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Focus project impact stories 2 enabled

  2. 2. Villages: Borvav, Bhalchhel, Bakula Dhanej, Chitravad , Chitrod, Galiyawad , Ghaba, Haripur, Hiranvel, Khirdhar, Maljhinjhva, Ramarechi , Sangodra, Virpur , Umrethi , Amrapur Gir, Devgam and JalondarArea of interventionIndia, State of Gujarat, District - Junagadh,Talukas (Sub district): Talala & Malia HatinaAll Copyrights ReservedFocus Humanitarian AssistanceAn Affiliate of the Aga Khan Development Network305 Maker Bhavan, No. 321 New Marine Lines PROJECT IMPACT STORIESMumbai 400020 Enhancing Disaster Resilience and Promoting a Culture of Safety among Vulnerable Communities of Rural Gujarat.
  3. 3. VDC Formation & Training - Badhrudin Dolani 1 CERT Formation & Training - Trikunaben Gender and Caste - Jigyasaben Water Rescue Training - Nareshbhai Government Networks - Chirag Purohit 2 3 4 5 tents 9 SEMC Formation &Training - Popat Singhala Community Observers - Chotiben 6 10 SEMC Formation & Training - Jagdish Kamoni Water Rescue Training - Shabnamben 7 11 Task Force Formation & Training – Shreyas Early Warning System - Amir Surachane 8 12 Task Force Formation & Training - Kajal Morabia 13 Training of Trainers - Swati Vipalya 14 Mason Training - Khimji Chowda 15 Model House Beneficiary - Hiraben Makwana 16 Model House Beneficiary - Bhavan Ibrahim 17 Retrofitting - Praful Mehta Retrofitting - Salim Barejiya 18 19 IEC Material for Disaster Awareness
  4. 4. Village Development Committees are those formed atVDCtraining the community level comprising of 7 - 12 members of common interest groups - to ensure disaster resilience, promote a culture of safety and lend support to project staff members. The Village Development Committee (VDC) represents the local community and its needs, conveys the same to the implementing agency and thus plays a key role in the entire project. The DIPECHO project aimed to build the capacities of VDC members so as to ensure a more sustainable impact. To this end VDC members are involved in the entire process, right from planning strategies, to implementation activities and even monitoring * 213 VDC members outcomes. They are also trained in disaster safety trained from 18 villages practices.
  5. 5. his home. Government policies have madeI n July 2010, Badhrudin Dolani,President of Balchhels Village Disaster provisions for a PHC in every village across India to provide basic health care. However, most of these remain unequippedCommittee (VDC), received an emergency with staff or the necessary medicalcall from his daughter. She informed him supplies. On that fateful day, Bhalchhelsthat she was unwell, so he rushed home PHC had no medical officer and Badhrudifrom work to take care of her. On arriving had to travel 15 kilometers to the nearesthe discovered that she was showing signs of hospital with his ailing daughter.having consumed poison. Banking on thetraining hed received as a VDC member He recalls having called all the members offrom the FOCUS – DIPECHO programme in his CERT team from the hospital informinghis village, he confronted his daughter. them of the situation. Most rushed toAfter much persuasion, she admitted to hospital to lend whatever support theyhaving consumed poison in a suicide could. Unfortunately on account of theattempt; on account of having failed her delay, Badhrudin lost his daughter; also aStd. XII board exams. member of the village CERT team. “I worked my whole life in the fields, so that sheUnderstanding the seriousness of her could have a better life”, he says.medical condition, Badhrudin rushed her to “Unfortunately, we were too late and couldnt save her”. Badhrudin, VDC president, points to thethe nearest Public Health Center (PHC) in Village Disaster Map and Evacuation Routeshis community, three kilometers away from BadhrudinDolani posted in well frequented areas in Balcchel, Gujarat.
