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  1. 1. Whatever is to become of books? Paper books vs digital books Aquiles Alencar-Brayner Digital Curator, British Library @Aquilesbrayner Email: [email_address]
  2. 2. eBooks: physicality as essence <ul><li>Print vs Electronic </li></ul><ul><li>Popular opinion highlights the tangibility of the book as its main essence. </li></ul><ul><li>“ E-book is a term used to describe a text in digital format, similar to a book , to be read on a computer screen” (Feather & Sturges, International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science , 1997, p.130) [my italics] </li></ul>
  3. 3. From manuscript to print: a revolution beyond format La Grant Dance Macabre , printed by Matthias Huss, Lyon, 1499 X Prosper Marchand Histoire de l ’origine et des premieres d’imprimerie, The Hague, 1740
  4. 4. From text to hypertext <ul><li>Technological advance: </li></ul><ul><li>New reading habits </li></ul><ul><li>Big gap: digital natives vs digital immigrants (Marc Prensky, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to libraries and publishers: understand, predict and create services that respond to the information needs of both user groups </li></ul>
  5. 5. Digital content: new format, new revolution? <ul><li>“ Integrated ” </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre Lévy - Les technologies de l'intelligence : l'avenir de la pensée à l' ère informatique the digital world offers us the potential to deconstruct hierarchies enriching our experience and understanding of the world - collective intelligence based on consensus. </li></ul>“ Apocalyptic ” Nicholas Carr – The Shallows : digital reading based on a schizophrenic model - unlike the printed book that requires concentration and reflection, reading digital content is superficial and random changing our intellectual habits and brain structure. X
  6. 6. Market for eBooks in the UK: <ul><li>eBooks sell has increased by 318% em 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that in the coming years many titles will be published only in digital format </li></ul><ul><li>eBook users spend more time reading. Poll with 1200 eBook readers shows that 40% of respondents are reading more now than before </li></ul>http://www.bl.uk/2020vision
  7. 7. Market trends for eBooks in the UK for 2020 <ul><li>20% of titles will be published only in paper format </li></ul><ul><li>40% of titles will be published only in electronic format </li></ul><ul><li>40% of publications in the UK will appear in both formats </li></ul>See also JISC national e-books observatory project: http://www.jiscebooksproject.org/
  8. 8. eBooks: problems encountered by libraries <ul><li>Bullet 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullet2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bullet 3 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Publishers: major obstacles in providing eBooks to libraries <ul><li>Restrictions imposed by HarperCollins on the loan of eBooks by libraries (26 loans) proves that: </li></ul><ul><li>Service for accessing eBooks is still tied to printed publishing model </li></ul><ul><li>Options to access digital content are still very tight and do not take in consideration different user groups </li></ul><ul><li>Little understanding of reading and access behavior to online information </li></ul><ul><li>Market must offer new access models and greater flexibility in DRM </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is the British Library doing? <ul><li>Colaboration with other institutions (academic, governmental and commmercial partners) for the creation of interactive platforms: </li></ul><ul><li>Codex Sinaiticus: http://www.codexsinaiticus.org/en/ </li></ul><ul><li>Gale World Scholar: http ://www.galeuk.com/trialsite/ </li></ul><ul><li>Turning the Pages: http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/virtualbooks/index.html# </li></ul><ul><li>Apps for tablets and smart phones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19 th Century Books (Microsoft) - BiblioLabs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treasures – Toura </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Treasures – Toura (work in progress) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. BL apps: 19 th Century Books http://bit.ly/lI2BfQ <ul><li>Digitisation project in partnership with Microsoft ( Live Book Search ) </li></ul><ul><li>Free access to 1,000 titles </li></ul><ul><li>“ Content with Curation” </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly subscription for access to other 45,000 titles </li></ul><ul><li>BL invests the revenue generated by subscription into the digitisation of new titles to be added to the collections aiming to provide 60,000 titles by the end of 2011 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Future projects <ul><li>Digitisation project with Google: </li></ul><ul><li>Digitization of 250,000 titles published between 1700 to 1870 (40 million pages) due to start in 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic selection of material to be digitised (eg, French Revolution, Feminist publications, Slavery, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Material accessible through Google Books and the British Library online catalog </li></ul>Gouges, Olympe de, The Rights of Women. To the Queen, 1791