Production is a conversion function by
which goods and services are produced.
A typical production system comprises of
t...
A production system comprises of :
Inputs:- Machines, raw materials, Men etc.
Transformation Process:-
Operations, Mecha...
The combination of operations and
activities employed to create goods and
services are known as manufacturing
systems.
I...
The choice must meet two basic
objectives:
i. It must be able to meet the specifications
of the final product.
ii. It mus...
a. Effect of volume/variety.
b. Effect of Capacity of the Plant.
c. Effect of Flexibility.
d. Effect of Lead Time.
e. Effe...
I. Intermittent System:
 The goods are manufactured specially to
fulfill orders made by customers rather
than for stock.
...
Most products are produced in small
quantities
Machines and equipment are laid out by
process.
Workloads are generally ...
Organization needs estimation of
jobs, routing, scheduling, preparation of
manufacturing orders, dispatching and
producti...
Intermittent system can be classified into 3
categories:
1) Project Production.
2) Job Production.
3) Batch Production.
 It is characterized by complex sets of
activities performed in a particular order
within the given period and within the...
 Definite beginning and definite end.
 ‘Fixed position’ layout.
 High cost overruns.
 Personnel problems.
 Non -uniform requirement of resources.
 Involvement of different agencies.
 Scheduling and control.
It is manufacturing of one or few numbers
of a single product designed and
manufactured strictly to customer’s
specificat...
 Disproportionate manufacturing cycle
time.
 Large work-in-progress.
 Limited functions of production planning
and cont...
 Small production runs.
 Discontinuous flow of materials.
 General purpose machines and process
layout.
 Highly skille...
ADVANTAGES
Each item can be altered for the specific
customer.
 It adds value and creates USP.
DISADVANTAGES
It is an E...
The manufacture of a limited number of
product (but many such, quantities of
different products)
Examples of batch produ...
Supervisor to possess knowledge of a
specific process
General purpose machines and process
type of layout
Manual materi...
ADVANTAGES
It is cheaper to produce a number of each
item in one go
The workers can specialize in that task
DISADVANTAGE...
 Standardization is the fundamental characteristic
of this system.
 Items are produced in large quantities
 Less emphas...
 Mass production process itself is
characterized by mechanization to achieve
high volume, elaborate organization of
mater...
It minimizes unnecessary movements and
increases productivity.
 By Henry Ford in 1913.
Speedy and cost saving method.
...
 Effects on the organization of work
1.Tasks were minutely subdivided.
2. Manufacturing concerns grew to such size that
a...
Characteristics
-Special purpose machines and product
type layout
-Lesser flexibility in production schedules.
Importance
...
ADVANTAGES:
- Flow production is capital intensive.
- High number of products can roll off
assembly lines at very low cost...
Process production is characterized by
manufacture of a single product produced
and stocked in the warehouses awaiting
sa...
Characteristics:
-Special purpose machines with built-in
controls.
-Highly mechanized materials handling.
• Sometimes referred to as a
• "lean manufacturing system" or JIT
system.
• It is based on the total elimination of
waste....
Just-in-time production is considered to be
on the leading edge of technological
advancement.
Just-in-time systems are d...
Lower stock holding.
Less working capital.
Less likelihood of stock perishing.
Avoids the build-up of unsold finished
...
There is room for mistakes.
Production is very reliant on suppliers.
No spare finished product available to
meet unexpe...
PRODUCTION
SYSTEMS USED IN
STEEL INDUSTRY
Most steel is produced using one of four
methods:
 Bessemer Converters
 Open-hearth Furnaces
 Basic Oxygen Furnaces
 E...
The three raw materials used in making pig iron
are:-
1) The processed iron ore
2) Coke (residue left after heating coal i...
 A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical
furnace used for smelting to produce industrial
metals, generally iron.
 In ...
• Direct reduction, an alternative route of iron
making, has been developed to overcome some of
these difficulties of conv...
• The basic oxygen converter resembles a Bessemer converter.
• It is a method of primary steel making in which carbon-rich...
• An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged
material by means of an electric arc.
• High-quality carbo...
• Continuous casting, also called strand casting,
is the process whereby molten metal is solidified
into a "semi-finished"...
