Economics Basics


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Economics Basics

  1. 1. Some Econ Concepts
  2. 2. Definition of economics <ul><li>the study of how individuals and societies use limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fundamental economic problem <ul><li>scarcity. </li></ul><ul><li>Economics is the study of how individuals and economies deal with the fundamental problem of scarcity. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of scarcity, individuals and societies must make choices among competing alternatives. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Opportunity Cost <ul><li>Economics is all about trade offs </li></ul><ul><li>Because of scarcity our choices require that in order to get something we must give something up </li></ul><ul><li>What you give up to get something else is your opportunity cost. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rational self-interest <ul><li>When an individual makes a choice they go through a cost-benefit evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>This is the idea that an individual compares the opportunity costs to the benefits and chooses the option which benefits them most ( rationality) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Positive and normative analysis <ul><li>positive economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attempt to describe how the economy functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relies on testable hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>normative economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relies on value judgements to evaluate or recommend alternative policies. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Economic methodology <ul><li>scientific method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observe a phenomenon, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make simplifying assumptions and formulate a hypothesis, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate predictions, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>test the hypothesis. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Efficiency <ul><li>Economists strive to achieve 100% efficiency known as Parato Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>In Parato Efficiency society is 100 $ efficient and there is no way to improve on persons well being without reducing another ones. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Microeconomics
  10. 10. Microeconomics vs. macroeconomics <ul><li>microeconomics - the study of individual economic decisions and choices and how they effect individual markets </li></ul><ul><li>Macroeconomics - brings all the individual markets together and observes the behavior of the entire market </li></ul>
  11. 11. Algebra and graphical analysis <ul><li>direct relationship </li></ul>
  12. 12. Direct relationship
  13. 13. Inverse relationship
  14. 14. Linear relationships <ul><li>A linear relationship possesses a constant slope, defined as: </li></ul>
  15. 15. Demand and Supply
  16. 16. Markets <ul><li>In a market economy, the price of a good is determined by the interaction of demand and supply </li></ul><ul><li>A market for a good is comprised of all the buyers and sellers of that particular good </li></ul>
  17. 17. Demand <ul><li>A relationship between price and quantity demanded in a given time period </li></ul><ul><li>The quantity demanded is the amount of good buyers are willing to purchase at a set price </li></ul>
  18. 18. Demand schedule
  19. 19. Demand curve
  20. 20. Law of demand <ul><li>An inverse relationship exists between the price of a good and the quantity demanded in a given time period, </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of buyers </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Income <ul><li>If someone's income is lowered they will be less willing to spend money on goods and vice versa </li></ul><ul><li>Normal goods </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior goods </li></ul>
  22. 22. Income and demand: normal goods <ul><li>A good is a normal good if an increase in income results in an increase in the demand for the good. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Income and demand: inferior goods <ul><li>A good is an inferior good if an increase in income results in a reduction in the demand for the good. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Price of Related Goods <ul><li>Substitutes – a good which causes a decline in the demand of another good if its price declines </li></ul><ul><li>Complement – a good which causes an increase in the demand of another good if its price declines </li></ul>
  25. 25. Change in the price of a substitute good <ul><li>Price of coffee rises: </li></ul>
  26. 26. Change in the price of a complementary good <ul><li>Price of DVDs rises: </li></ul>
  27. 27. Tastes <ul><li>The idea that if an buyers perception of benefits from buying a good changes so will the buyers willingness to purchase the good </li></ul>
  28. 28. Expectations <ul><li>A higher expected future price will increase current demand. </li></ul><ul><li>A lower expected future price will decrease current demand. </li></ul><ul><li>A higher expected future income will increase the demand for all normal goods. </li></ul><ul><li>A lower expected future income will reduce the demand for all normal goods. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Number of Buyers <ul><li>The market demand curve consists of all the individual demand curves put together </li></ul><ul><li>So if there are more consumers in the market the market demand will increase </li></ul>
