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Gasifiers.pptx

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Gasifiers And
Types Of Gasifiers
Content:-
• Define Gasification.
• Different Gasification Process:-
i. Explaination.
• Types of Gasifiers:-
1)Fixed bed Gasifier
i. Updraft or Counter Current Gasifie
ii. Downdraft or Co Current
Gasifier.
iii. Cross - draft Gasifier.
2)Fluidized Bed Gasifier:-
i. Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier.
ii. Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier.
• Application of gasifiers.
FEEDSTOCK
Define Gasification?
• Thermochemical process
• Converts carbon based raw material into producer or syngas.
• carbonaceous material = Carbon monoxide,hydrogen and Carbon dioxide.
- Typical composition of producer gas
Slide No.-3
Producer Gas:-
i) Generated at low temperatre(<1000°C)
ii) Mixture of combustible(H2,CO,CH4) non-combustible (N2,CO2)
gases.
Syngas
i) Generated at higher temperatre (above1200°C)
ii) mixture consisting of (H2,CO)
iii)This gas can be produced from producer gas by:-
• Thermal Cracking
• Catalytic reforming
Carbon monoxide 18-22 %
Hydrogen 13-19%
Methane 1-5 %
Heavier hydrocarbons 0.2-0.4%
Carbon dioxide 9-12 %
Nitrogen 45-55 %
Water vapour 4%
Slide No.- 4
Different Gasification Process:-
Four Processes:-
i. Combustion
(oxidation).
ii. Reduction.
iii. Pyrolysis.
iv. Drying.
4 Processes in Gasification
not necessarily in order
H2O
biomass* (C H O)
Charcoal and Tar
biomass* (C H O)
This is not necessary that
these processes will be in
the same order in all the
different types of Gasifiers. heat heat no air
Drying Pyrolysis
H2O and CO2
t
tarry gas or charcoal
t
O2/air
Combustion
H2andCO
t
t
CO2 and H2O
Reduction
• Biomass is a combination of C. H, and O (C H, 4O06)
Slide No.- 5
Explanation Of different processes:-
BIOMASS
1. DRYING
driving off water with heat
100—15O°C
2. PYROLYSIS
heating without air to make charcoal
3. COMBUSTION 4. CRACKING adding air to
burn and crack tar gases'
5. REDUCTION
converting charcoal to flammable gas
H2O DRY BIOMASS
PRODUCER GAS
H2 and CO with N2 from
combustion air
CHAR-ASH small
pieces of ash-rich
charcoal
* tar cracking is the breakdown of tar into H2, CO, and other flammable gases by exposure to high temperatures.
Slide No.- 6
Combustion Process
i)lt is exothermic process.
ii) Combustible gases + 02 —> Heat+water vapour+CO2
1. C + % 02 —> CO (-111MJ/kmol)
2. CO + % O2 -> CO2 (-283MJ/kmol)
3. H2 + % O2 -> H2O (-242MJ/kmol)
Drying Process
i)lt removes the moisture from biomass.
Moist Feedstock + Heat —> Dry Feedstock + H2O