  6. 6. community have been planned twice aBadhrudin demonstrates the year and 5 safe shelters for specificuse of a siren from the stock disasters have been identified in thepile stored at his house. community. In the last mockdrill 300 community members participated. The drill T he tragic incident underlines the need for a well trained emergency team that can focused on those staying in kaccha homes, given the greater degree of risk they face. As VDC president Badhrudin takes a provide basic first aid services. Given that special interest in the proceedings. He medical facilities cannot be depended initially went door to door convincing upon in these areas, villages have to rely people to participate in the programme on their own local resources. Badhrudin, and illustrating its benefits. The village feels confident that they have such a team stock pile is stored in his house and every that will respond to an emergency situation month he cleans the equipment and ensures and effectively deal with it. its proper storage. The VDC and CERT teams of Bhalchhel “My daughters death is added motivation village meet on the 2nd of every month. If now”, he says, “I dont want others to face a members arent regular, they are dismissed similar tragedy – so we must have a good from the team – in this way the 30 member emergency response team right here in our strong group remains active. Mock drills village” and CERT trainings for the larger
  7. 7. certtraining The community is the first responder in any disaster as emergency services (fire brigade, ambulance etc.) cannot immediately reach the site of a disaster to assist those affected. Given that the initial few hours after a disaster are crucial in saving lives, Focus Humanitarian Assistance recognizes the need for community members to be aware, adequately trained and ready to face any possible disaster. Community Emergency Response Team training is designed to prepare community members to help themselves, their family and the community at large in the event of a disaster. The training module introduces CERT members to the concepts of disaster, disaster management and preparedness, the dos and donts in various disasters, first aid, fire fighting and other techniques that are important to know in any * 632 community emergency. m e m b e r s r e c e i ve d Community Emergency Upon completing the training, participants are encouraged to continue Response Training. their involvement by participating in training activities and volunteering for projects that support their communitys disaster preparedness * 864 hours spent in efforts. training comm unity About 30 volunteers from each of the 18 villages covered under the members across 18 project were trained by Focus Humanitarian Assistance. villages
  8. 8. do’s and donts. Furthermore, she shared trikunabenI nculcating safety practices in children isthe surest method to facilitating a culture information related to disaster awareness from the CERT manual with parents when they came to drop off or pick up theirof safety and preparedness within acommunity. Thus, training sessions shouldinclude teachers from aanganwadis, children. Trikunabens second crucial contribution T hrough her relentless efforts of going door to door to explain was her ability to encourage women to the projects benefits, 7 womenbalwadis, primary schools, high schools participate in meetings and training attended training sessions andand colleges. Through the FOCUS - programmes. For seven years, through the joined the VDC.DIPECHO Comm unity Emergenc y process of effectively educating children,Response Training (CERT) programme held Trikunaben has gained the commmunitysin Jalondhar village, Gujarat - aaganwadi When discussing the projects trust, especially that of women. Plaguedteacher; Trikunaben Joshi received this impact on her own life, she recounts by very low levels of education andcrucial training. incidents where children have been awareness, Jalondhar has a conservative injured while playing and she hasTrikunaben played two important roles in culture that frowns upon women stepping been able to administer first aid.the projects implementation. The initial outside the house. So entrenched are these Trikunaben also shared how abeing that she passed on her information parochial gender restrictions that only 4 woman from the community wasand training to children in her care - and women in the village besides herself, work bitten by a cobra and she was ablethrough these children to their parents - outside their homes. Despite this, to administer first aid and apply a Trikunabenthus widening the scope of the projects Trikunaben was able to convince families tourniquet, on account of the Community Emergency Responseoutreach. She used games and activities to to allow women to participate in the training she had received. Team Members (CERT)teach children in her care about disaster project. Jalondar Village, Gujarat
  9. 9. gender&caste Mainstreaming - Children, Human rights, Gender and Environmental impacts, in all its initiatives - FOCUS India seeks to ensure that women are adequately and appropriately involved in all aspects of the project cycle – from project design and decision-making to implementation and evaluation. To this end, all training and community meetings involved men, women, children and disabled in these communities. VDC Members: 165 male / 48 female 10% of scheduled caste and tribes were involved in CERT training sessions CERT Members: and incorporated in village disaster 393 male / 239 female committees. A minimum of 30% 10% CERT & VDC participation from women was Members belong to SC/ST encouraged in all CERT training programmes.
  10. 10. jigyasabensarpanch Over time, maintaining this gender Besides gender, the social barrier of based segregation proved caste, was also breached through increasingly difficult, given that VDC meetings and CERT trainings. community members had to take Comprising of 5 major caste collective decisions. communities; Patel, Kholi, Maldani , Gadhvi and Dalit – traditional caste based practices are stringently Thus gradually men and women observed. However, for the CERT started meeting in shared spaces, training all members of the community exchanging ideas and planning future were included. Of the 32 trained activities. Initially, elderly members of participants, 9 were from the Dalit Chitrod expressed their disapproval caste. More importantly, of these nine over the lack of gender segregated dalits, 7 were women. Dalits meetings, but over time, they too traditionally are not allowed inPanchayat & VDC members began to accept that this was a moreChitrod Village, Gujarat certain areas frequented by higher effective method of functioning as a caste members, including temples. community. Jigyasaben, the village implementation process, community However, VDC meetings took place inI Sarpanch is an active member of the members were invited to group meetings the local madir and all members VDC. She encourages women to n Chitrod Village of Junagadh District, facilitated by FOCUS staff members. across castes were invited to contribute to discussions and shareGujarat, an interesting cultural change was However, given the comm unitys participate. their perspective.brought about through the FOCUS – conservative culture, men and womenDIPECHO programme. As part of the wanted to initially meet in different locations.
  11. 11. the necessity of being prepared in theA lso, unique to this community isthe proactive role community event of a disaster. In their words, the greatest benefit of the project has been the generation of a trainedmembers have taken in implementing group of 32 members that are readythe project. Right from renting rooms to respond in any emergency, “justto conduct VDC meetings, to give one call,” they say “and 32 peopledisplaying safety equipment from the are there to help".stock pile to all visitors, communitymembers have taken completeownership of the project. Theseproactive measures can be credited tothe lead role taken by Panchayatmembers. Of the 13 VDC members, 4are from the Panchayat and similarlyof the 32 CERT members, 16 arePanchayat members.The community plans to sustain JigyasabenDisaster Preparedness related Sarpanch and VDC memberactivities through their own local Chitrod Village, Gujaratresources because they understand
  12. 12. governmetnetworks Through its school-based DRR projects, affiliation with the AKDN and other initiatives, FOCUS has developed a productive working relationship with government authorities at National, Provincial, District and Community levels. In each of the 18 villages covered under the project, a special attempt was made to involve local and district level government officials in all processes undertaken. Land officer Chirag N. Purohit of Virpur Village, Gujarat is an example of government networks forged through the project. * 13 District level Government Officials were given training in Early Warning System & GIS based Village Disaster Management Planning.