Thank You
Types of systems in operations
Types of systems in operations
Types of systems in operations
Types of systems in operations
Types of systems in operations
Types of systems in operations
Types of systems in operations
Types of systems in operations
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Types of systems in operations

  1. 1. Production is a conversion function by which goods and services are produced. A typical production system comprises of three main components:  Inputs  Transformation Process  Output
  2. 2. A production system comprises of : Inputs:- Machines, raw materials, Men etc. Transformation Process:- Operations, Mechanical activities Output:- Goods, services
  3. 3. The combination of operations and activities employed to create goods and services are known as manufacturing systems. It needs to interact with both internal and external environment. The selection of manufacturing system is a strategic decision.
  4. 4. The choice must meet two basic objectives: i. It must be able to meet the specifications of the final product. ii. It must be cost effective.
  5. 5. a. Effect of volume/variety. b. Effect of Capacity of the Plant. c. Effect of Flexibility. d. Effect of Lead Time. e. Effect of Efficiency. f. Effect of Environment.
  6. 6. I. Intermittent System:  The goods are manufactured specially to fulfill orders made by customers rather than for stock.  The flow of material is intermittent.  The production facilities are flexible enough to handle a wide variety of products and sizes.
  7. 7. Most products are produced in small quantities Machines and equipment are laid out by process. Workloads are generally unbalanced. Highly skilled operators are required for efficient use of machines and equipment. In-process inventory is large. Flexible to suit production varieties.
  8. 8. Organization needs estimation of jobs, routing, scheduling, preparation of manufacturing orders, dispatching and production control. The organization formulates their production strategy to suit the needs of the customer. Wise and careful sequencing Proper regulation and close inspection Storage facilities
  9. 9. Intermittent system can be classified into 3 categories: 1) Project Production. 2) Job Production. 3) Batch Production.
  10. 10.  It is characterized by complex sets of activities performed in a particular order within the given period and within the estimated expenditure.
  11. 11.  Definite beginning and definite end.  ‘Fixed position’ layout.  High cost overruns.  Personnel problems.
  12. 12.  Non -uniform requirement of resources.  Involvement of different agencies.  Scheduling and control.
  13. 13. It is manufacturing of one or few numbers of a single product designed and manufactured strictly to customer’s specifications, within, the given period and within the price fixed.
  14. 14.  Disproportionate manufacturing cycle time.  Large work-in-progress.  Limited functions of production planning and control.  Materials are indented and purchased on receipt of orders.  Process planning activity is almost absent.
  15. 15.  Small production runs.  Discontinuous flow of materials.  General purpose machines and process layout.  Highly skilled labour.  Highly competent knowledgeable supervision.  Simple Mechanism.  Decentralized Process
  16. 16. ADVANTAGES Each item can be altered for the specific customer.  It adds value and creates USP. DISADVANTAGES It is an Expensive process. It is labour intensive.
  17. 17. The manufacture of a limited number of product (but many such, quantities of different products) Examples of batch production are Process industries. Time between batches is known as 'Down Time'
  18. 18. Supervisor to possess knowledge of a specific process General purpose machines and process type of layout Manual materials handling Manufacturing cycle time affected due to queues Large work-in-progress Need to have production planning and control
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES It is cheaper to produce a number of each item in one go The workers can specialize in that task DISADVANTAGES It is difficult to change, as switching to another batch takes time and will mean a loss of output. Increases costs as it takes up space and raises the chance of damage to stock.
  20. 20.  Standardization is the fundamental characteristic of this system.  Items are produced in large quantities  Less emphasis is given to consumers orders.  Uniform and uninterrupted flow of material is maintained through pre determined sequence of operations required to produce the product.  System can produce only one type of product at one time.  Economies in production.
  21. 21.  Mass production process itself is characterized by mechanization to achieve high volume, elaborate organization of materials flow through various stages of manufacturing, careful supervision of quality standards, and minute division of labour.  France, Sweden and Britain got maturity and recognition only in U.S.A.  It does not have to mean low-quality production.
  22. 22. It minimizes unnecessary movements and increases productivity.  By Henry Ford in 1913. Speedy and cost saving method. Mass production systems are usually organized into assembly lines. Producing goods in large quantities at low cost.
