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Bab 2

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Bab 2

  1. 1. OBJEKTIF PEMBELAJARAN1. Menyatakan latar belakang tamadun Yunani, Rom, India dan China.2. Mengenal pasti aspek-aspek yang membawa kepada peningkatan tamadun.3. Menghuraikan sumbangan tamadun Yunani, Rom, India dan China.4. Merasionalkan kepentingan agama dan ajaran utama dunia dalam perkembangan tamadun manusia.
  2. 2. YUNANI ROM CHINA INDIA
  3. 3. KEDUDUKAN TAMADUNDALAM PETA DUNIA
  4. 4. ASPEK PENINGKATAN TAMADUN: PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN T U PERUNDANGAN K PERLUASAN KUASA E PENINGKATAN EKONOMI S A PENINGKATAN SOSIAL H PENDIDIKAN DAPAT FALSAFAH FULUS TAPI SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI BUAT SENI BINA SAMPAH BAHASA & SASTERA SARAP SISTEM SOSIAL
  5. 5. MONARKI OLIGARKI ARISTOKRASITIRANI/DIKTATOR DEMOKRASI
  6. 6. DEWAN PERHIMPUNAN MAJLIS• TERBUKA KEPADA • KENDALIKAN SEMUA LELAKI KEPUTUSAN DEWAN• KEAHLIAN 6 BULAN – 1 • KEAHLIAN – AHLI TAHUN MAJLIS, MAJISTRET,• BERSIDANG 3 X JURI SEBULAN• BOLEH KEMUKA CADANGAN TENTANG DASAR KERAJAAN• LANTIK - AHLI MAJLIS, MAJISTRET, JURI
  7. 7. PERBEZAAN DEMOKRASIATHENS MALAYSIA• PENYERTAAN LANGSUNG • PENYERTAAN TIDAK LANGSUNG• WARGANEGARA LELAKI • PERWAKILAN LELAKI DAN TERLIBAT BENTUK KERAJAAN WANITA MELALUI UNDIAN • WAKIL DIPILIH MELALUI• JADI ANGGOTA DEWAN PILIHANRAYA PERHIMPUNAN • WAKIL –ANGGOTA DEWAN RAKYAT
  8. 8. UNDANG-UNDANG DIGUBAL OLEH DEWAN PERHIMPUNANNEGARA HARUS DIPERINTAH OLEH AHLI FALSAFAH KERANA HANYA MEREKA FAHAMI UNDANG- UNDANG (PLATO) RREPUBLIC
  9. 9. ALEXANDER THERAJA PHILIPS II GREAT SATUKAN * LUASKAN EMPAYAR KE MACEDONIA PARSI, MESIR, TURKISTAN,DENGAN YUNANI ARMANISTAN * SEBAR BUDAYA HELLENISTIK KE JAJAHAN TAKLUK
  10. 10. PENYATUAN MACEDONIA DENGANYUNANI OLEH PHILIP II
  11. 11. Serba sedikit tentang riwayat hidup dan perjuanganAlexander The Great meluaskan empayar…
  12. 12. Telah menyebarkan kebudayaan Hellenistik .
  13. 13. Hellenistic civilization thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with thatof Asia, and a departure from the traditional Greek attitude to "barbarian" cultures. The extent to which a genuinely hybrid Greco- Asian cultures emerged is contentious;consensus tends to point towards pragmatic cultural adaptation by the elites of society; for the mass of the population, life would probably have continued much as before[1].
  14. 14. During the Hellenistic period the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. The great centers ofHellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch, capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria respectively. Cities such as Pergamon, Ephesus, Rhodes and Seleucia were also important, and increasing urbanization of the Eastern Mediterranean was characteristic of the time.