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Gasifiers.pptx

  • 2. Content:- • Define Gasification. • Different Gasification Process:- i. Explaination. • Types of Gasifiers:- 1)Fixed bed Gasifier i. Updraft or Counter Current Gasifie ii. Downdraft or Co Current Gasifier. iii. Cross - draft Gasifier. 2)Fluidized Bed Gasifier:- i. Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier. ii. Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier. • Application of gasifiers. FEEDSTOCK
  • 3. Define Gasification? • Thermochemical process • Converts carbon based raw material into producer or syngas. • carbonaceous material = Carbon monoxide,hydrogen and Carbon dioxide. - Typical composition of producer gas Slide No.-3 Producer Gas:- i) Generated at low temperatre(<1000°C) ii) Mixture of combustible(H2,CO,CH4) non-combustible (N2,CO2) gases. Syngas i) Generated at higher temperatre (above1200°C) ii) mixture consisting of (H2,CO) iii)This gas can be produced from producer gas by:- • Thermal Cracking • Catalytic reforming Carbon monoxide 18-22 % Hydrogen 13-19% Methane 1-5 % Heavier hydrocarbons 0.2-0.4% Carbon dioxide 9-12 % Nitrogen 45-55 % Water vapour 4%
  • 4. Slide No.- 4 Different Gasification Process:- Four Processes:- i. Combustion (oxidation). ii. Reduction. iii. Pyrolysis. iv. Drying. 4 Processes in Gasification not necessarily in order H2O biomass* (C H O) Charcoal and Tar biomass* (C H O) This is not necessary that these processes will be in the same order in all the different types of Gasifiers. heat heat no air Drying Pyrolysis H2O and CO2 t tarry gas or charcoal t O2/air Combustion H2andCO t t CO2 and H2O Reduction • Biomass is a combination of C. H, and O (C H, 4O06)
  • 5. Slide No.- 5 Explanation Of different processes:- BIOMASS 1. DRYING driving off water with heat 100—15O°C 2. PYROLYSIS heating without air to make charcoal 3. COMBUSTION 4. CRACKING adding air to burn and crack tar gases' 5. REDUCTION converting charcoal to flammable gas H2O DRY BIOMASS PRODUCER GAS H2 and CO with N2 from combustion air CHAR-ASH small pieces of ash-rich charcoal * tar cracking is the breakdown of tar into H2, CO, and other flammable gases by exposure to high temperatures.
  • 6. Slide No.- 6 Combustion Process i)lt is exothermic process. ii) Combustible gases + 02 —> Heat+water vapour+CO2 1. C + % 02 —> CO (-111MJ/kmol) 2. CO + % O2 -> CO2 (-283MJ/kmol) 3. H2 + % O2 -> H2O (-242MJ/kmol) Drying Process i)lt removes the moisture from biomass. Moist Feedstock + Heat —> Dry Feedstock + H2O
  • 7. Slide No.-7 Pyrolysis Process • Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" _____________________lysis "separating". • occurs at temperatures above 430 °C. • It is endothermic process. • Breakdown dry biomass into:- i) Charcoal ii) and various tar gasses and liquids. (Takes place in the absence of air.) • leaves only carbon as a residue. BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION via PYROLYSIS Biomass Catalytic Conversion to Dry Feedstock —> solid Liquid ♦ Gas (char or carbon) (tar,heavier hydrocarbons and water ) ( H 2 O, CO 2, CO, CH 4 .aldehydes and acids )
  • 8. Reduction Process Slide No.- 8 • It direct reverse process of combustion. • Reduction in a gasifier:- i) CO2 + H2O passes through charcoal bed ii) Carbon reactive with 02 iii) Stripping oxygen atoms off combustion products i) C02 reduced to two CO molecules ii) H20 reduced to H2 and CO iii) H2 and CO are combustable fuel gases OUTPUT INPUT CARBON MONOXIDE* HYDROGEN H2O C CO H2
  • 9. Slide No.- 9 Types Of Gasifiers Fix Bed Gasifier 1 )Updraft or Counter Current Gasifier. 2)Downdraft or co-current Gasifier. 3)Cross-draft Gasifier. Fluidized bed Gasifier:- 1 Circulating Fluidized bed Gasifier. 2)Bubbling Fluidized bed Gasifier.
  • 10. Slide No. 10 Updraft Or Counter Current Gasifier • Simplest and most common types of gasifier • Biomass feed moves downwards • Gasifying agents move upwards to biomass • Ash is removed at bottom i) dry ash or slag • hot gases pass through:- i) Combustion at the bottom, ii) reduction, iii) pyrolysis, iv) and drying zones of the bed. • Product exist from top at lower temperature. Updraft Gasifier
  • 11. Slide No. 11 Downdraft Or Co-Current Gasifier. • Biomass feedstock is fed from the top • air is passed downwards • producer gas leaves from the bottom • Biomass passes through:- i) Drying Zone ii) Pyrolysis Zone iii) Combustion Zone iv) Reduction Zone • Advantage:- i) Producer gas = low tar content ii) Suitable for gas engines. • Disadvantage:- Solid fuel Gasification agent (ail or oxygen) C Drying zone Pyrolysis zone Combustion zone Reduction zone _____) Producer gas • Oxidation zone position is critical (design).
  • 12. Slide NO. 12 Cross-draft Gasifier. • Biomassfeed moves downwards • Air is introduced from the side • Producer gas leaves from the opposite side • start-up time - relatively short • High temperature can be attained. • ash bin, fire and reduction zone separated • Doesn’t handle fuel - high tar content. • C02 reduction is poor. * Disadvantage:- i) Gives lower efficiency ( no provision internal exchange) ii) product has low calorific value. Crossdraft Gasifier Drying Zone Gas Reduction Zone Combustion Zone
  • 13. Slide No 13 Fluidized bed Gasifier • solid fuel is broken into small pieces • introduced over a gas distributor plate through which oxidant flows upward. • Undergo:- i) turbulent movement-promtes uniform temperature. ii) back-mixing. • bed temperature must be below the ash melting • 900 and 1050 °C range • Pyrolysis -> raw syngas cyclotron reduction zone. Ash
  • 14. Slide NO. 14 Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier • Handle high capacity of material • Circulation of bed material & charcoal takes place:- Reaction vessel cyclone returning leg reaction vessel • Cyclone seperater removes ash • Operated at high pressure -^Compression of gas takes place • Used for gas turbine • Gas velocity decreases • decrease the char loss. feeding solid fuel particles circulating fluidized bed cyclone returning leg exiting gas ■'7.1 and particles not capturer by cyclone Air or other gases larger particles bubbling fluidization
  • 15. Slide No. 15 Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier • Most popular designs for biomass gasification. • Gasifing agent introduced in two zones:- i) First zone within the fludized bed (to maintain temperature) ii) second zone is located above the bed (convert entrained unconverted volatiles and char particles into fuel gas) • Biomass is fed from the side into the hot bed • Gasifying agent is introduced upward • Velocity fast enough (0.5-1.0 m/s) • Agitation of bed material takes place. • Ash is separated from the syngas in gas-solid separation units downstream. Biomass Gasifying agent Ash Bed material
  • 16. The advantages of the bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier are (1) It yields a uniform product gas. (2) It exhibits a nearly uniform temperature distribution throughout the reactor. (3) It is able to accept a wide range of fuel particle sizes, including fines. (4) It provides high rates of heat transfer between inert material, fuel, and gas. (5) A high conversion is possible with low tar and unconverted carbon. The disadvantages of bubbling fluidized-bed gasification are that a large bubble size may result in gas bypass through the bed.
  • 17. Slide No. 16 Application Of Gasifierss- • Syngas -> methanol+ethanol+ chemical and liquid fuels. • Methanol can be further refined into biofuels (ex=gasoline,jet fuel etc.)with addition of vegetable oils or animal fats • It can fed into a natural gas distribution system • Syngas or producer gas can be burnt to create heat, steam or electricity. ( FEEDSTOCKS O < O LU CO STEAM TRANSPORTATION FUELS FERTILIZERS POWER 0 SYNGAS HYDROGEN FOR OIL REFINING CONSUMER PRODUCTS SUBSTITUTE NATURAL GAS CHEMICALS