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The Fundamentals of Everything. [NYSF 2017]

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Summary: https://aqeelakber.com/2017/01/12/nysf-cern-fundamentals-of-everything/

It was my pleasure to brief high school students and teachers attending the National Youth Science Forum in Canberra.

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The Fundamentals of Everything. [NYSF 2017]

  1. 1. (i.e. what’s a particle good for anyway?) Background for the CERN video linkup Aqeel Akber Department of Nuclear Physics Australian National University
  2. 2. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 2 Aqeel Akber aqeel.akber@anu.edu.au Twitter: @AdmiralAkber Because I missed speed dating... ● 2nd Gen Immigrant ● Born in Darwin – No hospital in Jabiru ● Didn’t study physics in Yr 12 ● Ph.D candidate in Physics ● Favourite milkshake: Strawberry ● Geek of all sorts, also enjoys: – Nature – Visual Art – Musical Theatre – etc... Sunset at Ubir, Kakadu National Park
  3. 3. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 3 Aqeel Akber aqeel.akber@anu.edu.au Twitter: @AdmiralAkber Because I missed speed dating... ● 2nd Gen Immigrant ● Born in Darwin – No hospital in Jabiru ● Didn’t study physics in Yr 12 ● Ph.D candidate in Physics ● Favourite milkshake: Strawberry ● Geek of all sorts, also enjoys: – Nature – Visual Art – Musical Theatre – etc... Hands on experimental nuclear physics!
  4. 4. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 4 Aqeel Akber aqeel.akber@anu.edu.au Twitter: @AdmiralAkber Because I missed speed dating... ● 2nd Gen Immigrant ● Born in Darwin – No hospital in Jabiru ● Didn’t study physics in Yr 12 ● Ph.D candidate in Physics ● Favourite milkshake: Strawberry ● Geek of all sorts, also enjoys: – Nature – Visual Art – Musical Theatre – etc... #sweet #delicious #omnomnomnom
  5. 5. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 5 Aqeel Akber aqeel.akber@anu.edu.au Twitter: @AdmiralAkber Because I missed speed dating... ● 2nd Gen Immigrant ● Born in Darwin – No hospital in Jabiru ● Didn’t study physics in Yr 12 ● Ph.D candidate in Physics ● Favourite milkshake: Strawberry ● Geek of all sorts, also enjoys: – Nature – Visual Art – Musical Theatre – etc... LOOK AT THE SIZE OF THIS TREE!!
  6. 6. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 6 Aqeel Akber aqeel.akber@anu.edu.au Twitter: @AdmiralAkber Because I missed speed dating... ● 2nd Gen Immigrant ● Born in Darwin – No hospital in Jabiru ● Didn’t study physics in Yr 12 ● Ph.D candidate in Physics ● Favourite milkshake: Strawberry ● Geek of all sorts, also enjoys: – Nature – Visual Art – Musical Theatre – etc... Colab with artist to paint my research
  7. 7. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 7 Aqeel Akber aqeel.akber@anu.edu.au Twitter: @AdmiralAkber Who am I? (two, four, six, o one!!!) ● 2nd Gen Immigrant ● Born in Darwin – No hospital in Jabiru ● Didn’t study physics in Yr 12 ● Ph.D candidate in Physics ● Favourite milkshake: Strawberry ● Geek of all sorts, also enjoys: – Nature – Visual Art – Musical Theatre – etc... Strongly recommend seeing Kinky Boots!
  8. 8. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 8 Aqeel Akber aqeel.akber@anu.edu.au Twitter: @AdmiralAkber Who am I? (two, four, six, o one!!!) ● 2nd Gen Immigrant ● Born in Darwin – No hospital in Jabiru ● Didn’t study physics in Yr 12 ● Ph.D candidate in Physics ● Favourite milkshake: Strawberry ● Geek of all sorts, also enjoys: – Nature – Visual Art – Musical Theatre – etc... Strongly recommend seeing Kinky Boots! Pursuing physics has been more than just a science career choice for me. I’ve learned to perceive the world in a unique way and dream about what it could be. I now find most things inherently interesting, and I enjoy this. It is absolutely a part of my identity.
  9. 9. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 9 Outline ● What is CERN? ● Fundamentals of everything – Particles – Hadrons – Atoms – Molecules – Life, etc ● Question making!
  10. 10. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 10 CERN: The European Organisation for Nuclear Research ● 9 accelerators, 26 experiments, 21 member states ● 13,000 people on site + thousands elsewhere
  11. 11. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 11 Large Hadron Collider ● Circumference: 27 km – ACT is ~35 km wide ● 9,600 magnets – Magnetic field: 8.33T ● 100,000 times Earth’s – Temperature: -271.3 °C ● Cooler than outer space
  12. 12. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 12 Large Hadron Collider Stuff that is made up of quarks (I’ll get to this) The LHC accelerates protons, and lead ions.
  13. 13. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 13 Large Hadron Collider Two beams, travelling at 99.9999991% the speed of light in opposite directions collide 600 million times per second.
  14. 14. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 14 Why so fast?
  15. 15. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 15 What’s a particle good for anyway?
  16. 16. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 16 What’s a particle?
  17. 17. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 17 What’s a particle? Powered by
  18. 18. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 18 What’s a particle? The fundamental requisite to the greater.
  19. 19. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 19 What’s a particle good for? The fundamental requisite to the greater. Let, greater = description of all matter, how they interact and evolve. “The Standard Model”
  20. 20. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 20 What’s a particle good for? The fundamental requisite to the greater. Let, greater = description of all matter, how they interact and evolve. “The Standard Model”
  21. 21. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 21
