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Project loon report in ieee format

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Project loon report in ieee format

  1. 1. Project Loon O.Sahithi Reddy Roll number-33 5th semester, Department of Information Technology Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology,Hyderabad. sahithireddy@gmail.com Abstract-Google has launched, Project Loon which is a network of balloons traveling on the edge of space, designed to connect people in rural and remote areas.Project Loon balloons float in the stratosphere.They are carried around the Earth by winds and they can be controlled by rising or descending to an altitude with winds moving in the desired direction. People connect to the balloon network using a special Internet antenna attached to their building. The signal bounces from balloon to balloon, then to the global Internet back on Earth. It helps to fill coverage gaps, and bring people back online after disasters. This project is still in experimental phase. Google believes it will be a feasible ,cost-effective and reliable project. I. INTRODUCTION Project Loon is a research and development project being developed by Google X with the mission of providing Internet access torural and remote areas. The project uses high-altitude balloons placed in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 18 km (11 mi) to create an aerial wireless network with up to 4G- LTE speeds. It was named Project Loon, since Google itself found the very idea of providing internet access to the remaining 5 billion population unprecedented and "crazy." The balloons are maneuvered by adjusting their altitude in the stratosphere to float to a wind layer after identifying the wind layer with the desired speed and direction using wind data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Users of the service connect to the balloon network using a special Internet antenna attached to their building. The signal travels through the balloon network from balloon to balloon, then to a ground-based station connected to an Internet service provider (ISP), then onto the global Internet. The system aims to bring Internet access to remote and rural areas poorly served by existing provisions, and to improve communication during natural disasters to affected regions. Key people involved in the project include Rich DeVaul, chief technical architect, who is also an expert on wearable technology; Mike Cassidy, a project leader; and Cyrus Behroozi, a networking and telecommunication lead. Loons shall use patch antennas which are directional antennas to transmit signals to ground stations or LTE users. Some smartphones with google SIM cards can use Google internet services. The whole infrastructure is based on LTE in which eNodeB is carried in the balloon which will travel across the globe and connect to users and EPC network. II. HISTORY In 2008, Google considered contracting with or acquiring Space Data Corp., a company that sends balloons carrying small base stations about 20 miles (32 km) up in the air for providing connectivity to truckers and oil companies in the southern United States, but didn't do so. Unofficial development on the project began in 2011 under incubation in Google X with a series of trial runs in California's Central Valley. The project was officially announced as a Google project on 14 June 2013. On 16 June 2013, Google began a pilot experiment in New Zealand where about 30 balloons were launched in coordination with the Civil Aviation Authority from the Tekapo area in the South Island. About 50 local users in and around Christchurch and the Canterbury Region tested connections to the aerial network using special antennas. After this initial trial, Google plans on sending up 300 balloons around the world at the 40th parallel south that would provide coverage to New Zealand, Australia, Chile, and Argentina. Google hopes to eventually have thousands of balloons flying in the stratosphere.
  2. 2. In May 2014, Google X laboratories director, Astro Teller, announced that, rather than negotiate a section of bandwidth that was free for them worldwide, they would instead become a temporary base station that could be leased by the mobile operators of the country it was crossing over. In May–June 2014 Google tested its balloon-powered internet access venture in Piauí, Brazil, marking its first LTE experiments and launch near the equator. In 2014 Google partnered with France's Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) on the project. In Feb, 2014, the record streak for a balloon lasting in the stratosphere was 50 days. In Nov 2014, the record was 130 days, and in March 2, 2015, the record for a continuous balloon flight is 187 days (over 6 months). On 28 July 2015, Google signed an agreement with officials of Information and Communication Technology Agency (ICTA) - Sri Lanka, to launch the technology on a mass scale. As a result, by March 2016, Sri Lanka will be the second country in the world to get full coverage of internet using LTE, after Vatican City. On 29 October 2015, Google agreed to partner with Indonesia's XL Axiata, Indosat and Telkomsel to bring the technology to the country in the hopes of connecting its 17,000 islands. III. TECHNOLOGY Project Loon is Google's pursuit to deploy a high- altitude balloon network operating in the stratosphere, at altitudes between 18 km and 25 km. Google asserts that this particular layer of the stratosphere is advantageous because of its relatively low wind speeds (e.g., wind speeds between 5 and 20 mph / 10 to 30 kmph) and minimal turbulence. Moreover, Google claims that it can model, with reasonable accuracy, the seasonal, longitudinal, and latitudinal variations in wind speeds within the 18–25 km stratospheric layer. Given a reasonably accurate model of wind speeds within the 18–25 km band, Google claims that it can control the latitudinal and longitudinal position of high- altitude balloons by adjusting only the balloon's altitude. By adjusting the volume and density of the gas (e.g., helium, hydrogen, or another lighter-than-air compound) in the balloon, the balloon's variable buoyancy system is able to control the balloon's altitude. Google has additionally indicated that balloons may be constructed from various materials (e.g., metalized Mylar or BoPet) or a highly-flexible latex or rubber material (e.g., chloroprene). Initially, the balloons communicated using unlicensed 2.4 and 5.8 GHz ISM bands, and Google claims that the setup allows it to deliver "speeds comparable to 3G" to users, but they then switched to LTE with cellular spectrum by cooperating with local telecommunication operators. It is unclear how technologies that rely on short communications times (low latency pings), such as VoIP, might need to be modified to work in an environment similar to mobile phones where the signal may have to relay through multiple balloons before reaching the wider Internet. The first person to connect to the "Google Balloon Internet" after the initial test balloons were launched into the stratosphere was a farmer in the town of Leeston, New Zealand, who