  13. 13. D espite having spent six years in a Government post, Mr. Chirag To this end, he points out that the DIPECHO project implemented by FOCUS, India is on the right track. He Purohit seems highly energized, developed an interest in the innovative and comes across as a man programme when he realized that the of vision. Prior to becoming a land processes employed aimed to include officer, Mr. Purohit used to teach all members of the community and Accounts at a local college. He enjoys enable them to develop a stake in the working with young people and has a outcome. As an example of this, he drive to initiate social change. recounts the Participatory Risk Assessment mapping exercise that Having spent many years as a took place in the initial stages of the government official Mr. Purohit points programme, where all community out a crucial reason why some members were invited to chalk out development programmes fail. their homes, institutions, public spaces, “They dont involve the people and resources, safe shelters and the best thats why theyre not sustainable”, he exit routes on the ground.Chirag N. Purohit, states, “if you want a programme toTalati (Land Officer) continue, locals must develop anVirpur Village, Gujarat attachment to the process”. chiragpurohit
  14. 14. Disaster Management processes must involve VDMP map displayed community members in the planning stage because in Virpur, Gujarat locals best understand existing opportunities and constraints in their communities. They therefore When asked if the project impact is need to be involved in the identification and visible, Mr. Purohit shares a personal resolution of disaster risks and vulnerabilities. This change that was brought about through information should be generated in a way that is the programme. “Before”, he shares, understood by all members of the community and isD rawing from this information aVillage Disaster Management Plan “whenever I saw a road accident, I would just drive on without bothering to stop and enquire if anyone was hurt or needed accessible to all. Top down disaster management and response programmes fail to address specific local needs of vulnerable communities, ignore the(VDMP) was digitally generated by the help. Now, after attending a few training potential of local resources and capacities andFOCUS India team, through GIS sessions, I feel that in an emergency may in some ways increase the vulnerability of themapping technology and a chart of the situation, I can be of some assistance, so I community. Thus Village Disaster Managementsame was posted in a well frequented stop”. He adds that he sees this Plans (VDMP) implemented by FOCUS India takelocation of the village. What struck Mr. transformation in others as well. The all these factors into consideration. Involving allPurohit the most about this particular training sessions, in his opinion, have members of the community in an initial PRAprocess was that once the Village given community members a sense of exercise to map local resources and risks, theDisaster Management Plan was posted self worth. They now feel that they can VDMP is then digitally generated through GISin the village, a huge crowd of contribute something of value, know how technologies and displayed in a frequently visitedcommunity members gathered around it to take care of themselves and others area of the community.for hours, verifying details and cross and are able handle any emergency orchecking information. crisis situation. * Over144 hours spent on developing VDMPs & SDMPs
  15. 15. “When my husband suffered a heart attack I didn’t evenknow how to react and he passed away.Now if someone in the community suffers from a heartattack I know what to do. After these training sessions, Ifeel better prepared to help others in a similar situation inthe future. “ * Over 41,000 community members from 18 villages covered under the project. * Around 252 hours spent in community meetings to formcommunityobservers committees, develop plans and generate awareness about the project.
  16. 16. So when Chotiben heard that an committees - so occasionally these organization was conducting training meetings become a platform to discuss programmes on responding to disaster related do’s and donts, emergency situations in her village, she safety measures around the house and went to observe. how to respond in the event of an earthquake.S ix months prior to thecommencement of the C onvinced that she could learn something of value, she began to In her opinion the most important skill she gained through the programmeCommunity Emergency attend meetings and training sessions. was learning how to give CPR. SheResponse Training (CERT) She has thus far attended 14 VDC knows firsthand how swiftly a heart chotibenprogramme in Bhalchhel meetings and 4 CERT training sessions. can stop and the pain of losing a lovedv i l l a ge, G u j a r a t - Although she is not a part of either one. Consequently, she feels that itsChotiben a fifty year old group, she makes it a point to attend crucial to know how to revive someoneh o u s ew i f e, b e c a m e meetings and encourages other through administering CPR and hopeswidowed. Her husband women to also participate. Fifteen that in the future she can help others insuffered a heart attack in women joined the VDC on account of such a situation.the house and before her relentless efforts of going fromfamily members could door to door to encourage women toidentify what the problem attend these meetings. Sevenwas and take action, he Chotiben members of the Mahila Mandal thathad passed away. Community observer she belongs to are on CERT/VDC Bhalchhel Village
  17. 17. waterrescue Through the Water Rescue training programme organized by FOCUS Humanitarian Assistance in coordination with Rapid UK, 12 members from villages covered under the project were trained in water safety practices. The programme was initiated on account that all 18 communities fall in the High Moderate Zone B for cyclones given their proximity to the coastline. These areas are also prone to flooding during the monsoon. Considering these factors it was evident that villages in this area should have community members who are trained in water safety practices and rescue techniques. Each trained participant was given a life jacket and throw-line to use in the event of an emergency or disaster. It is anticipated that these trained water rescue members in turn will teach water safety practices to other members of the community thus * 2 of 12 community increasing the scope of the project’s outreach. members trained in water rescue were women.
