled airspace under IFR, the ultimate responsibility for the safety of the aircraft rests with the pilot in command, who can refuse clearances.<br />[edit]Weather<br />Above clouds, but still IFR<br />The main purpose of IFR is the safe operation of aircraft in Instrument Meteorological Conditions(IMC). The weather is considered to be IMC when it does not meet the minimum requirements forVisual Meteorological Conditions (VMC). To operate safely in IMC, a pilot controls the aircraft relying on flight instruments, and ATC provides separation.[9]<br />It is important not to confuse IFR with IMC. A significant amount of IFR flying is conducted in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC). Any time a flight is operating in VMC, the crew is responsible for seeing and avoiding VFR traffic; however, since the flight is conducted under Instrument Flight Rules, ATC still provides separation services from other IFR traffic. Although dangerous and illegal, a certain amount of VFR flying is conducted in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). A common scenario is a VFR pilot taking off in VMC conditions, but encountering deteriorating visibility while en route. "Continued VFR flight into IMC", as it is known, is responsible for a significant number of light-airplane crashes.<br />During flight under IFR, there are no visibility requirements, so flying through clouds is permitted. There are still minimum conditions that must be present in order for the aircraft to take off and land; these will vary according to the kind of operation, the type of navigation aids available, the location and height of terrain and obstructions in the vicinity of the airport, equipment on the aircraft, and the qualifications of the crew. For example, landing at mountain airports such as Reno (KRNO) offer significantly different instrument approaches for aircraft landing on the same runway, but from opposite directions. Aircraft approaching from the north must make visual contact with the airport at a higher altitude than a flight approaching from the south, because of rapidly rising terrain south of the airport.{FAA approach plate AL 346} This higher altitude allows a flight crew to clear the obstacle if a landing is not feasible.<br />Although large airliners and, increasingly, smaller aircraft now carry their own terrain awareness and warning system TAWS,[citation needed]these are primarily backup systems providing a last layer of defense if a sequence of errors or omissions causes a dangerous situation.[citation needed]<br />[edit]Navigation<br />Under IFR, the primary means of navigation are either via radio beacons on the ground, such as VORs and NDBs, or GPS. In areas of radar coverage, ATC may also assign headings to IFR aircraft, also known as radar vectors. Radar vectors are one of several methods which ATC uses to provide separation between aircraft for landing, especially in busy traffic environments; in less congested airspace, aircraft are increasingly responsible for their own traffic awareness and collision avoidance.[ HYPERLINK "" o "Wikipedia:Citation needed" citation needed]<br />Modern Flight Management Systems have evolved sufficiently to allow a crew to plan a flight not only as to route and altitude, but to specific time of arrival at specific locations.[citation needed] This capability is used in several trial projects experimenting with four dimensional approach clearances for commercial aircraft, with time as the fourth dimension.[citation needed] These clearances allow ATC to optimize the arrival of aircraft at major airports, which increases airport capacity, and uses less fuel providing monetary and environmental benefits to airlines and the public at large respectively.<br />VHF omnidirectional range<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />This article has been nominated to be checked for its neutrality. Discussion of this nomination can be found on the talk page. (December 2009)<br />This article is about the radio navigation aid, see VOR for other uses.<br />D-VOR (Doppler VOR) ground station, co-located with DME.<br />VOR, short for VHF omnidirectional radio range, is a type of radio navigation system foraircraft. A VOR ground station broadcasts a VHF radio composite signal including the station's identifier, voice (if equipped), and navigation signal. The identifier is  HYPERLINK "" o "Morse code" morse code. The voice signal is usually station name, in-flight recorded advisories, or live flight service broadcasts. The navigation signal allows the airborne receiving equipment to determine a magnetic bearing from the station to the aircraft (direction from the VOR station in relation to the Earth's magnetic North at the time of installation). VOR stations in areas of magnetic compass unreliability are oriented with respect toTrue North. This line of position is called the "radial" from the VOR. The intersection of two radials from different VOR stations on a chart provides the position of the aircraft.<br />Foreign object damage<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />FOD to the compressor blades of aHoneywell LTS101  HYPERLINK "" o "Turboshaft" turboshaft engine on aBell 222, caused by a small bolt that passed through the protective inlet screen.