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TO: PROF. NADIA SHAMEEM
Aqsa suleman
Roll no 11750
WRITER INTRODUCTION
• Ngugi wa Thiong'o, original name James Thiong'o
Ngugi, (born January 5, 1938, Limuru, Kenya),
Kenyan writer who was considered East Africa's
leading novelist. His popular Weep Not, Child (1964)
was the first major novel in English by an East
African.
MAJOR WORKS
• SHORT STORIES
The Fig Tree ,The Wind, The Secret Lives(1976)
• PLAYS
The Black Hermit Ngaahika Ndeende (1977 ) Gikuyu.
• NOVELS
Weep Not Child (1964) The River Between (1965) A Grain of Wheat (1967) The Wound in the Heart (1976)
Petals of Blood published (1977) ,Wizard of the Crow, is written in Gikuyu.
• ESSAYS
A Barrel of Pen (1984), Decolonizing the Mind appeared in 1986.
PETALS OF BLOOD(INTRODUCTION)
• Petals of Blood is a novel written by Ngũgĩ
wa Thiong'o and first published in 1977. Set
in Kenya just after independence, the story
follows four characters – Munira, Abdulla,
Wanja, and Karega – whose lives are
intertwined due to the Mau rebellion.
TITLE OF NOVEL
• The title of the novel is taken from the poem “The Swamp” by Derek
Walcott suggests destruction, evil , the unnatural and death.
• The literary devices used for narration- dialogue, allusions and
flashback technique.
• Narration is done by Munira and other characters and an
omniscient narrator.
• The internal journey of Ngugi is depicted through the journey of
Ilmorog.It is the journey of Kenya itself.
PROBLEMS
• Life in postcolonial Africa is
characterized by:
• Irresponsibility of the authoritative
people.
• Church’s role in enslaving the
souls.
• Problems of colonial education.
• Exploiting the peasants by
imposing taxes on land.
• Economic exploitation in the form of
loans.
• Betrayal of the independence
movement.
• Domination of Europeans in the
business field
• Corruption
• Betrayal of human ideals
THEME
• A literary theme is the main idea or underlying meaning a writer explores in a
novel, short story, or other literary work. The theme of a story can be conveyed using
characters, setting, dialogue, plot, or a combination of all of these elements.
THEMES
• Colonialism
• Violence
• Land
• Freedom
• Role of women
• Corruption
• Anti colonial struggle
• betrayal
COLONIALISM
• One primary underlining theme in Petals of Blood is the failure of the
ruling Kenyan elite to adequately meet the needs of the people. After
the new postcolonial governments come to power, the leaders maintain
their connections with the outgoing colonizers, thus marginalizing the
everyman.
VIOLENCE
• In Petals of Blood, Ngugi's 1977 novel, he is searching for a political strategy to
successfully end “the Whole thing”- global monopoly capitalism of which Africa is
constituent part. In this novel, the Kenya Ngugi writes about, the Kenya that nobody
can take away from him, is the 'Kenya of working class of all nationalities and their
heroic struggle against domination by nature and other humans over the centuries.’
• Here we see the face of Kenya whose face is reflected in Ilmorog, the center of action for
the novel. Ngugi chooses a barren, drought stricken part of Kenya where neo-colonialism
put the interests of foreigners and abandons the people who had suffered and died for
the land.
• capitalism was burying Ilmorog and putting a new Ilmorog in its place.
• people reached to a point of no return and raised the protagonists to resist the
destruction.
LAND
• Agriculture is an important theme in Petals of Blood, most notably in the town of
Ilmorog, an isolated, pastoral community. After modernization, the farmers lands
are fenced off and ultimately seized when they cannot repay their loans.
FREEDOM
• Freedom has not brought the kind of better life for which people hoped and
sacrificed. Kenyans have merely exchanged white rulers for black rulers; corruption
has become a cancerous growth in the nation's life. These are the major themes of
Petals of Blood.