  30. 30. Change in quantity demanded vs. change in demand Change in quantity demanded Change in demand
  31. 31. Market demand curve <ul><li>Market demand is the horizontal summation of individual consumer demand curves </li></ul>
  32. 32. Supply <ul><li>the relationship that exists between the price of a good and the quantity supplied in a given time period </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity supplied is the amount that a seller is able to produce for a set price </li></ul>
  33. 33. Supply schedule
  34. 34. Demand curve
  35. 35. Law of supply <ul><li>A direct relationship exists between the price of a good and the quantity supplied in a given time period </li></ul>
  36. 36. Reason for law of supply <ul><li>The law of supply is the result of the law of increasing cost . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the quantity of a good produced rises, the marginal opportunity cost rises. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sellers will only produce and sell an additional unit of a good if the price rises above the marginal opportunity cost of producing the additional unit. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Change in supply vs. change in quantity supplied Change in supply Change in quantity supplied
  38. 38. Individual firm and market supply curves <ul><li>The market supply curve is the horizontal summation of the supply curves of individual firms. (This is equivalent to the relationship between individual and market demand curves.) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Determinants of supply <ul><li>Price received by supplier </li></ul><ul><li>Input price </li></ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul><ul><li>the expectations of producers </li></ul><ul><li>the number of producers </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Goods </li></ul>
  40. 40. Price Received by Supplier <ul><li>This is the law of supply </li></ul><ul><li>The more money the supplier receives for the good he’s selling the more willing he/she will be to sell it </li></ul>
  41. 41. Price of resources (Input Price) <ul><li>Inputs are the goods the supplier has to purchase in order to produce the supply </li></ul><ul><li>As the price of a resource rises, profitability declines, leading to a reduction in the quantity supplied at any price. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Technological improvements <ul><li>Technological improvements (and any changes that raise the productivity of labor) lower production costs and increase profitability. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Expectations and supply <ul><li>An increase in the expected future price of a good or service results in a reduction in current supply. </li></ul><ul><li>The supplier will hold off on selling his goods if he can sell them for a greater profit later. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Increase in the Number of Sellers
  45. 45. Prices of other goods <ul><li>More than one firm produces and sells the same good or a relative good </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this firms compete with each other to sell more goods and in order to do so they have to lower their prices below that of their competition </li></ul><ul><li>Without this effect all markets would be monopolistic and we would all be screwed </li></ul>
  46. 46. Equilibrium…the fun never stops
  47. 47. Market equilibrium
  48. 48. Price above equilibrium <ul><li>If the price exceeds the equilibrium price, a surplus occurs: </li></ul>
  49. 49. Price below equilibrium <ul><li>If the price is below the equilibrium a shortage occurs: </li></ul>
  50. 50. Consumer and Producer Surplus <ul><li>Consumer surplus – the utility (or level of satisfaction) a buyer receives by being able to purchase a product for a price less then the maximum they were willing to pay </li></ul><ul><li>Producer surplus – the amount that producers benefit by selling at a market price which is greater than the minimum they would be willing to sell for </li></ul>
  51. 51. Consumer/Producer Surplus Visualized
  52. 52. Consumer surplus <ul><li>Individuals buy an item only if they receive a net gain from the purchase ( i.e., total benefit exceeds opportunity cost.) </li></ul><ul><li>This net gain is called “consumer surplus.” </li></ul>
  53. 53. Example <ul><li>Suppose that an individual buys 10 units of a good when the price is $5 </li></ul>
  54. 54. Benefits and cost of first unit <ul><li>Benefit = blue + green rectangles (=$9) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost = green rectangle (=$5) </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer surplus = blue rectangle (=$4) </li></ul>
  55. 55. Total benefit to consumer
  56. 56. Total cost to consumer
  57. 57. Consumer surplus
  58. 58. Demand rises
  59. 59. Demand falls
  60. 60. Supply rises
  61. 61. Supply falls
  62. 62. Price ceiling <ul><li>Price ceiling - legally mandated maximum price </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: keep price below the market equilibrium price </li></ul>
  63. 63. Price ceiling (continued)
  64. 64. Price floor <ul><li>price floor - legally mandated minimum price </li></ul><ul><li>designed to maintain a price above the equilibrium level </li></ul>
  65. 65. Price floor (continued)
  66. 66. Elasticity
  67. 67. Elasticity <ul><li>A measure of the responsiveness of one variable (quantity demanded or supplied) to a change in another variable (price) </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly used elasticity: price elasticity of demand, defined as: </li></ul>Price elasticity of demand =