  15. 15. Hellenistic culture. The name derives from the fact that Greek culture spread throughout the area in the last 3 centuries before the common era.In the Hellenistic period, It was in the cities that the descendants of the Greco- Macedonian conquerors became a professional class of rulers and soldiers andmerchants, which provided a cultural and economic bond throughout the area, even though political unity did not survive the death of Alexander.As the administrators and the merchants of their world, in spite of being in the minority, they had an influence out of proportion to their numbers.The city of Alexandria, founded by Alexander, located on the Mediterranean at the mouth of the Nile, became the most prominent center of commerce and learning. The library in Alexandria became the depository for recording many of the literary and scientific achievements of the time. Although women continued to have a subordinate status, some lucky few ofthe wealthy and ruling classes, would have the opportunity to become involved in commerce or in intellectual activities. For the most part, however, women had no part in public life. Slavery, which had been a commonly accepted practice throughout the history of ancient civilization, remained a prominent part of Hellenistic culture.
  16. 16. MUKA BUMI • PERTANIANBERGUNUNG KURANG GANANG DIJALANKAN • PERDAGANGAN AKTIVITI • PERIKANAN
  17. 17. PENINGKATAN SOSIAL PENDIDIKAN FALSAFAH SENI BINA • ATHENS - • ISU • ACROPOLIS • UTK LAHIRKAN PERBINCANGAN • PARTHENON MANUSIA AHLI FALSAFAH – SEIMBANG INDIVIDUALISME, ROHANI & KEHIDUPAN JASMANI MANUSIA, • TITIKBERATKAN DEMOKRASI SUKAN, MUZIK, • AHLI FALSAFAH- SASTERA, SENI HERODOTUS, PIDATO SOCRATES, PLATO, • SEKOLAH ARISTOTLE FALSAFAH • SPARTA • LATIHAN FIZIKAL • KETENTERAAN
  18. 18. PENINGKATAN SOSIAL BAHASA & SASTERA SISTEM SOSIAL • BAHASA YUNANI • ATHENS • BAHASA LATIN • 1. WARGANEGARA- miliki hak • HOMER – ILIAD, ODYSSEY politik negara kota • HESIOD – THEOLOGY, WORK • 2.BUKAN WARGANEGARA – and DAYS tiada hak politik • 3. HAMBA – tiada hak politik • SPARTA • Kelas 1. WARGANEGARA TULEN • Kelas 2. PEKERJA, ARTISAN, PEDAGANG • Kelas 3.HELOT – PENGUSAHA TANAH (MAJORITI)
  19. 19. ancient Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer. However, the claim of a single author is disputed, as the poems show evidence of a long oral tradition and hence, possible multiple authors. Many scholars believe the poem to be the oldest extant work of literature in the ancient Greek language.The poem concerns events during the tenth and final year of the Trojan War, the siege of the city of Ilion or Troy, by the Greeks. The plot centers on the Greek warrior Achilles and his anger toward the king of Mycenae, Agamemnon, which proves disastrous for the Greeks.[2]
  20. 20. Boys were taught at home by their mothers until they were 6 or 7 years old. In Athens the education was left up to the father. Students were taught by private schoolmasters. The boys from wealthy families were taken to school by a trusted slave. The students learned to write on wax-covered tablets with a stylus. Books were very expensive, so they were rare. The students in Athens learned to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. They also learned about fractions. Students learned the words of Homer and how to play the lyre. Boys were trained in sports. Wealthy children learned to ride horseback. Other sports included wrestling, using a bow and a sling, and swimming. At age 14 boys attended a higher school for four more years. At age 18 boys went to military school. They graduated at age 20. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  21. 21. WARGA SPARTA
  22. 22. Spartan Schools When babies were born in Sparta, Spartan soldiers would come by the house to examine them. If the baby did not look healthy, it was taken away and left to die or trained as aslave. If the baby was healthy, it was assigned membership in a brotherhood or sisterhood. The boys in Sparta were sent to military camps of their brotherhood when they turned 7. They learned how to read and write until they were about 14. The Spartan government wanted to make the boys tough. To do this they were given little clothing and no shoes.They slept on hard beds made of reeds and were not given any covers. They were not given enough food. They were trained in survival skills and how to be a good soldier. Reading and writing were taught as secondary skills.
  23. 23. Between ages 18 to 20 each boy had to pass a fitness test. If he did not pass the test, he became a perioidos. This was a person of middle class who had no political rights and was not even considered a citizen. If the boy passed he served in the military and continued to train as a soldier. Military service lasted until the boy reached age 60. The girls were trained in the school of their sisterhood. They were taught physical education. Classes include wrestling, gymnastics, and combat training. The Spartanswanted girls to be strong so that they would have healthy children. At age 18 the Spartan girl had to pass a fitness test. She was then assigned a husband and allowed to return home. If she failed the test, she became a perioikos.
