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Additive Manufacturing: Considerations for Powder Metals - OMTEC 2017

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As metal powder additive manufacturing advances from rapid prototyping to mass production, the importance of powder characteristics and composition has become widely recognized. In this presentation, various techniques for powder production will be explored, with the emphasis on variants in atomization technology. Conventional and emerging techniques for measuring powder characteristics will be discussed. Analysis of finished components that meet or exceed expected properties, while at the same time taking advantage of revolutionary part design, will be addressed. It is the intent to assist component designers and manufacturing engineers in both alloy selection and specification determination for optimum property results.

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Additive Manufacturing: Considerations for Powder Metals - OMTEC 2017

  1. 1. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved
  2. 2. C O N F I D E N T I A L OMTEC 2017 June 13-15, 2017 Presented by: Ray DeFrain, Regional Metallurgist - Midwest U.S. /Canada Claudia Mumau, External Collaborations Manager Considerations for Metal Powders used in Additive Manufacturing
  3. 3. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 3 Introductions – Claudia Mumau External Collaborations Manager email: cmumau@cartech.com phone: 610.208.4003 – Ray DeFrain Regional Metallurgist for Midwest U.S. & CANADA email: rdefrain@cartech.com phone: 484.793.5130
  4. 4. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved  Introductions  Carpenter Technology: Overview  Our Core Values and History  Medical Market Focus & Current Snapshot  Introduction to Additive Manufacturing  Interest & growth trends in Medical market  Identify opportunities and advantages of AM  Identify challenges with AM  Powder: 5 Whys?  Common Powder Production Methods  Carpenter’s selected methodology  Important attributes of Powder  Carpenter’s Production Method & Process Flow Path  Powder Properties: Meeting Expectation through Innovation  Carpenter’s Commitment to Powder  Carpenter’s Testing Capabilities & Powder Inspection capability  The importance of defining design criteria  Partnering with a design house & manufacturer-in-one!  Case studies  Examples of Printed Parts in use today  Questions 4 Agenda
  5. 5. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 5 Advanced Specialty Alloys
  6. 6. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved INSTRUMENTS AND TRAUMA IMPLANTS • CarTech 316, CarTech 440A/C • CarTech Custom 455® Stainless • CarTech Custom 465® Stainless • Ti 6AI-4V ELI, CP 4 (Dental Implant) • Various other ASTM F899 Alloys * MP35N is a registered trademark of SPS Technologies, Inc. FRACTURE FIXATION • CarTech BioDur® 316LS Alloy • Ti 6Al-4V ELI • CarTech BioDur® 108 Alloy HIP AND KNEE REPLACEMENTS • CarTech BioDur CCM® Alloy • CarTech BioDur CCM Plus® Alloy VASCULAR DEVICES (stents) • CarTech MP35N Alloy • CarTech L-605 Alloy ARTIFICIAL DISCS & SPINAL FIXATION • CarTech Micro-Melt BioDur CCM® Alloy • CarTech Micro-Melt BioDur CCM® Plus® Alloy • CarTech Micro-Melt BioDur® GADS Alloy SURGICAL NEEDLES AND STAPLES • CarTech Custom 475® Stainless • CarTech 420 Stainless • Ti 6AI-4V ELI Medical Alloy Snapshot
  7. 7. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved  Introductions  Carpenter Technology: Overview  Our Core Values and History  Medical Market Focus & Current Snapshot  Introduction to Additive Manufacturing  Interest & growth trends in Medical market  Identify opportunities and advantages of AM  Identify challenges with AM  Powder: 5 Whys?  Common Powder Production Methods  Carpenter’s selected methodology  Important attributes of Powder  Carpenter’s Production Method & Process Flow Path  Powder Properties: Meeting Expectation through Innovation  Carpenter’s Commitment to Powder  Carpenter’s Testing Capabilities & Powder Inspection capability  The importance of defining design criteria  Partnering with a design house & manufacturer in-one!  Case studies  Examples of Printed Parts in use today  Questions 7 Agenda
  8. 8. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 8 Interest and growth in AM for Medical Market According to Market Research Reports, Medical demand for additive manufacturing powder is projected to grow by 23% annually through 2025. 2,681 2,252 1,864 1,518 1,222 950 708 296 213156113 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 201620142012 Additive manufacturing market size ($M) +23% 20202018 Source: Wohlers Associates (baseline data), SmarTech Publishing (forecast growth rate) EIGA atomizer: ALD ForecastHistorical Powder atomization Vacuum furnace upgrades Titanium alloys Screening & handling ultrasonic cascading screens, inert handling Product management Technical sales R&D resources AM application engineers Addition of new AM powder capabilities Dedicating addition of resources to AM Carpenter’s Response to this Need
  9. 9. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 9 Interest and growth in AM for Medical Market Key AM Takeaways: Interest and Growth • Titanium, Titanium Alloys, and Cobalt-Chrome powders will be the largest beneficiaries of increasing medical Additive Manufacturing demand. • Ti, Ti-alloys, and Co-alloys combine superior mechanical properties with excellent biocompatibility. • Each have shown success in Additive manufacturing practices, with production-level precedence established in new designs. • Additive Manufacturing has unique advantages over conventionally machined parts, exhibited in the following slides.