  68. 68. Price elasticity of demand <ul><li>Demand is said to be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elastic when Ed > 1, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unit elastic when Ed = 1, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inelastic when Ed < 1. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Perfectly elastic demand
  70. 70. Perfectly inelastic demand
  71. 71. Elasticity & slope <ul><li>a price increase from $1 to $2 represents a 100% increase in price, </li></ul><ul><li>a price increase from $2 to $3 represents a 50% increase in price, </li></ul><ul><li>a price increase from $3 to $4 represents a 33% increase in price, and </li></ul><ul><li>a price increase from $10 to $11 represents a 10% increase in price. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice that, even though the price increases by $1 in each case, the percentage change in price becomes smaller when the starting value is larger. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Elasticity along a linear demand curve
  73. 73. Elasticity along a linear demand curve
  74. 74. Determinants of price elasticity <ul><li>Price elasticity is relatively high when: </li></ul><ul><li>close substitutes are available </li></ul><ul><li>the good or service is a large share of the consumer's budget (necessities) </li></ul><ul><li>a longer time period is considered (time horizon) </li></ul>
  75. 75. Price elasticity of supply
  76. 76. Perfectly inelastic supply
  77. 77. Perfectly elastic supply
  78. 78. Determinants of supply elasticity <ul><li>Ease of Entry and Exit </li></ul><ul><li>Scarce Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Time Horizon </li></ul>
  79. 79. Elasticity and total revenue <ul><li>Total revenue = price x quantity </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to total revenue if the price rises? </li></ul>Price elasticity of demand =
  80. 80. Elasticity and TR (cont.) <ul><li>A reduction in price will lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an increase in TR when demand is elastic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a decrease in TR when demand is inelastic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an unchanged level of total revenue when demand is unit elastic. </li></ul></ul>Price elasticity of demand =
  81. 81. Elasticity and TR (cont.) <ul><li>In a similar manner, an increase in price will lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a decrease in TR when demand is elastic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an increase in TR when demand is inelastic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an unchanged level of total revenue when demand is unit elastic. </li></ul></ul>Price elasticity of demand =
  82. 82. … ...Let’s Stick to the Non-confusing Example
  83. 83. Everyone's Favorite…Taxes!!!!
  84. 84. Tax incidence <ul><li>distribution of the burden of a tax depends on the elasticities of demand and supply. </li></ul><ul><li>When supply is more elastic than demand, consumers bear a larger share of the tax burden. </li></ul><ul><li>Producers bear a larger share of the burden of a tax when demand is more elastic than supply. </li></ul>
  85. 85. Costs and production
  86. 86. Production possibilities curve <ul><li>Assumptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fixed quantity and quality of available resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A fixed level of technology </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Specialization and trade <ul><li>Adam Smith – economic growth is caused by increased specialization and division of labor. </li></ul>
  88. 88. Specialization and trade <ul><li>As noted by Adam Smith, specialization and trade are inextricably linked. </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Smith used this argument to support free trade among nations. </li></ul>
  89. 89. Absolute and comparative advantage <ul><li>Absolute advantage – an individual (or country) is more productive than other individuals (or countries). </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative advantage – an individual (or country) may produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than can other individuals (or countries). </li></ul>
  90. 90. Example: U.S. and Japan <ul><li>Suppose the U.S. and Japan produce only two goods: CD players and wheat. </li></ul>
  91. 91. Absolute advantage? <ul><li>Who has an absolute advantage in producing each good? </li></ul>
  92. 92. Comparative advantage? <ul><li>Who has a comparative advantage in producing each good? </li></ul>
  93. 93. Gains from trade <ul><li>Opportunity cost of CD player in U.S. = 2 units of wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity cost of CD player in Japan = 4/3 unit of wheat </li></ul><ul><li>If Japan produces and trades each CD player to the U.S. for more than 4/3 of a unit of wheat but less than 2 units of wheat, both the U.S. and Japan gain from trade and can consume more goods than they could produce by themselves. </li></ul>
  94. 94. Gains from trade (continued) <ul><li>Note that the U.S. has a comparative advantage in producing wheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries always expand their consumption possibilities by engaging in trade (since they acquire goods at a lower opportunity cost than if they produced them themselves). </li></ul>
  95. 95. Free trade? <ul><li>If each country specializes in the production of those goods in which it possesses a comparative advantage and trades with other countries, global output and consumption is increased. </li></ul>
  96. 96. Robinson and Crusoe? Really USAD……Really?