  24. 24. ACROPOLIS
  25. 25. PARTHENON – RUMAH IBADAT
  26. 26. SISTEM DEMOKRASIBINAAN ACROPOLIS, PARTHENONKARYA SASTERABAHASA LATINFALSAFAH MODENSUKAN OLIMPIK
  27. 27. The most famous games held at Olympia, South- West of Greece, which tookplace every four years. The ancient Olympics seem to have begun in the early 700 BC, in honour of Zeus. No women were allowed to watch the games and only Greek nationals could participate. One of the ancient wonders was a statue of Zeus at Olympia, made of gold and ivory by a Greek sculptor Pheidias. This was placed inside a Temple, although it was a towering 42 feet high. The games at Olympia were greatly expanded from a one-day festival of athleticsand wrestling to, in 472 BC, five days with many events. The order of the events isnot precisely known, but the first day of the festival was devoted to sacrifices. On the Middle Day of the festival 100 oxen were sacrificed in honor of a God. Athletes also often prayed and made small sacrifices themselves.. On the second day, the foot-race, the main event of the games, took place in the stadium, an oblong area enclosed by sloping banks of earth.At Olympia there were 4 different types of races; The first was stadion, the oldest event of the Games, where runners sprinted for 1 stade, the length of thestadium(192m). The other races were a 2-stade race (384 m.), and a long-distance run which ranged from 7 to 24 stades (1,344 m. to 4,608 m.).The fourth type of race involved runners wearing full amor, which was 2-4 stade race (384 m. to 768 m.), used to build up speed and stamina for military purposes. On other days, wrestling, boxing, and the pancratium, a combination of the two, were held. In wrestling, the aim was to throw the opponent to the ground three times, on either his hip, back or shoulder. In ancient Greek wrestling biting and genital holds were illegal.
  28. 28. Boxing became more and more brutal; at first the pugilists wound straps of soft leather over their fingers as a means of deadening the blows, but in later times hard leather, sometimes weighted with metal, was used. In the pancratium, the most rigorous of the sports, the contest continued until one or the other of the participants acknowledged defeat. Horse-racing, in which each entrant owned his horse, was confined to the wealthy but was nevertheless a popular attraction. The course was 6 laps of the track, with separateraces for whereupon the rider would have no stirrups. It was only wealthy people that could pay for such training, equipment, and feed of both the rider and the horses. So whichever horse won it was not the rider who was awarded the Olive wreath but the owner. There were also Chariot races, that consisted of both 2-horse and 4-horse chariot races, with separate races for chariots drawn by foals. There was also a racewas between carts drawn by a team of 2 mules, which was 12 laps of the stadium track.