ROLE OF WOMEN
• Through Ngugi's novel Petals of Blood, the reader comes across the fact that a
woman can be a mother, politician, socialist, educator and provider of the family at
the same time. Women like Nyakinyua and Wanja struggle hard against colonialism.
They strongly desire to curb oppression and exploitation of Kenyan society.
CORRUPTION
• One primary underlining theme in Petals of Blood is the failure of the ruling
Kenyan elite to adequately meet the needs of the people. ... In the novel, the elite are
portrayed as both government officials and businessmen who violate the villagers of
Ilmorog in both passive and aggressive ways.
ANTI COLONIAL STRUGGLE
• The Mau Mau rebellion, as it is often called, which began in Kenya in the early
1950s, was a nationalist, anticolonial armed resistance against the British colonial
state. The guerrilla movement called itself the Kenya Land Freedom Army; the
British dubbed the movement “mau mau,” a meaningless name, to obscure the aims
otherwise so clear in the resistance army’s name. Ngugi Wa Thiongío’s Petals of
Blood examines, among other things, the betrayal by the postcolonial regime of the
ideals of this anticolonial struggle that helped Kenya achieve its independence.
BETRAYAL
• J.S Robson in his Dissertation titled Ngugi's fight against colonialism and neo-
colonialism: theme of betrayal maintains that in Petals of Blood, there is a conflict
between resistance and betrayal and that the neo-colonial betrayal in the novel
comes through gradual transformation of ld Illmorog to a new one.
CAPITALISM
• Capitalism is decried in Petals of Blood, with the new Kenyan elite portrayed as
controlled by the 'faceless system of capitalism'.
• Farmers are forced to mark out their lands and mortgage them with loans linked to
the success of their harvest; as the quality of the harvests waver, many are forced to
sell their land, unable to match their loan repayments.
• Cities are portrayed as places where capitalism flourishes and are contrasted
strongly with the village of Ilmorog.
themes of petals of blood
themes of petals of blood
themes of petals of blood

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themes of petals of blood

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  • 3. TO: PROF. NADIA SHAMEEM Aqsa suleman Roll no 11750
  • 4. WRITER INTRODUCTION • Ngugi wa Thiong'o, original name James Thiong'o Ngugi, (born January 5, 1938, Limuru, Kenya), Kenyan writer who was considered East Africa's leading novelist. His popular Weep Not, Child (1964) was the first major novel in English by an East African.
  • 5. MAJOR WORKS • SHORT STORIES The Fig Tree ,The Wind, The Secret Lives(1976) • PLAYS The Black Hermit Ngaahika Ndeende (1977 ) Gikuyu. • NOVELS Weep Not Child (1964) The River Between (1965) A Grain of Wheat (1967) The Wound in the Heart (1976) Petals of Blood published (1977) ,Wizard of the Crow, is written in Gikuyu. • ESSAYS A Barrel of Pen (1984), Decolonizing the Mind appeared in 1986.
  • 6. PETALS OF BLOOD(INTRODUCTION) • Petals of Blood is a novel written by Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o and first published in 1977. Set in Kenya just after independence, the story follows four characters – Munira, Abdulla, Wanja, and Karega – whose lives are intertwined due to the Mau rebellion.
  • 7. TITLE OF NOVEL • The title of the novel is taken from the poem “The Swamp” by Derek Walcott suggests destruction, evil , the unnatural and death. • The literary devices used for narration- dialogue, allusions and flashback technique. • Narration is done by Munira and other characters and an omniscient narrator. • The internal journey of Ngugi is depicted through the journey of Ilmorog.It is the journey of Kenya itself.