  97. 97. Profit Motive and Behavior of Firms <ul><li>Profit = total revenue – total cost </li></ul><ul><li>(costs will likely only include only monetary expenses) </li></ul><ul><li>Total cost is comprised of expenses plus all monetary opportunity costs </li></ul>
  98. 98. Different Costs <ul><li>The costs that do not depend on production and can’t change in the short run are called fixed costs </li></ul><ul><li>However costs that can be varied in the short run are called variable costs </li></ul>
  99. 99. Marginal Cost <ul><li>Notice in figure 23 that when you go down 1 row there are 50 more loaves of bread produced; however, there is an additional cost for producing more goods </li></ul><ul><li>This increase in cost when producing an additional unit of output is called the marginal cost </li></ul>
  100. 100. How to find marginal cost <ul><li>(increase in total cost) </li></ul><ul><li>MC = ------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>(increase in quantity produced) </li></ul>
  101. 101. Law of Diminishing Returns <ul><li>Next notice that the maximum profit is made when marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the marginal cost as the opportunity cost for making an extra unit of good and the marginal revenue as the profit for making that extra unit </li></ul>
  102. 102. Law of Diminishing Returns <ul><li>as the level of a variable input rises in a production process in which other inputs are fixed, output ultimately increases by progressively smaller increments </li></ul><ul><li>So this means that at some point it’s no longer productive to make that extra unit of good </li></ul>
  103. 103. Imperfect Markets
  104. 104. Monopolies <ul><li>A monopoly is an extreme case in which there is a market with only one producer </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership Monopolies </li></ul><ul><li>Government-Created Monopolies </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Monopolies </li></ul>
  105. 105. Why Monopolies Are Bad? <ul><li>Because the supplier can charge whatever amount he/she wants for the product and there is no competition to force the supplier to lower the prices on goods </li></ul>
  106. 106. Price discrimination <ul><li>different customers are charged different prices for the same product, due to differences in price elasticity of demand </li></ul><ul><li>higher prices for those customers who have the most inelastic demand </li></ul><ul><li>lower prices for those customers who have a more elastic demand. </li></ul>
  107. 107. Price discrimination (cont.) <ul><li>customers who are willing to pay the highest prices are charged a high price, and </li></ul><ul><li>customers who are more sensitive to price differentials are charged a low price. </li></ul>
  108. 108. Next up…Oligopolies <ul><li>An oligopoly is a market with very few suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Not quite as bad as a monopoly but still  </li></ul><ul><li>Example: OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) </li></ul>
  109. 109. Creative Destruction <ul><li>A term coined by the Australian economist Joseph Schumpeter </li></ul><ul><li>“ creative destruction” states that as new industries surged, older industries grow more slowly, stagnate, and shrink </li></ul>
  110. 110. Market failures <ul><li>Not all markets are perfect and sometimes a market failure will occur when externalities or breakdowns in the system of private property cause markets to deviate from the socially efficient outcome </li></ul>
  111. 111. Oh the Government <ul><li>Pork Barrel Politics – elected officials introduce projects that steer money into their of pockets </li></ul><ul><li>Logrolling – vote trading within legislation </li></ul>