  18. 18. Shabnam was one of only two women A s a newlywed housewife, Shabnam doesnt have the freedom of who were selected for UK Rapids Water Rescue Training programme in Kolad, a rural area situated off the mobility that she experienced as a Mumbai-Pune expressway. It was her single woman. At twenty five years first and only trip outside her old, the four walls of her house have hometown. The training programmes become the only world she knows. selection process filters out community With the permission of her husband, members who dont know how to swim. she hopes to visit her maternal home in Having grown up with a river in her Chitravad, several kilometers away. backyard, Shabnam has no fear of shabnamben water and is a strong swimmer. In her marital home, she comes across as demure and shy, constantly checking her husbands reaction to what information she shares. Its difficult to imagine that she once made the twenty four hour journey outside Gujarat to attend an overnight, 3 days long, water rescueShabnamben training programme in Kolad,Water Rescue Training Participant Maharashtra.Chitravad Village, Gujarat
  19. 19. Over three days of water rescue training, Shabnam learned how to rescue someone with a rope, using a boat in a rescue attempt, gauging the flow of water with a wading stick, responding to a drowning victim and several other water safety techniques. However, the most important part of the training for her was learning howG iven the parochial andcultural restrictions placed on women to keep herself safe when responding to an emergency. A few days after returning from training, this very technique, saved both her own andin this region, the Focus Humanitarian anothers life.Assistance team found it difficult toenroll female participants for thetraining. With great effort, thatinvolved spending long hours,convincing family and communitymembers of the benefits of such a Shabnam learns how to rescuetraining programme, they were able a victim during the waterto recruit two women in total, from the rescue training session18 villages covered under the project. at Kolad, Maharashtra.
  20. 20. taught her that there are other saferT he members of Shabnamscommunity depend on the river passing rescue methods that should be exhausted first. More importantly, Shabnam realized that unless she kept herself safe, shethrough their village as a water source. couldnt help anyone else. She continues toThey spend many hours washing clothes pass on this information and other waterand utensils, filling water and bathing in safety techniques to all her friends andthis river. Shabnam happened to be at the family members. One day she hopes toriver, a few days after her training hold her own training session for the entireprogramme, when a young boy lost his community.balance, fell in and was being carriedaway by the current. On account of the Having only studied up to standard ten,monsoon, the river was swollen and the Shabnam longs to keep learning. Being thecurrent swift. Drawing from what she youngest in an already impoverishedlearned in the training programme, family of four, she was unable to affordShabnam reached out her hand to the boy further education. “Training programmes”,and pulled him to safety. Earlier she might she says, “give her the opportunity to learnhave jumped in and tried to save him, but and discover new ideas, skills and concepts”the water rescue training programme and in the future she hopes to attend all training sessions that come to her area. Shabnam and other community members learn how to administer CPR to a victim, during a water safety training programme.
  21. 21. waterrescue “ Before this training I used to be scared of the water. Every time I went into the river near our village my heart used to beat very fast and I used to feel breathless. But now I know that I’m a strong swimmer and I don’t need to fear water. This training helped me to discover my own abilities, to trust my skills as a swimmer and most importantly, to believe in myself. “ * 12 community members were given 32 hours of water rescue training over 4 days.
  22. 22. Naresh learns how touse a lifejacket during The three day long programme ina rescue attempt. Kolad, Maharashtra aimed to train one participant from each of the 18 villages covered under the project, in water safety practices and water D espite having grown up along the banks of a river, Naresh was rescue techniques. Nareshs inhibitions slowly dissolved after the first day of training and he began to overcome his always afraid of water. When all his fear of the water. friends used to go for a swim, Naresh reluctantly joined them. “I never knew how strong the current was, so I was always afraid of being swept away”, he shares. Nonetheless, Naresh learned how to swim and became one of the fastest swimmers in his community. Thus when he was selected to attend the Water Rescue Training programme organized by Focus Humanitarian Assistance, Naresh was very apprehensive about participating. nareshbhai
  23. 23. H e pins this transformationdown to the fact that he learned how This 22 yr old MA student spends his free time, showing members of his community how to use a rope when rescuing someone and how ato gauge the force of water prior to lifejacket functions. He is eagerlyentering it and thus could be better awaiting the stockpile delivery to hisprepared. Testing currents through a village, so that he can demonstratewading stick is one of the first water more techniques with the rescue techniques taught through the Now, he doesnt have to be cajoledprogramme. “Besides”, he says into entering the water, hegrinning shyly, “with a lifejacket on, its demonstrates to onlookers how to testnot so scary to swim”. the current and dives right in.Of all the training activities, learningto use a boat in a rescue attempt wasNareshs favourite. He had neverbeen in a boat before and enjoyedlearning how to navigate it through Naresh demonstrates how tostrong currents. His most memorable use the throwline in a rescueexperience in the training programme attempt (Khirdhar Village)was learning how to work as a groupto salvage an overturned boat.