  29. 29. OLIMPIK – hormati Tuhan Zeus di Athena
  30. 30. TAMADUN ROM
  31. 31. Jelaskan ciri-ciri demokrasi di Athens. (8 markah)
  32. 32. ASPEK PENINGKATAN TAMADUN: PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN T U PERUNDANGAN K PERLUASAN KUASA E PENINGKATAN EKONOMI S A PENINGKATAN SOSIAL H PENDIDIKAN DAPAT FALSAFAH FULUS TAPI SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI BUAT SENI BINA SAMPAH BAHASA & SASTERA SARAP SISTEM SOSIAL
  33. 33. PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN ROM SEBELUM 509 SELEPAS S.M 509 S.M SISTEM REPUBLIK DIPERINTAH PEMERINTAH= OLEH RAJA2 2 KONSUL EUTRESCAN DEWAN SENAT DEWAN PERHIMPUNAN
  34. 34. PERUBAHAN PENTADBIRAN PEMERINTAHAN ROMDIAMBILALIH OLEH JULIUS CAESAR JULIUS CAESAR EMPAYAR PENYATUAN WILAYAH KERAJAAN PUSAT DIKTATOR GELARAN MAHARAJA
  35. 35. UNDANG2 PAPAN DUABELAS/TWELVE TABLES HUKUM KANUN 12 KOD UNDANG2 ROM UNDANG2 JUSTINIAN
  36. 36. KONSEP UNDANG- UNDANG 1 • SEMUA MANUSIA SAMA DI SISI UNDANG2 • SESEORANG TIDAK 2 BERSALAH SEHINGGA TERBUKTI BERSALAH SESEORANG3 • KEADILAN UNTUK SEMUA SEMUA INDIVIDU TIDAK KEADILAN HUKUMAN MANUSIA BERSALAH KEPADA BERASASKAN SEHINGGA 4SAMA DI SISI SETIAP BUKTI YANG UNDANG- TERBUKTI INDIVIDU CUKUP UNDANG BERSALAH
  37. 37. • ANAK SAUDARA JULIUS CAESAR • SISTEM EMPAYAR • PENTADBIRAN WARISAN • PEMERINTAHAN DIKTATOR • EMPAYAR MELIPUTI BRITANIA, SEPANOL, MACEDONIA, SG RHINE,AUGUSTUS DANUBE, LAUT HITAM, ATLAS AN CAESAR PALESTINE
  38. 38. EMPAYAR ROM di bawah pentadbiran AUGUSTUS CAESAR
  39. 39. PENDIDIKAN DI ROM ILMU PRAKTIKAL – penyediaan infrastruktur & kemudahan awam rakyat SEMANGAT SETIA KEPADA ROM PUSAT PENDIDIKAN – lahirkan jurutera bina sistem pengairan, bangunan & jalan raya - Lahirkan ahli falsafah dan sejarawan ttg kegemilangan Rom
  40. 40. EKONOMI ROM RUJUK NOTA BUKU TEKS SEJARAH PERADABAN DUNIA YANG LAMA
  41. 41. FALSAFAH ROM FALSAFAH ROM DIAMBIL DARI YUNANI BERASASKAN FALSAFAH STOIK/STOISISME BAHAGIA NASIB HUBUNGAN DENGAN ALAM KONSEPADIL TANGGUNGJAWAB BERANI KEMANSUSIAAN
  42. 42. SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI ILMU MATEMATIK DIKAITKAN DGN MUZIK, GEOMETRI & ASTRONOMI TOKOH: BOETHIUS PENYERAPAN UNSUR YUNANI
  43. 43. SENI BINA AQUEDUCT PANTHEON COLLOSEUM
  44. 44. PERTARUNGAN GLADIATOR ROMDI COLLOSEUM
  45. 45. BAHASA & KESUSASTERAAN ROM CICERO VIRGIL 106 S.M - 43 S.M 70 S.M – 19 S.M MENINGKATKAN SEMANGAT PATRIOTISME
  46. 46. SISTEM SOSIAL WARGANEGARA ROM • RAKYAT ROM WARGANEGARA ROM – RAKYAT ROM BUKAN WARGANEGARA ROM • PENDUDUK NEGARA TAKLUKANBUKAN WARGANEGARA – rakyat jajahan takluk HAMBA
  47. 47. If you had lived in ancient times, you could have applied to become a Roman citizen. Not everyone who applied was accepted, but anyone could apply. Would you have wanted to become a Roman citizen? You might have. The ancient Romans invented more games than any other ancient civilization. The ancient Romans were very different from the ancient Greeks. The ancient Romans were down-to-earth realists, not idealists. You can see this in their statues. The Greeks made statues of perfect people. The Romans created real life statues. A statue of one of the Roman emperors is a good example. His nose is huge! The ancient Greeks would never have done that. The Romans were fierce soldiers and wonderful builders. They built roads all over the empire, and all roads led to Rome. The ancient Greekshad roads, but they were not built nearly as well, and the Greeks roads did not connect in any particular order. Connect to what? Each Greek city-state was its own unit. In ancient Rome, Rome was the heart of the empire!