  22. 22. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 22 The empire of Enrico Fermi ● Inhabitants are called Fermions ● They have energy + stuff to trade! But don’t know how! ● Two distinct tribes: Quarks and Leptons Quarks Leptons Trade Goods Spin Colour Flavour Electric Spin Flavour Electric* * Not all leptons have electric charge
  23. 23. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 23 The goods explained ● Spin: Up or Down ● Colour: Red, Green, Blue ● Flavour: A group / generation ● Electric: A number Quarks Leptons Trade Goods Spin Colour Flavour Electric Spin Flavour Electric* * Not all leptons have electric charge Anti-matter is just a particle with anti-charge! (exception: Spin)
  24. 24. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 24 The bazaar’s of Satyendra Nath Bose ● Merchants are called Bosons ● Enables trade of energy + goods – Gluons (g) → colour + spin – Photons (γ) → spin iff has electric – Z → flavour + spin – W+ or W- → flavour* + electric + spin ● Higgs → Proof of the existence of a bazaar that can give particles mass, if they ask.
  25. 25. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 25 The bazaar’s of Satyendra Nath Bose ● Merchants are called Bosons ● Enables trade of energy + goods – Gluons (g) → colour + spin – Photons (γ) → spin iff has electric – Z → flavour + spin – W+ or W- → flavour* + electric + spin ● Higgs → Proof of the existence of a bazaar that can give particles mass, if they ask.
  26. 26. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 26 The standard table of particles
  27. 27. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 27 + Two more concepts...
  28. 28. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 28 + Two more concepts... 1. Total energy and charge must be conserved (law!)
  29. 29. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 29 + Two more concepts... 1. Total energy and charge must be conserved (law!) 2. Exchange is in favour of minimising energy and neutralising charge (the arrow of time?) The formation of composite matter
  30. 30. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 30 The proton (H+ )
  31. 31. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 31 The proton (H+ )
  32. 32. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 32 The proton (H+ )
  33. 33. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 33 The proton (H+ )
  34. 34. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 34 Dueterium (2 H+ )
  35. 35. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 35 Dueterium (2 H+ )
  36. 36. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 36 Dueterium (2 H+ )
  37. 37. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 37 Dueterium (2 H+ )
  38. 38. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 38 Dueterium (2 H+ )
  39. 39. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 39 Dueterium (2 H+ )
  40. 40. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 40 CERN Discovery (2015): Pentaquark DUUCC
  41. 41. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 41 CERN Discovery (2015): Pentaquark
  42. 42. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 42 Bigger stuff: The hydrogen atom Proton
  43. 43. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 43 Bigger stuff: The hydrogen atom Proton I want to neutralize my electric charge! I have a comfy orbit, fits up to 2 electrons WTB: 1 electron, paying 13.6 eV via photon
  44. 44. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 44 Bigger stuff: The hydrogen atom Proton I want to neutralize my electric charge! I have a comfy orbit, fits up to 2 electrons WTB: 1 electron, paying 13.6 eV via photon
  45. 45. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 45 Bigger stuff: The hydrogen atom Proton I want to neutralize my electric charge! I have a comfy orbit, fits up to 2 electrons WTB: 1 electron, paying 13.6 eV via photon
  46. 46. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 46 Bigger stuff: The hydrogen atom Proton I want to neutralize my postive charge! I have a comfy orbit, fits up to 2 electrons WTB: 1 electron, paying 13.6 eV via photon The (Paul) Dirac Sea e-Must neutralize charge! Comfy orbit?
  47. 47. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 47 Bigger stuff: The hydrogen atom Proton @Electron: Sweet deal! The (Paul) Dirac Sea e-@Proton: I’ll take the orbit!
  48. 48. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 48 Bigger stuff: The hydrogen atom Proton The (Paul) Dirac Sea e-@Photon: I just want to chill! Whatevz, energy is mine now l8rz.
  49. 49. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 49 Even bigger: Water molecule, covalent bond e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- Got two vacant orbits for electrons, pays well. Don’t bother applying unless charge neutral Oxygen It’s not cheating if its covalent...
  50. 50. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 50 Fundamental physics at human scale
  51. 51. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 51 Fundamental physics for engineering
  52. 52. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 52 … for environmental scientists
  53. 53. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 53 … for everyone.
  54. 54. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 54 Enough from me! Until 20:00, we’ll create questions for Rolf Landua ● Groups of … x? Pick a spokesperson. Generate 2 or 3 questions. Pick your favourite + a backup ● After 15 mins, we’ll practice the questions, identify duplicates, pick your backup if someone else has your question
  55. 55. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 55 Example questions ● Scientific – What other experiments are done at CERN? – Why a proton and lead beam at the LHC? – What comes after the LHC? ● People – What kind of jobs do people do at CERN? ● Economics – How much does it cost to run the facility? Who pays? ● Organisational – How do so many countries and people ever make a decision?
  56. 56. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 56 Not yet a theory of everything
  57. 57. 11 Jan 2017 Aqeel Akber (@AdmiralAkber) 57 The Higgs mechanism

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