  24. 24. earlywarning “ When I first started going from house to house during an early warning mock drill, I used to feel very shy. Consequently, people used to not give much importance to what I was saying and this made me hesitate in my role of implementing the community’s early warning system. I’ve been working in the fields my whole life and have never had the opportunity to take on a leadership role prior to this programme. Slowly, through meetings and training sessions, I was able to overcome my shyness and play an active role during mock drills in my community. People have started listening to * 3040 me and it feels empowering..... community members participated in 18 mockdrills
  25. 25. When Amir first started attending VDCmeetings in his community, he felt like it was amirsurachanea waste of his time. Attendance was sparseand the idea of a community beingprepared for imminent disasters was a newconcept. It took about 10 meetings beforethe VDC team was fully formed and Overtime however, Amirs confidencefunctional. grew and mock drill evacuations became his favorite activity during the course ofHe attributes this change to the goal of the project. The most important collectivecommunity safety and preparedness that learning attained through early warningthe project promoted. “I feel that Im and evacuation processes was thelearning how to keep myself and others identification of valuable resources thatsafe so these meetings are valuable”. He As a VDC member, Amir was given the role the community could avail of in the eventadds that now the monthly meetings are of spreading early warning messages and of a disaster. They realized that rickshaws,fixed in advance and attendance is no evacuating community members during jeeps and tractors could double up aslonger an issue. mock drills. Initially, he used to feel ambulances or evacuation vehicles during immensely shy and reluctant to go from an emergency. Through the DIPECHO door to door informing people. In turn, project, community member learned how some community members used to not take to evaluate resources and vulnerabilities the process seriously and make fun of in their village and take responsibility for mock drills or early warning systems. their own safety.
  26. 26. O speeds, safety do’s and donts,Early warning system is a comprehensive communication system that is preparedness measures etc. wereable to notify all members of a community about impending natural disasters. It helps n 11th November, 2009 circulated to all community members.people living in an area where natural disasters are frequent, to know as early as Cyclone Phyan was spotted off the coastpossible about an imminent disaster so that they can take appropriate action. FOCUS, of Gujarat and posed a potential threatIndias mission is to reduce deaths, injuries, and property damages caused by all natural to villages covered under the DIPECHOand manmade disasters. We do this by providing effective early warnings of these project. Wind speeds ranging from During the entire course of the cyclonedisasters at a very small cost to all persons, businesses, and public locations. Through the 65kmph up to 125 kmph were predicted FOCUS India had crucial information inDIPECHO project FOCUS, India implemented an innovative early warning system by to hit Gujarat costal areas. their database on project areas thatpiggybacking off an already existing, affordable and widespread network; mobiles! could have been potentially hit. Through the GIS based early warning system, atSMS based early warning and message dissemination has been implemented in other The situation afforded Focus any given point of time information coulddisaster related projects by several agencies. However, the unique adaptation Humanitarian Assistance staff and be retrieved in terms of;implemented through the DIPECHO project included an updated data base of recipients, beneficiaries of the project, anwith a tracking system to monitor how many community members received the early opportunity to implement preparedness * Critical infrastructure * Health Facilitieswarning message, how many listened to the complete message and details of those measures undertaken through the project. * Connectivity * Safe sheltersmembers for whom the message delivery failed. In order to familiarise community Immediately the early warning SMS * Evacuation routemembers with the process, 1 – 2 disaster related messages were sent every month for the * Vulnerable areas system was activated and messages * Vulnerable groupsduration of the project. VDC members were involved during these trial runs and their regarding the cyclone’s proximity, wind * Volunteerseffectiveness at informing others was gauged and cross-checked. This voice call facilitywas handed over to the district collector at the end of the project and related training wasconducted for government officials at Junagadh on EWS and GIS based VDMP, to ensurescaling-up. GIS based Early Warning System
  27. 27. SEMCtraining The School Emergency Management Committee (SEMC) is a body of selected members from various departments of the school management who are responsible for ensuring student’s safety. It comprises the Principal, 2 - 3 teachers, 2 - 3 parents and 2 students. The SEMC has to constantly strive to improve structural and non structural aspects of the school environment in order to enhance safety and minimize damage. It is responsible for periodically reviewing and updating the school disaster management plan and also ensuring that training is imparted to the next batch of students after the current trained batch passes out from school. * Over 144 hours of training was given to 12 Schools comprising of 114 SEMC members.
  28. 28. Training of Trainer’s (TOT) three H aving spent his entire career at Saraswati School as a peon, days workshop organized by Focus Humanitarian Assistance, he gratefully accepted. In his own Popatbhai Singhala knew its layout words, “this training was the first like the back of his hand. Situated in learning opportunity I have had since Borvav village, an area that receives my childhood” close to 6 aftershocks each winter popatsinghala During the training session on season, Saraswati School showed all Disaster Preparedness and the signs of seismic structural wear Response, Popatbhai learned the and tear. Large cracks along the reasons behind aftershocks and the schools walls and ceilings put the extent of damage they can cause. lives of close to 200 students at risk He also learned how to respond in each day. the event of a disaster (fire, cyclone or earthquake) and key points to Popatbhai had never attended any keep in mind. Popatbhai shared howPopatbhai points to the crack previous training sessions up to thisin ceiling. Before students the training session gave him an point. Bearing the brunt of thecould enter, he used some opportunity to learn first aid, CPRtools to pull down the loose responsibility to provide for his and identify between poisonous andcement and thus prevented family, he only studied up to non-poisonous snakes. The entireit from falling on students standard ten. So when the school experience, for him, came with theand injuring them. Principal invited him to join the joy of learning something new!