  48. 48. TAMADUN INDIA
  49. 49. ASPEK PENINGKATAN TAMADUN: PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN T U PERUNDANGAN K PERLUASAN KUASA E PENINGKATAN EKONOMI S A PENINGKATAN SOSIAL H PENDIDIKAN DAPAT FALSAFAH FULUS TAPI SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI BUAT SENI BINA SAMPAH BAHASA & SASTERA SARAP SISTEM SOSIAL
  50. 50. PEMERINTAHAN DAN PENTADBIRAN INDIA AWAL PEMBENTUKAN (600 – 320S.M) KERAJAAN KERAJAAN BESAR KECIL # RAJA # KEPUAKAN # KUASA # TIADA RAJA MUTLAK
  51. 51. KERAJAAN BESAR INDIA RAJA BRAHMIN KSYATRIA • RAJA SUCI • KETUA • PEMERINTAH • HARUS UPACARA TERINGGI DIHORMATI • PENASIHAT • GOLONGAN • UPACARA DOMINAN RITUAL MAHARAJA
  52. 52. KERAJAAN BERPENGARUH – EMPAYAR MAURYA • PEMERINTAH AGUNG • CAPAI TAHAP KEGEMILANGAN ASOKA • PERANG KALINGA – UBAH CARA PEMERINTAHAN – SEBAR AGAMA BUDDHA • MEMBENTUK BIROKRASI
  53. 53. PERUNDANGAN INDIA KITAB • KITAB UNDANG2 TERTUA DHARMASASTRA • ABAD 6 – 2 S.M • PELIHARA KESUCIAN UNDANG2 RAJA • KESALAHAN DIKENAKAN DENDA • DOMINAN URUS UNDANG2 BRAHMIN • MAHIR HUKUM HAKAM
  54. 54. UNDANG2 DINASTI MAURYA • TITAH PERINTAH RAJA • DIUKIR PADA UNDANG2 TIANG BATU • DIKENALI “TIANG ASOKA”
  55. 55. TIANG ASOKA
  56. 56. PERLUASAN KUASA INDIA • PASUKAN TENTERA YANG BESAR CHANDRAGUPTA • 600 EKOR GAJAH MAURYA • 1000 TENTERA BERKUDA • 10 000 INFRANTRI • KUASAI INDIA UTARA BINDUSARA • LUASKAN EMPAYAR KE MYSORE (SELATAN INDIA) • PENEKANAN KEPADA AGAMA ASOKA BUDDHA • DASAR LEBIH LEMBUT • TAKLUK SELURUH INDIA • SETELAH PERANG KALINGA
  57. 57. FAKTA tentang Perang Kalinga ASHOKA The Kalinga War a Change of Heart During Ashokas grandfathers time the Kalinga army had only 60,000 infantry, 1,000 cavalry and 700 elephants. During Bindusaras reign and at the beginning of Ashokas reign Kalinga must have improved its armed forces considerably. The mighty Magadha army marched towards Kalinga. Ashoka himself went at the head of his vast army. The Kalinga army resisted the Magadha army and fought bravely. They were not afraid even of death. But their valor and sacrifices were in vain. Every thinner and finally it accepted defeat. Ashoka won a glorious victory. What Have I done! True, Ashoka was victorious and Kalinga was his. What was the price of this victory? One of Ashokas own inscriptions describes it: One and a half people were taken prisoners. A lake was killed during the battle. Many more died as a result of the war. Ashoka who led the army saw the battlefield with his own eyes. As far as his eye could see he saw only the corpses of elephants and horses, and the limbs of soldiers killed in the battle. There were streams of blood. Soldiers were rolling on the ground in unbearable pain. There were orphaned children. And eagles flew about to feast on the dead bodies. Not one or two but hundreds of terrible sights greeted Ashokas eyes. His heart was broken with grief and shame. He felt unhappy over the victory, which he had won at the cost of so much suffering. What a dreadful deed have I done! I was the head of a vast empire, but I longed to subjugate a small kingdom and caused the death of thousands of soldiers; I widowed thousands of women and orphaned thousands of children. With these oppressive thoughts in his minds he could not stay there any longer. He led his army back towards Pataliputra with a heavy heart.