  10. 10. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 10 Opportunities and Advantages of AM AM Changes the “Economies of Scale” – AM has the potential to reduce the capital required to reach minimum efficient scale for production, thus lowering the barriers to entry to manufacturing for a given location. Reference: Atzeni, Eleonora, Luca Iuliano, and Allessandro Salmi. 2011. “On the Competitiveness of Additive Manufacturing for the Production of Metal Parts.” 9th International Conference on Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Technology.
  11. 11. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 11 Opportunities and Advantages of AM Manufacturing flexibility – reducing the costs associated with production changeovers and customization. • Numerous, and often differing, parts can be printed concurrently • Single machine and tooling for internal and external features • Single input material, rather than numerous variants of inventory
  12. 12. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 12 Opportunities and Advantages of AM Customization – • Hybrid conventional machining + AM build up • Internal design features (Physical Modulus Manipulation) • Patient specific design
  13. 13. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 13 Opportunities and Advantages of AM 510(k) clearance – The FDA has approved multiple devices using additive manufacturing. Most of them via the 510(k) or emergency use pathways. The FDA has developed draft guidance approximately 1 year ago for AM. Showing signs of their expectation of further implementation of this technology.
  14. 14. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 14 Opportunities and Advantages of AM Complex shapes – • Ability to create novel shapes • Forms that could promote faster healing • Lattice / Hollow structures (only possible through AM) can enable: • custom stiffness • custom strength • reduced weight
  15. 15. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 15 Current Challenges with AM Current Challenges with the Technology: • Low throughput, compared to traditional subtractive manufacturing —New equipment design can advance, but still will be small volumes. • “AM recipes” don’t necessarily produce consistent results across different machines — Equipment manufacturers have tackled AM through different designs. • Metallurgical properties not fully honed — Carpenter Technology can be an integral partner for this, developing customer AM- specific powder blends, as we have for numerous customers already. • Lack of universal industry standards — Wrought requirements and the expectations of AM parts vs. wrought parts have not aligned to the point of wide-spread standard development. Committees to support this growth have been established. • Post-processing operations still required — Many processes still require HIP to drive 100% consolidation.
  16. 16. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved  Introductions  Carpenter Technology: Overview  Our Core Values and History  Medical Market Focus & Current Snapshot  Introduction to Additive Manufacturing  Interest & growth trends in Medical market  Identify opportunities and advantages of AM  Identify challenges with AM  Powder: 5 Whys?  Common Powder Production Methods  Carpenter’s selected methodology  Important attributes of Powder  Carpenter’s Production Method & Process Flow Path  Powder Properties: Meeting Expectation through Innovation  Carpenter’s Commitment to Powder  Carpenter’s Testing Capabilities & Powder Inspection capability  The importance of defining design criteria  Partnering with a design house & manufacturer in-one!  Case studies  Examples of Printed Parts in use today  Questions 16 Agenda
  17. 17. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 17 Common Powder Production Methods: Gas vs Water Atomization • Material – High Alloy • Morphology – Spherical • Density – ~100% • Oxygen level – ~100ppm • Toughness – High • Cost – High • No Need to Press & Sinter Gas Atomized Powder Water Atomized Powder • Material – Low Alloy • Morphology – Irregular • Density – ~90-95% • Oxygen level – ~2000ppm • Toughness – Low • Cost – Low • Must Press & Sinter
  18. 18. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved Metal Powder Basic Requirements • Chemistry • Particle Size Distribution (PSD) DMLS 10-44 micron EBM 44-106 micron FLM 44-150 micron • Morphology and Flow • Cleanliness PSD -44u
  19. 19. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved Powder Characterization Characteristic Test Method(s) ASTM Std. Benefits Limitations PSD Sieve analysis B214 Large sample size, No algorithms Size range (low discrimination) Difficult for fine powder Light scattering B822 Fast, high resolution Relative to sieve analysis, Powder shape and light scattering assumptions Digital image processing Comparable to sieve analysis Much of current industry/customer base relies on light scattering methods Flow Hall flow B213 Simple Some non-flowing (per B213) powder works well in AM Carney flow B964 Amenable to more powder Not as commonly used Angle of Repose B243 (def.) Simple Little correlation available between test values and real world AM results Rheological Testing (Freeman, Mercury, etc.) Test many properties Expensive, Little correlation available between test values and real world AM results Density Tap Density B527 Simple AM machines lack tapping/driving force for optimum packing in this manner Apparent Density B212 / B417 Simple Not analogous to spreading regime in AM • Standard test methods lack ability to discriminate between “good” and “bad” AM powder • Further correlation between new test methods necessary to aid in evaluation of virgin and used material