  29. 29. ceiling began to cave it. About 25S haring learning space withschool teachers, principals, parents kilos of cement hung perilously from the ceiling, close to the building entrance that was used daily by Retrofitting initiated by school authorities on their own initiative, after the SEMC training.and the village Sarpanc h - young, first to third grade students.Popatbhai initially maintained a low Drawing from his newfound learningprofile, as a silent observer of the of preventing disasters and beingtraining proceedings. However, aware of potential risks – Popatbhaigradually, he began to contribute to noticed this danger a few minutesdiscussions, sharing examples of before school began. He used somestructural risks at his school. The TOT tools to pull down the loose cementtraining session increased his self- and thus prevented it from falling onconfidence and he began to value his students and injuring them.own experiential knowledge. Being more aware - is the mostWhen asked to recount the most important learning the trainingcrucial learning gained through the workshop imbibed in Popatbhai.workshop, Popatbhai shares anincident that occurred one weekafter the training session. Given theextent of structural damage, aportion of the schools ground floor
  30. 30. SEMCtraining The training module for the School Emergency Management Committee introduces the members to the concepts of disaster, disaster management and preparedness. It highlights different aspects * 28% of SEMC members were women of school safety and emphasizes the need for safety practices such as conducting regular mock drills. The SEMC manual serves as a reference for understanding the nature of disasters and the importance of forming school based emergency and safety teams. It also provides a framework for the Terms of Reference for various emergency task force committees. IEC material such as SEMC manuals, posters, activity sheets, video clippings and handouts were used to facilitate the learning process and spread awareness/preparedness related information.
  31. 31. JagdishKamoni hed been looking for. As a member of the Sc hool Emergency Management Committee, Jagdish learned how to map hazards, vulnerabilities as well as capacities and resources of the school. During A s a High School Math and Science teacher, Jagdish had read this process, his team realized that the schools one and only fire extinguisher was outdated and extensively on earthquakes, cyclones empty. They also noted an important and fires. Hed even looked at risk around the school – that of illustrations of fire extinguishers, first frequent road accidents. aid kits and lifejackets. But despite this book knowledge, Jadish never After this mapping exercise, the felt like he would know how to handle SEMC team of Uma Primary School an emergency situation because he in Virpur set out to make some had no practical experience with the alterations in the schools functioning. same. An example of this is the new weekly activity they initiated. Saturday So when Focus Humanitarian mornings are now devoted to Assistance organized an Emergency disaster awareness and Response Training Programme in his preparedness. A school student’s depiction of frequent school, Jagdish got the experience road accidents painted along the school walls.
  32. 32. The impact of these efforts was evident L earning from his own experience during the training session, that creative from day one, according to Jagdish. Students initially used to be scared to go to school during the monsoon, on account group activities must be incorporated so of heavy flooding and bad roads. as to facilitate learning, Jadish insisted However, now he feels that theyve that all information should be presented become more confident – especially the in creative ways through skits, discussions girls – and believe that they can take care and games. These sessions were of their own safety and the safety of managed by the students themselves, other students in a crisis. Jagdish shares giving them collective ownership of the that on a personal level as well, he has learning process. Disaster related news gained a lot from the Disaster from around the world is disseminated to Preparedness programme at his school. students in a similar fashion. As an example of this he illustrates how he recently worked with a few students on a project to create awareness about road accidents, how to prevent them as well as how to respond to such an emergencyJagdish and his students displaytheir disaster awareness related situation. An exhibit of the same will bemodel at Uma Primary School, displayed at the Annual Science fair inVirpur. Talal, so that other schools can benefit from this information.
  33. 33. taskforcetraining A group of dedicated students, teachers and professionals can comprise the Task Force. These * 398 participants became School Task Force Members through the programme. members were then trained on general coordination and use of the Disaster Management plan. Training 1 sessions covered their roles and responsibilities in the event of a disaster. They were further divided into four groups that received in-depth training in their specific roles. These groups included: 1. Early Warning and Evacuation team 2. Search and Rescue Team 3. First Aid Team 4. Fire Safety Team
  34. 34. how he identified safe places atI n 2001 when an earthquakeshook 18 districts in Gujarat, it W hen informed of this and other disaster related issues home and after much persuasion got his family to rearrange the furniture in the house, so as to facilitate a quick during a Task Force Training session evacuation in the event of a fire.affected the lives of over 3 millionschool children. Shreyas, a student of conducted by Focus Humanitarian The most evident example of theSaraswati Primary School recounts Assistance at his school, Shreyas impact that the training has had onhow he was in school at the time and realized how lucky he had been. The his life, surfaced a few days after theran outside along with everyone else task force training also dispelled a programme. Borvav village, whereduring the earthquake. Several of myth he had long since held, that the school is located, experienced ahis classmates were injured during during a quake one must run outside. mild tremor that lasted for a fewthe evacuation process. He recalls The Drop, Cover, Hold method seconds. This time however, Shreyashow frightened they all were at the illustrated by the FOCUS training was prepared. He immediatelytime, unaware of what to do in such a team appealed to him and he began dropped under his school bench andsituation. Luckily for Shreyas, the to practice this daily at home and in held on for safety. shreyasearthquake that destroyed over his classroom.1700 Primary schools across theState, a shocking 55% of the total “He used to come home from trainingnumber of primary schools, left his sessions and teach me whatever hedschool undamaged. He could resume learned”, says Shreyass mother.class unlike approximately 3 lakh “Now we practice drop, cover, holdother students across the State. together at home”. Shreyas shares
  35. 35. taskforcetraining “ 1 During the task force training programme at my school, I learned how to search for and safely rescue those trapped or injured on account of a disaster. After my own experience of being trapped on a bus for three hours in a flood, I was very afraid of the monsoon and flooding. But now I feel confident that if this situation were to happen again, or any other such emergency, in the future - I can take care of myself and assist others as well. * 45% of all School Task Force Members are women.