  58. 58. PENINGKATAN EKONOMI INDIA SISTEM CUKAIPERDAGANGAN PERDAGANGAN PELABUHAN DALAMAN LUARAN PENTING HASIL TANAMAN - TEKSTIL INDIA – HASIL - KAIN MACEDONIA PERDAGANGAN KAPAS INDIA – SRI TAMRALIPTI LANKA - SUTERA INDIA - ASIA GHANTASHALA TENGAH HASIL - EMAS INDIA – ASIA KADURA BUAH- TENGGARA BUAHAN - - rempah, minyak KALYAN wangi, gading gajah MUTIARA -tembikar, tekstil, CAMBAY barang kaca, - BATU minyak wangi SARA ANGGOTA PERMATA TENTERA, PENTADBIR, RAJA
  59. 59. KEMAJUAN EKONOMI • WUJUD DI SETIAP BANDAR • PERSATUAN TUKANG KAYU.STRESTHIN TUKANG LOGAM, TUKANG KULIT • KAWAL HARGA • KAWAL KUALITI BARANGAN TUJUAN • KAWAL GAJI PEKERJA
  60. 60. PENDIDIKAN DI INDIA • PELAJARAN AGAMA • DOMINASI LELAKI • PEMBELAJARAN KITAB2 VEDA • KAEDAH HAFALAN • DI ISTANA, DI RUMAH • BAHASA SANSKRIT SBG BAHASA PENGANTAR • SEDIAKAN HIDUP SELEPAS MATI ZAMAN • • PENDIDIKAN TINGGI – KOLEJ BRAHMAN UNIVERSITI NALANDA -CAPAI TARAF BRAHMIN – VEDIK HAFAL RITUAL, MNTERA, LAGU2 AGAMA
  61. 61. FALSAFAH INDIAKITAB VEDA MENOLAK• RIG VEDA ALIRAN VEDA• YAJUR VEDA • AJARAN CARVAKA• SAMA VEDA • JAINISME• ATHARVA VEDA • BUDDHISME
  62. 62. SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI ILMU MATEMATIK BERKEMBANG ILMU PADA ZAMAN ILMU CABANG GUPTA PERUBATAN ASTRONOMIPENGETAHUAN BERASASKAN - ANGKA - FISIOLOGI & VEDIK RIG VEDA BRAHMIN YOGA - ANGKA KHAROSTI
  63. 63. SENI BINA GREAT BATH • Tempat mandi awam KOMPLEKS KUIL • Gua Ajanta • Gua Ellora STUPA • Pengaruh Buddha di Sanchi
  64. 64. BAHASA DAN KESUSASTERAAN • DRAVIDIA DUAKELOMPOK • INDO-ARYA
  65. 65. BAHASA DRAVIDIA INDO-ARYA• TELEGU • HINDI• MALAYALAM • URDU• KANNADA • PUNJABI • KASMIRI
  66. 66. KESUSASTERAAN VEDIK EPIK SAJAK MAHABHRATA RAMAYANA
  67. 67. SISTEM SOSIAL BRAHMIN KSYATRIA VAISYA SUDRA SISTEM KASTA
  68. 68. TAMADUN CHINA
  69. 69. FEUDAL PENTADBIRAN BERPUSATRAJA MAHARAJABIROKRASI AWAM – HON KAO SU & PEPERIKSAAN AWAM
  70. 70. PERUNDANGAN LEGALISME – HAN FEI TZU HUKUMAN KOLEKTIF BERAT TUJUANKAWAL TINGKAH LAKU MANUSIA
  71. 71. PERUNDANGAN CONFUCIUS (DINASTI HAN) RAJABERPEKERTI BAIK –JAGA KEHARMONIAN MANUSIA
  72. 72. PERLUASAN KUASA • SATUKAN SELURUH KERAJAAN KECIL SHIH • PEMERINTAHAN AUTOKRATIK HUANG • HAPUSKAN GOLONGAN BANGSAWAN TI • BINA TEMBOK BESAR MEMEPERTAHANKAN CHINA HAN • LUASKAN KUASA KE JEPUN & TURKISTAN WU • WUJUDKAN KEAMANAN DAN KEMAKMURAN TI