  23. 23.  Effects on the organization of work 1.Tasks were minutely subdivided. 2. Manufacturing concerns grew to such size that a large hierarchy of supervisors and managers became necessary. 3. Increasing complexity of operations required employment of a large management staff in addition to a large distribution and sales force.  Led to international division of labour and markets.
  24. 24. Characteristics -Special purpose machines and product type layout -Lesser flexibility in production schedules. Importance -Continuous flow of material. -Mechanized materials handling. -Low skilled labor. -Short manufacturing cycle time. -Easy supervision. -Limited work- in- progress.
  25. 25. ADVANTAGES: - Flow production is capital intensive. - High number of products can roll off assembly lines at very low cost DISADVANTAGES -Difficult to alter the product process
  26. 26. Process production is characterized by manufacture of a single product produced and stocked in the warehouses awaiting sales. The flexibility of such plants is almost zero as only one type of product can be produced in such plants. Typical examples of such plants are sugar, steel, cement, paper, coke, refineries, etc.
  27. 27. Characteristics: -Special purpose machines with built-in controls. -Highly mechanized materials handling.
  28. 28. • Sometimes referred to as a • "lean manufacturing system" or JIT system. • It is based on the total elimination of waste. • This production system has been established based on many years of continuous improvements. • JIT means making what the markets wants, when it wants it.
  29. 29. Just-in-time production is considered to be on the leading edge of technological advancement. Just-in-time systems are designed to keep inventory costs at a minimum. While the just-in-time inventory management philosophy is simple, execution is not
  30. 30. Lower stock holding. Less working capital. Less likelihood of stock perishing. Avoids the build-up of unsold finished product. Less time is spent on checking and re- working.
  31. 31. There is room for mistakes. Production is very reliant on suppliers. No spare finished product available to meet unexpected orders.
  32. 32. PRODUCTION SYSTEMS USED IN STEEL INDUSTRY
  33. 33. Most steel is produced using one of four methods:  Bessemer Converters  Open-hearth Furnaces  Basic Oxygen Furnaces  Electric Furnace
  34. 34. The three raw materials used in making pig iron are:- 1) The processed iron ore 2) Coke (residue left after heating coal in the absence of air, generally containing up to 90% carbon), 3) Limestone (CaCO3) or burnt lime (CaO), which are added to the blast furnace at intervals, making the process continuous.
  35. 35.  A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally iron.  In a blast furnace, fuel and ore are continuously supplied through the top of the furnace, while air (sometimes with oxygen enrichment) is blown into the bottom of the chamber.  The end products are usually molten metal and slag phases tapped from the bottom.
  36. 36. • Direct reduction, an alternative route of iron making, has been developed to overcome some of these difficulties of conventional blast furnaces. • The direct reduction process is intrinsically more energy efficient than the blast furnace because it operates at a lower temperature, and there are several other factors which make it economical. • Direct-reduced iron is richer in iron than pig- Iron, typically 90–94% total iron.
  37. 37. • The basic oxygen converter resembles a Bessemer converter. • It is a method of primary steel making in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is made into steel. Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into low-carbon steel. • The process is known as basic due to the pH of the refractories— calcium oxide and magnesium oxide—that line the vessel to withstand the high temperature of molten metal. • It receives materials from the top and tips to pour off the finished steel into ladles. • The main element is a water-cooled oxygen lance, which is placed into the top of the converter after it is charged with scrap steel, molten pig iron, and fluxing agents.
  38. 38. • An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. • High-quality carbon and alloy steels, such as stainless steels, are produced in electric arc furnaces. These furnaces can make 150-200 tons in a single heat in as little as 90 minutes. • The entire electric furnace is tilted during a tapping operation in which molten steel flows into a waiting ladle. • Electric furnaces are the most competitive where low- cost electricity is available and where very little coal or iron ore is found.
  39. 39. • Continuous casting, also called strand casting, is the process whereby molten metal is solidified into a "semi-finished" billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in the finishing mills. • In addition to costing less, continuously cast steels have more uniform compositions and properties than ingot cast steels. • The continuous cast process has become the most economical method to produce large quantities of conventional steels.
  40. 40. Thank You

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