was one of 50 people in the area around Christchurch who agreed to be a pilot tester for Project Loon. The New Zealand farmer lived in a rural location that couldn't get broadband access to the Internet, and had used a satellite Internet service in 2009, but found that he sometimes had to pay over $1000 per month for the service. The locals knew nothing about the secret project other than its ability to deliver Internet connectivity; but allowed project workers to attach a basketball-sized receiver resembling a giant bright-red party balloon to an outside wall of their property in order to connect to the network. The technology designed in the project could allow countries to avoid using expensive fiber cable that would have to be installed underground to allow users to connect to the Internet. Google feels this will greatly increase Internet usage in developing countries in regions such as Africa and Southeast Asia that can't afford to lay underground fiber cable. IV. EQUIPMENT The balloon envelopes used in the project are made by Raven Aerostar, and are composed of polyethylene plastic about 0.076 mm (0.0030 in) thick. The balloons are superpressure balloons filled with helium, standing 15 m (49 ft) across and 12 m (39 ft) tall when fully inflated. They carry a custom air pump system dubbed the "Croce" that pumps in or releases air to ballast the balloon and control its elevation. A small box weighing 10 kg (22 lb) containing each balloon's electronic equipment hangs underneath the inflated envelope. This box contains circuit boards that control the system, radio antennas and a Ubiquiti Networks 'Rocket M2' to communicate with other balloons and with Internet antennas on the ground, and batteries to store solar power so the balloons can operate during the night. Each balloon’s electronics are powered by an array of solar panels that sit between the envelope and the hardware. In full sun, the panels produce 100 watts of power, which is sufficient to keep the unit running while also charging a battery for use at night. A parachute attached to the top of the envelope allows for a controlled descent and landing when a balloon is ready to be taken out of service. In the case of an unexpected failure, the
  3. 3. parachute deploys automatically. When taken out of service, the balloon is guided to an easily reached location, and the helium is vented into the atmosphere. The balloons typically have a maximum life of about 100 days, although Google claims that its tweaked design can enable them to stay aloft for closer to 200 days. The prototype ground stations use a Ubiquiti Networks 'Rocket M5' radio and a custom patch antenna to connect to the balloons at a height of 20 km (12 mi). Some reports have called Google's project the Google Balloon Internet. In May 2014, a Loon balloon crashed into power lines in Washington, United States. On 20 June 2014, New Zealand officials briefly scrambled Emergency Services personnel when a Loon balloon came down. In November 2014 a South African farmer found a crashed Loon balloon in the Karoo desert between Strydenburg and Britstown. On 23 April 2015, a Loon balloon crashed in a field near Bragg City, Missouri. On September 12, 2015, a loon balloon crash landed in the front lawn of a residence on Rancho Hills, Chino Hills, CA. V. DESIGN OF LOON Envelope: The balloon envelope is the name for the inflatable part of the balloon. Project Loon’s balloon envelopes are made from sheets of polyethylene plastic and stand fifteen meters wide by twelve meters tall when fully inflated.They are specially constructed for use in superpressure balloons, which are longer-lasting than weather balloons because they can withstand higher pressure from the air inside when the balloons reach float altitude. When a balloon is ready to be taken out of service, gas is released from the envelope to bring the balloon down in a controlled descent. In the unlikely event a balloon drops too quickly, we deploy the parachute attached to the top of the envelope. Solar Panels: Each unit’s electronics are powered by an array of solar panels that sits between the envelope and the hardware. In full sun, these panels produce 100 Watts of power - enough to keep the unit running while also charging a battery for use at night. By moving with the wind and charging in the sun, Project Loon is able to power itself using only renewable energy sources. Equipment: A small box containing the balloon’s electronic equipment hangs underneath the inflated envelope, like the basket that is carried by a hot air balloon. This box contains circuit boards that control the system, radio antennas to communicate with other balloons and with Internet antennas on the ground, and batteries to store solar power so the balloons can operate during the night. VI. ADVANTAGES They are of lower cost and less round-trip time than a satellite, and, given enough of these in the air at any given moment in any given location, higher capacity via the multiplicative effect associated with wireless meshes. VII. DISADVANTAGES They have hardware failure easily and there is no proper internet privacy and each Balloon can work for few weeks only and it may not be a replacement of satellite communication. VIII. FUTURE SCOPE MDIF plans to formally request NASA to use the International Space Station to test their technology in September 2014. Manufacturing and launching of satellites would begin in early 2015, and Outer net is planned to begin broadcasting in June 2015. Indian company Specify Inc. is the first private non- profit company which is working with outernet to provide global free Wi-Fi access. Forget the Internet - soon there will be the OUTERNET.
  4. 4. IX. CONCLUSION There is near about 75% comment is in the favor of project loons. so far as I think it would be great Success of this Project in Future. And we hope balloons could become an option for connecting rural, remote, and underserved areas, and for helping with communications after natural disasters. It may be very helpful in the Areas of…. Information would never have been available at this ease in the history of this planet, everything just a couple of clicks away, from any corner of the world you are in. Education: There are millions of poor children all over the world who haven’t even heard the word ‘school.’ Loon has the potential to become a school on the air for the under privileged. Medicine: Health and hygiene information can be made easily available to the people who haven’t even heard of the word doctor Collaboration: Connecting with the remote countries and inaccessible terrains will no longer be impossible. It’ll eliminate the need to lay down cables in those areas, and live weather forecast reports in such areas would be of a great help to the locals there. X. REFERENCES [1] https://www.google.co.in/#q=comments+of+peo ple+on+project+loons [2] http://www.wired.com/business/2013/06/google _internet_balloons/all/google.com/loon [3] www.youtube.com/ProjectLoon [4] www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2013/06/26/what- do- you-think-of-project-loon/

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