  73. 73. PENINGKATAN EKONOMI PERUSAHAAN PERTANIAN PERDAGANGAN• TEMBIKAR • JALAN SUTERA• LOGAM • TENGGALA DARAT• SUTERA • KOLAR KUDA • PERSATUAN • TANAMAN PERDAGANGAN BERGILIR • TANAMAN BERTERES • SISTEM PENGAIRAN
  74. 74. JALAN SUTERA DARAT
  75. 75. PENDIDIKAN MATLAMATLULUS PEPERIKSAAN AWAM KERAJAAN
  76. 76. PERINGKAT PENDIDIKAN • KENAL, HAFAL TULISAN IDEOGRAM RENDAH • KENAL, HAFAL 9 BUKU SUCI • KARANGAN MENENGAH • SASTERA • TERJEMAH BUKU SUCI TINGGI
  77. 77. TAHAP PEPERIKSAAN AWAM CHINA TAHAP TARAF TEMPAT MASA • PERTAMA • Ijazah • Daerah • 2 kali/3 • Hsiu Tai pertama tahun • Sarjana • Ibu kota • 1 kali/3 • KEDUA daerah tahun • Chun-Jen • Doktor Falsafah • Ibu kota • 1 kali/3 • Berpeluang empayar- tahun • KETIGA jadi • istana • Chin Shih pendidik
  78. 78. FALSAFAHCONFUCIANISME TAOISME MO TZU
  79. 79. SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGIASTRONOMI PERUBATAN - ILMU - YIN YANG SAINS NEGARA
  80. 80. SENI BINATEMBOK KOTA KUIL DAN BESAR LARANGAN PAGODA
  81. 81. BAHASA & KESUSASTERAAN SASTERA • SSU MA CHIEN- KARYA SHIH CHI • TOKOH: TU FU, LI PO, PO CHU-I PUISI • MANDARIN • WU DIALEK • HUNANIS
  82. 82. HINDU BUDDHA KRISTIAN ISLAMCONFUCIANISME TAOISME
  83. 83. HINDU 3 FUNGSI TUHAN VISHNU SIVA BRAHMAN - -- MENCIPTA MEMELIHARA MEMBINASA
  84. 84. HINDU SAIVISME SAKTHAM VAISHANAVISME ALIRAN AGAMA HINDU KAUMARAM SAURA GANAPATHIYAM
  85. 85. KEPERCAYAAN DALAM AGAMA HINDU HUKUM KARMA – KELAHIRAN SEMULA SELEPAS MATI TUJUAN HIDUP – CAPAI MOKSYA (KEBEBASAN MUTLAK)
  86. 86. BUDDHA
  87. 87. ASPEK-ASPEK PENTING AGAMA BUDDHA • SIDDHARTA PENGASAS GAUTAMA • TRIPITAKA KITAB • -bahasa Pali • 4 KEBENARAN AJARAN MULIA
  88. 88. DUKKA SAMUDAYA (PENDERITAAN) (SEBAB PENDERITAAN) 4 KEBENARAN MULIA MARGA NIRODHA(CARA MEMADAMKAN (NAFSU YANG MEMBAWANAFSU & KEINGINAN) PENDERITAAN)
  89. 89. KEPERCAYAAN YANG BETUL RENUNGAN TUJUAN YANG YANG BAIK BETUL FIKIRAN 8 PERTUTURANYANG BAIK JALAN YANG BAIK USAHA PERBUATAN YANG BAIK YANG BAIK HIDUP YANG BAIK
  90. 90. KRISTIANPENGASAS • JESUS CHRIST KITAB • BIBLE
  91. 91. ISLAM
  92. 92. ASPEK-ASPEK PENTING AGAMA ISLAM PENYAMPAI • NABI MUHAMMAD S.A.W • RUKUN IMAN KEPERCAYAAN • RUKUN ISLAM KITAB • AL QURAN
  93. 93. CONFUCIANISME PENGASAS • CONFUCIUS • REN (KEMANUSIAAN) • LI (KESUSILAAN) AJARAN • XIAO (KETAATAN KEPADA IBU BAPA) PENEKANAN • PENDIDIKAN
  94. 94. TAOISMEPENGASAS • LAO TZE AJARAN • TAO (JALAN) BUKU • TAO TE CHING
  95. 95. TERIMA KASIH

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