  20. 20. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 20 Powder Production Methods: Detail on Gas Atomization Environments • Air, Inert Gas, or Vacuum Melt Melting type • Plasma • Induction • Vacuum (Soluble Gas) Atomization Melt Nozzle • Straight bore, conical, etc. • Free Fall • Close coupled Chamber / Collection Vessel Configuration Atomization • Ar vs. N2 vs. He Example: Carpenter’s VIM - Gas Atomization
  21. 21. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved Melt/ Atomize Screen Classify Blend and/or Pack Process Flow Chart 1. Melt in Furnace 2. Control flow in tundish 3. Pour out of Atomization nozzle 4. Obliterate via Gas system 5. Cool in Atomization tower 6. Sealed in via mechanism 7. Collect in container • Insure uniformity • Inert gas handling • Avoid moisture • Work to strict packaging requirements Air classified to segregate particle size into proper distributions for end applications
  22. 22. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved  Introductions  Carpenter Technology: Overview  Our Core Values and History  Medical Market Focus & Current Snapshot  Introduction to Additive Manufacturing  Interest & growth trends in Medical market  Identify opportunities and advantages of AM  Identify challenges with AM  Powder: 5 Whys?  Common Powder Production Methods  Carpenter’s selected methodology  Important attributes of Powder  Carpenter’s Production Method & Process Flow Path  Powder Properties: Meeting Expectation through Innovation  Carpenter’s Commitment to Powder  Carpenter’s Testing Capabilities & Powder Inspection capability  The importance of defining design criteria  Partnering with a design house & manufacturer in-one!  Case studies  Examples of Printed Parts in use today  Questions 22 Agenda
  23. 23. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 23 Production Locations CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA EUROPE NORTH AMERICA Powder manufacturing Regional sales office Torshalla, Sweden Air / PHT N2 Bridgeville, PA 2 VIM 1 Air Ar / N2 Woonsocket, RI Inert Melt Ar / N2 Global HQ: Reading, PA 300 lb vacuum (R&D furnace) Bruceton Mills, WV Titanium ASIA / APAC Athens, AL VIM Ar / N2
  24. 24. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 24 Powders & Applications • Nickel alloys • High temperature superalloys • Duplex and super duplex • Austenitic stainless • Magnetic alloys • Nitrogen strengthened SS • Precipitation hardened SS • Tool steels • Maraging steels • HSLA steels • Cobalt alloys • Copper alloys • Titanium alloys (coming soon) High purity, gas-atomized powder products Serving performance end applications across our markets Metal injection molding (MIM) Additive manufacturing (AM) HIP Near Net Shapes HIP Mill Forms Thermal spray Cladding / metal deposition
  25. 25. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved Titanium Powder Production • Newly refurbished 55,000 square foot state-of-the-art Titanium & Titanium Alloy facility • Powder Production: Gas Atomizer and Plasma Arc Melter • ISO 9001 & AS 9100 certified
  26. 26. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved Titanium Powder Production • All Titanium System – eliminates iron contamination • Refractory-Free – eliminates refractory contamination • Pure, Spherical, Homogeneous powder
  27. 27. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved Research and Development
  28. 28. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved Research and Development R&D Mirror of AM major process Needs • Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) − Fe-base, Ni-base, Co-base − Ingot sizes = 15kg & 180kg • VIM Powder Atomization Unit • 300lb capacity • AM equipment testing on-site and through partnerships • Heat treating Enabler for Product Development and Process Optimization
  29. 29. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved Materials’ Characterization Examples: • X-ray Diffraction • Metallography • Orientation Imaging • Electron Microprobe • SEM • Image Analysis565248444036322824201612840 Area (µm²) 0 150 300 450 600 750 Count 0 20 40 60 80 100 Cumulative(%)
  30. 30. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved • Customer Collaborations • Classifier for R&D programs • New power supply for R&D atomizer • Yield Improvements • Enhanced controls • Water modelling of atomization process • Nozzle design – collaboration with Mikro Systems, Inc. • Industry Participation/Standards Creation • Mercury Scientific “Revolution” analyzer • Freeman FT 4 Rheometer • Microtrac for PSD • Image Analyzer for Particle Shape • Technique for measuring “hollow spheres” • AM Strategy Team • Addition of Resources • Development of AM Technology Center Emerging Measurement Techniques
  31. 31. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved 31 Became preferred supplier Highest quality CCM powder Custom powder PSD and chemistry Optimized for machine performance Provided supply chain solutions Cooperative re-use / recycling program Improved CCM alloy for AM production of aerospace component Tailored 17Cr-4Ni PH powder for Medical AM Instrumentation Proprietary Engine Component (discussion limited) Identified mechanical property issue with commercially available powder Leveraged Carpenter technical expertise to develop alternatives Improved mechanical properties for AM components (ASTM A564) Became preferred supplier AM Development Case Studies
  32. 32. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved Examples of AM Parts In Use Today
  33. 33. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved Questions? Thank you for your attention! Are there any questions?
  34. 34. C O N F I D E N T I A L© 2017 CRS Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved

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