  • 8. PROBLEMS • Life in postcolonial Africa is characterized by: • Irresponsibility of the authoritative people. • Church’s role in enslaving the souls. • Problems of colonial education. • Exploiting the peasants by imposing taxes on land. • Economic exploitation in the form of loans. • Betrayal of the independence movement. • Domination of Europeans in the business field • Corruption • Betrayal of human ideals
  • 9. THEME • A literary theme is the main idea or underlying meaning a writer explores in a novel, short story, or other literary work. The theme of a story can be conveyed using characters, setting, dialogue, plot, or a combination of all of these elements.
  • 10. THEMES • Colonialism • Violence • Land • Freedom • Role of women • Corruption • Anti colonial struggle • betrayal
  • 11. COLONIALISM • One primary underlining theme in Petals of Blood is the failure of the ruling Kenyan elite to adequately meet the needs of the people. After the new postcolonial governments come to power, the leaders maintain their connections with the outgoing colonizers, thus marginalizing the everyman.
  • 12. VIOLENCE • In Petals of Blood, Ngugi's 1977 novel, he is searching for a political strategy to successfully end “the Whole thing”- global monopoly capitalism of which Africa is constituent part. In this novel, the Kenya Ngugi writes about, the Kenya that nobody can take away from him, is the 'Kenya of working class of all nationalities and their heroic struggle against domination by nature and other humans over the centuries.’ • Here we see the face of Kenya whose face is reflected in Ilmorog, the center of action for the novel. Ngugi chooses a barren, drought stricken part of Kenya where neo-colonialism put the interests of foreigners and abandons the people who had suffered and died for the land. • capitalism was burying Ilmorog and putting a new Ilmorog in its place. • people reached to a point of no return and raised the protagonists to resist the destruction.
  • 13. LAND • Agriculture is an important theme in Petals of Blood, most notably in the town of Ilmorog, an isolated, pastoral community. After modernization, the farmers lands are fenced off and ultimately seized when they cannot repay their loans.
  • 14. FREEDOM • Freedom has not brought the kind of better life for which people hoped and sacrificed. Kenyans have merely exchanged white rulers for black rulers; corruption has become a cancerous growth in the nation's life. These are the major themes of Petals of Blood.
  • 15. ROLE OF WOMEN • Through Ngugi's novel Petals of Blood, the reader comes across the fact that a woman can be a mother, politician, socialist, educator and provider of the family at the same time. Women like Nyakinyua and Wanja struggle hard against colonialism. They strongly desire to curb oppression and exploitation of Kenyan society.
  • 16. CORRUPTION • One primary underlining theme in Petals of Blood is the failure of the ruling Kenyan elite to adequately meet the needs of the people. ... In the novel, the elite are portrayed as both government officials and businessmen who violate the villagers of Ilmorog in both passive and aggressive ways.
  • 17. ANTI COLONIAL STRUGGLE • The Mau Mau rebellion, as it is often called, which began in Kenya in the early 1950s, was a nationalist, anticolonial armed resistance against the British colonial state. The guerrilla movement called itself the Kenya Land Freedom Army; the British dubbed the movement “mau mau,” a meaningless name, to obscure the aims otherwise so clear in the resistance army’s name. Ngugi Wa Thiongío’s Petals of Blood examines, among other things, the betrayal by the postcolonial regime of the ideals of this anticolonial struggle that helped Kenya achieve its independence.
  • 18. BETRAYAL • J.S Robson in his Dissertation titled Ngugi's fight against colonialism and neo- colonialism: theme of betrayal maintains that in Petals of Blood, there is a conflict between resistance and betrayal and that the neo-colonial betrayal in the novel comes through gradual transformation of ld Illmorog to a new one.
  • 19. CAPITALISM • Capitalism is decried in Petals of Blood, with the new Kenyan elite portrayed as controlled by the 'faceless system of capitalism'. • Farmers are forced to mark out their lands and mortgage them with loans linked to the success of their harvest; as the quality of the harvests waver, many are forced to sell their land, unable to match their loan repayments. • Cities are portrayed as places where capitalism flourishes and are contrasted strongly with the village of Ilmorog.