  36. 36. or fire, administering first aid and CPR andI n 2009 Chitravad village experiencedvery heavy flooding. Students returning how to search and rescue victims of disasters. On an average, thirty students from each school were selected for thehome from school got marooned on one of training programme. During the process,the school busses and had to wait three they were divided into four teams: Searchhours before they were rescued, as water and Rescue, Fire Safety, First Aid and Earlylevels rose around them, making the bus Warning and Evacuation. Each of theseinaccessible from the nearest road. On this groups were then given more specificbus was Task force member Kajol Morabia. information and in-depth training on related techniques and safety practices.On her first day in training, Kajol, a When asked about which team she was astandard twelve commerce student, part of, Kajal smiles, indicating that theenquired about flood related safety answer is obvious. After being stuck in apractices. Experience had taught her never flood for 3 hours, she wanted to learn howto take her own safety for granted and she to rescue others in similar situations. Shewas eager to learn as much as she could joined the Search and Rescue team of herduring the three day training programme school and continues to teach others how toon Disaster Preparedness and Awareness. safely rescue those trapped or injured onThe training session covered all aspects of account of a disaster.disaster dos and donts, safety practices in Kajal Morabiathe event of a flood, earthquake, cyclone KajalMorabia Task force student Dimond School, Chitravad , Gujarat
  37. 37. 1trainingoftrainers A teacher plays a very important role in building a childs future, as he/she imbibes values, morals and imparts knowledge at the most formative stages of childhood. The education a child receives in school not only shapes his/her future but also contributes to the development of family and society at large. A teacher therefore can play a major role in impressing upon the students the importance of safety. The Training of Teachers (TOT) organized by Focus Humanitarian Assistance in each of the 12 schools covered under the project, provides a standardized Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) training curriculum for the teachers and stakeholders of schools. These training sessions provided insights on the concepts of disaster, disaster management and preparedness; and the different aspects of school safety. They equipped participants with the knowledge of emergency life saving skills such as first aid, fire fighting and search and rescue. Thus, TOT training sessions enabled teachers to transfer their knowledge of disaster preparedness to students and create a culture of safety in the school. Moreover, it lent a degree of sustainability to the project by building a pool of DRR trained locals. * 112 teachers were given in-depth DRR training and certified to train others
  38. 38. regular mock drills to facilitate better I n 2001 when an earthquake rocked Borvav village, Gujarat – Swati was a preparedness among students in the event of an emergency. young girl attending school. She ran As a participant in the Training of Trainers outside the building in fear, along with her programme organized by FOCUS - classmates and teachers. She recalls that DIPECHO, Swati learned how to their response had been chaotic and administer first aid and CPR, search and several children were hurt in the rescue techniques and other safety evacuation process. She remembers not practices. She has already had an knowing what was causing the earth to opportunity to put these new found skills to shake and feeling tremendously afraid for use. A week after her training programme, her safety. one of the students in her class injured his toe and it was bleeding profusely. She was Now, almost ten years later, Swati ensures able to administer first aid to the student, that children in her school know what stop the bleeding and prevent the wound earthquakes are, how they are caused and from getting infected by applying a dos and donts to follow in the event of an bandage. “All these skills are new. I didnt earthquake. She devotes Saturdays to know how to dress a wound and now I can disaster awareness related activities and help someone who is injured”, she says. encourages students to practice drop,Swati Vipalya, School TOT teacherSaraswati Primary School, Borvav cover, hold. The school has planned swativipalya
  39. 39. masontraining * 36 Masons were given 18 hours of training over 3 days in safety building practices In collaboration with Aga Khan Planning and Building Services, 36 local masons from the villages covered under the FOCUS – DIPECHO project were given important masonry skills related to 1 building structures in cyclone and earthquake prone areas. The aim of behind this was to generate local awareness about structural safety practices and build local capacities in the same. Training sessions covered several areas of structural safety including; RCC vertical reinforcement, Plinth, Horizontal, Lintel, Sill, Gabel and Roof Bands. Masons were also trained in using Bamboo as an alternative for roofing material.