<br />FOD deflection system on a PT6Tinstalled on a Bell 412. Air enters from upper right, and pure air follows the curved ramp down to the turbine inlet (also covered by a screen). Any debris being sucked in will have enough momentum that it won't make such a sharp bend, and will hit the screen on the upper left, and will be carried out to the left, getting blown overboard.<br />Potential foreign object debris found and rescued from the wheel well of an F/A-18 Hornet on the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman.<br />Foreign Object Debris (FOD) is a substance, debris or article alien to a vehicle or system which would potentially cause damage.<br />Foreign Object Damage (also abbreviated FOD) is any damage attributed to a foreign object that can be expressed in physical or economic terms that may or may not degrade the product's required safety and/or performance characteristics. Typically, FOD is an aviation term used to describe debris on or around an aircraft or damage done to an aircraft.[1] Foreign Object Damage is any damage attributed to a foreign object (i.e. any object that is not part of the vehicle) that can be expressed in physical or economic terms and may or may not degrade the product's required safety or performance characteristics. FOD is an abbreviation often used in aviation to describe both the damage done to aircraft by foreign objects, and the foreign objects themselves.[2]<br />"Internal FOD" is used to refer to damage or hazards caused by foreign objects inside the aircraft. For example, "Cockpit FOD" might be used to describe a situation where an item gets loose in the cockpit and jams or restricts the operation of the controls. "Tool FOD" is a serious hazard caused by tools left inside the aircraft after manufacturing or servicing. Tools or other items can get tangled in control cables, jam moving parts, short out electrical connections, or otherwise interfere with safe flight. Aircraft maintenance teams usually have strict tool control procedures including toolbox inventories to make sure all tools have been removed from an aircraft before it is released for flight. Tools used during manufacturing are tagged with a serial number so if they're found they can be traced.<br />Instrument landing system<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />The Localizer station for runway 27R atHannover Airport in Germany<br />An instrument landing system (ILS) is a ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, high-intensity lighting arrays to enable a safe landing during instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), such as low ceilings or reduced visibility due to fog, rain, or blowing snow.<br />Instrument approach procedure charts (or approach plates) are published for each ILS approach, providing pilots with the needed information to fly an ILS approach during instrument flight rules (IFR) operations, including the radio frequencies used by the ILS components or  HYPERLINK "" o "Navaids" navaids and the minimum visibility requirements prescribed for the specific approach.<br />Radio-navigation aids must keep a certain degree of accuracy (set by international standards of CAST/ICAO); to assure this is the case, flight inspection organizations periodically check critical parameters with properly equipped aircraft to calibrate and certify ILS precision.<br />AAI FUNCTIONS OR RESPONSIBILITIES<br />Functions of the Directorate of Aviation Safety 1. Monitor the Aerodrome operations and detect the safety hazards and point out to the ATM Directorate and the other concerned Directorates.2. Monitor the Air Navigation operations and detect the safety hazards and point out to the ATM Directorate and the other concerned Directorates.3. Monitor the Aerodrome design activities of the Planning and Engineering Directorates and detect the non-compliances of regulations and point out to the concerned Directorates.4. Guide the various departments for SMS documentation.5. Assist all the Directorates to establish the Safety Management System, throughout the organization, including the education and training.6. Coordinate the safety matters of AAI with DGCA, ICAO and other stake holders.7. Promote the safety of aerodromes and air navigation services.8. Present the safety reports to the Safety Review Board (SRB) and implement the directions, given on safety matters, by SRB.9. Detect the weaknesses in the functions and the practices in the activities of all departments of AAI which may effect the safety of the system(s).10. Develop the new tools and methods of audit and inspections and mitigation procedures.11. Implement effective safety programmes in all areas of operations and passenger facilities with a view to provide safe environment for aircraft operations and passengers at all AAI airports.12. Carry out annual audit of all AAI airports, civil enclaves and other facilities with the objective of identifying operational and system deficiencies, hazards and trends at ground level.13. To monitor that air traffic services, communication, navigational and landing aids, rescue and fire fighting services at AAI aerodromes are provided and maintained inconformity with ICAO standards and recommended practices and civil aviation requirements issued from time to time.14. Recommend appropriate accident/incident preventive actions to senior management.15. Promote and develop activities that increase knowledge and safety awareness amongst all department personnel of AAI and to the extent possible amongst all personnel of other departments working at the Airport.<br />