  40. 40. Having started off as a laborer and khimjichowdaKhimjibhai Jeevanbhai Chowda, picked up tricks of the trade throughRecipient of Mason Training,Sangodara Village,Gujarat experience, Khimji has no formal training or expertise in building seismic or cyclone resistant homes. Nor, has he received any input on how A t the ripe age of fifty, Khimji Chowda has witnessed 4 cyclones in to repair damages caused by frequent tremors such as cracks in walls, leaking roofs etc. Thus, through his village; Sangodra, Gujarat. He the mason training programme under recounts how wind speeds during a the FOCUS – DIPECHO project, Khimji cyclone are so high that they knock was able to develop important trees over and blow the roofs off masonry skills related to building kaccha houses. On account of its structures in cyclone and earthquake location the village is not only in a prone areas. High Moderate Intensity Zone B for cyclones but is also in a Moderate Bamboo- As an alternative for roofing material : Intensity Zone (III) for earthquakes. The area experiences frequent Bamboo has played an important role in containing costs and providing aftershocks, sometimes up to 5 - 6 in a environmentally friendly alternatives to day. Thus as a mason, Khimji has the a scarce resource – timber and the more expensive alternative - daunting task of building houses to precast concrete beams. Therefore in model withstand both disasters. house specifications, bamboo was selected as an alternative for roofing material
  41. 41. training to repair two structures; a Khimjibhai along withT he masonry training programmetaught 36 masons how to inculcate better municipal school in his village and the panchayat building in the neighbouring village of Hiranvel. Till date, Khimji has the model house beneficiarypractices in their building techniques. The received three requests to build housestraining covered; building safer roofs that fashioned after the model house fromcan withstand high wind speeds, repairing other members of the community. He plansstructural cracks in walls and roofs, to start building these shortly after thevertically and horizontally reinforcing monsoon season.buildings through using cement safety Khimji has shared his learning and newbelts across both planes and several other skills with his two sons, who in turn havetechniques. trained their labourers in a similar fashion and thus the scope of the trainingAs part of the training process, masons are programme has widened its base.contracted to build a model home in theirown community, in order to practice andimplement their learning. Khimji was able Bamboo is a highly tensile, environmentto build a model home for an impoverished friendly alternative to traditional timberfamily whos previous house was beyond members, capable of growing in variedrepair and had developed such deep geo-climatic conditions and abundantlycracks that it was on the verge of found in the region. Because it growscollapsing. Furthermore, he utilized his very fast, it is a renewable resource.
  42. 42. modelhouse “ Demo/model house: The demo house is a skillful amalgamation of local practices and technological specifications that is financially affordable to the community. Ensuring local accessibility to disaster-resilient technology is 1 the only way in which transferability and sustainability of the same can be guaranteed. Hence, the house ranging from 275 square feet to 350 square feet in size is designed with locally available limestone blocks, Mangalore tiled roofs that are supported on bamboo members as per local practices. The newly introduced seismic resistant horizontal bands at the plinth, lintel and gable levels and vertical reinforcements at the corners and around the door openings tie the various structural members and provide resilience “ to the structure protecting it from natural hazards. * 18 seismic resistant homes built for the most impoverished and marginalized families across project villages.
  43. 43. hirabenmakwana H aving lived for over a century in one place, Hiraben has seen more developments in her village than any other resident. She witnessed the dawn of electricity and with it television and TV serials. Hiraben and her son lived in a mud She observed how gender equality house with no electricity. At 105 she slowly made its way into the village used to walk one kilometer to use from the education of girls to a the nearest forested area because female Sarpanch. She noticed how her home had no toilet. The mud development brought new clothes house, as old as its owner, had and bigger dreams to other developed such severe cracks that members of her community. And yet Hiraben and her son used to sleep for her, the passage of time only outside in the nights for fear of it came with greater poverty and collapsing and crushing them in their more hardship. sleep. During the monsoon the leaking roof made it difficult for them to stay dry and the house used to repeatedly flood, destroying the few possessions they had. Hiraben Makwana Model House Beneficiary Vipur Village, Gujarat
  44. 44. Through the DIPECHO project, Focus By unanimous consensus the village Humanitarian Assistance in members decided that Hiraben should W collaboration with Aga Khan Planning be the beneficiary of one of 18 and Building Services, provided her hat Hiraben didnt expect to model houses built in the with a new, two room, home and see in her lifetime, was a new house for her Vibrant despite her age, Hiraben project area. attached toilet. RCC reinforced and family, built to withstand earthquakes and gestures towards the new toilet and fitted with a sturdy roof, the Makwanas cyclones. smiles. That, she indicates, is her new home bears little resemblance to favourite part! the previous structure.Hiraben’s home before construction Hiraben’s new seismic resistant model home
  45. 45. modelhouse Under the DIPECHO programme the purpose of 1 constructing model homes was to demonstrate and promote safe construction practices. Given that demo/model houses were limited to 1 home per village, selection of beneficiaries was a critical process that followed stringent criteria. Model House Beneficiaries were selected based on their economic status, age, gender, caste, physical ability, marital status and the condition as well as geographical location of their home. On occasion community members themselves identified those families that required the most assistance. Bhavan Ibrahim is one such story.....
  46. 46. Under the DIPECHO project implemented O n a rainy August evening, Bhavan Ibrahims deepest fears came to pass. The roof of his mud house caved in and left by Focus Humanitarian Assistance in collaboration with Aga Khan Planning and Building Services, Bhavans family a gaping hole in the ceiling. Fortunately, was given a new earthquake and flood resistant house in September, 2010. They 88% of those selected belonged to his five grandchildren who had been Scheduled/Backward Castes and playing in that very space a few were one of 18 such families to receive Tribes minutes earlier managed to new homes through the project in disaster 55% of model house beneficiaries escape unhurt. prone villages across Junagadh district of were Women Gujarat. 90% of these women were widowed In order to foster a sense of ownership in the project and a stake in its successful 61% of those selected fell within the economic category: Ultra Poor outcome, beneficiaries are comprehensively involved in the entire All beneficiaries were Landless process right from planning the layout, to 28% of model house beneficiaries providing resources such as water, as well were senior citizens as auditing the use of materials and overseeing the construction process. 2 beneficiaries had mentally challenged family membersBhavan’s family in their recently built model house bhavanibrahim