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#Aprender3C - Recursos Educativos Abiertos y Linked Data en Ecuador

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por Nelson Piedra (Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Ecuador).

Serie de webinars “Los desafíos de la Educación Abierta en Latinoamérica”.
Organiza: A-REA y Aprender 3C.
Apoyan: OKFN edu, ABGRA, RENABIar, UMET y Conocimiento GyF.

+ info en http://aprender3c.org/

Published in: Education
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#Aprender3C - Recursos Educativos Abiertos y Linked Data en Ecuador

  1. 1. Semantic Interoperability: Open Educational Resources & #SemanticWeb /#LinkedData Nelson Piedra | @nopiedra nopiedra@utpl.edu.ec #20180829
  2. 2. Motivation • The right to education is part of the economic, social and cultural rights defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Education shall be free. • The main purpose of OER movement is to provide open and free access to high quality digital learning materials. For this reason, its effects or implications on higher education are well known. • OERs are distributed across a variety of repositories, using a variety of metadata standards, various interfaces and access mechanism. • Harvesting OER for use elsewhere can involve complicated metadata crosswalk, and metadata often is incomplete and out of date.
  3. 3. Towards quality education for all The Hewlett Foundation defines open educational resources (OER) as “high-quality teaching, learning, and research materials that are free for people everywhere to use and repurpose.” OER gained momentum in 2001 when MIT founded the OpenCourseWare initiative, making instructional materials for nearly 2,000 courses available free online. OER became an issue on the world political stage in 2012 with the adoption of the Paris OER Declaration, which explicitly linked OER to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states that “Everyone has the right to education.” Additionally, the definition of Sustainable Development Goal 4, that ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
  4. 4. – Open Definition (Open Knowledge, 2015) “Knowledge is open if anyone is free to access, use, modify, and share it — subject, at most, to measures that preserve provenance and openness.” open “Open Educational Resources (OERs) are any type of educational materials that are in the public domain or introduced with an open license.” UNESCO
  5. 5. Open Content + Linked Data #Ecuador ! #OER #OpenData #LinkedData #LOD #OpenContent: open licenses to allow sharing and reuse of data. #LinkedData: technology for global interoperability and data integration. @nopiedra oerLOD4 powered by linked open data for open educational resources
  6. 6. Challenge: connect silos of open content distributed across the Web
  7. 7. NMC Horizon Report: 2018 Higher Education Edition Proliferation of Open Educational Resources
 Mid-Term Trend: Driving technology adoption in Higher Education for the next three to five years Adoption of OER has been driven largely by efforts to reduce the costs associated with higher education, though perhaps the most powerful potential outcome of OER is the opportunity for institutions to develop a broader set of investments in course development and infrastructure. Samantha Adams Becker, Malcolm Brown, Eden Dahlstrom, Annie Davis, Kristi DePaul, Veronica Diaz, and Jeffrey Pomerantz. NMC Horizon Report: 2018 Higher Education Edition. Louisville, CO: EDUCAUSE, 2018.
  8. 8. Copyright vs CC cs PD Copyright “All rights reserved” El re-uso requiere los permisos de parte del propietario del copyright. Creative Commons “Some rights reserved” El reuso es permitido sin que se requiera permisos, bajo la especificación compartida en la licencia Public Domain “No rights reserved” Se puede usar sin pedir permisos.
  9. 9. Se creativo. Es fácil cuando no se necesita intermediarios. • El licenciante no puede revocar estas libertades en tanto usted siga los términos de la licencia • No hay restricciones adicionales — Usted no puede aplicar términos legales ni medidas tecnológicas que restrinjan legalmente a otros hacer cualquier uso permitido por la licencia.
  10. 10. The 5Rs of Openness, from: https://www.opencontent.org/definition/ 1 Retain - the right to make, own, and control copies of the content (e.g., download, duplicate, store, and manage) 2 Reuse - the right to use the content in a wide range of ways (e.g., in a class, in a study group, on a website, in a video) 3 Revise - the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself (e.g., translate the content into another language) 4 Remix - the right to combine the original or revised content with other material to create something new (e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup) 5 Redistribute - the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others (e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend). more open less open Some rights reserved (Creative Commons) copyright No rights reserved (Public Domain) All rights reserved thespectrumofrights
  11. 11. Acceso Abierto #OpenAccess Libre inmediato enLínea Disponible Re-usable Adaptable Licencias abiertas Reproducible
  12. 12. Licencias CC: Tres capas Legible por Máquinas Legible por Humanos Lenguaje de Abogados Referencia Práctica: resumen de licencia o “Commons Deed” Derechos y Obligaciones que entienden las máquinas: CC Rights Expression Language (CC REL) https://wiki.creativecommons.org/ Ccrel Instrumentos en lenguaje y formato legal tradicional, amado por los abogados.
  13. 13. OER Ecosystem: distributed, heterogeneous and autonomous
  14. 14. The Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1563) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_of_Babel
  15. 15. OER Discovery and Reuse
  16. 16. Estandarización ¿suficiente para interoperar e integrar? Implementación e Integración @nopiedra LOD4OER
  17. 17. ¿Qué estándares usamos? Estándares de factor Estándares por ley
  18. 18. Los estándares no son suficientes para asegurar Interoperabilidad. Implementar adaptadores Usar transformadores
  19. 19. SemanticandMachineReadabilityofTheWeb 1989 1999 2009 2020 2030 The World Wide Web (Documents on the Web, e.g. Gopher) Data on the Web (Open Data) The Semantic Web (Web of Linked Data) The Social Web (Web 2.0) The Intelligent Web (Web Scale reasoning) PC Era (Databases, Files & Folders) The Web of Documents (Hypertext) Intelligent Agents Natural language search Automatic semantic tagging (ontologies) Semantic Web and Linked Data Technologies help to regain productivity and global collaboration in the face of overwhelming information growth As amount of content grows, keywords search is becoming less productive Content Grows: Volumen, Variety, Velocity Knowledge Graphs
  20. 20. basadas en similaridad de textos búsquedas “semánticas” La información se representa en un modelo de datos basado en grafos la información se representada en lenguaje natural (e.g. inglés, español, …) vs
  21. 21. knowledge Graph Results
  22. 22. The Semantic Web A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities By Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler and Ora Lassila on May 1, 2001 “The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation”. “Make the Web understandable for machines”. The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data that can be processed by machines. See http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-semantic-web/ See: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/262614/1/Semantic_Web_Revisted.pdf SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN May 2001 Volume 284, Issue 5
  23. 23. (z)autonom y heterogeneity (x)distribution(y) subordinating homogenizing centralizing Managers have been told to break down the walls between siloed information systems. A information silo is a system that operates in isolation or separately from others systems. P1 P2 Information Ecosystem: Distributed Silos @nopiedra LOD4OER OER Repository A OER Repository B @nopiedra2016
  24. 24. Linked Data is Data Interoperability The need for communication and interoperation between autonomous and distributed information systems is increasing with the increasing usage of the Web. e.g. interoperability between heterogeneous and distributed environments TED2009 Tim Berners-Lee on the next Web
  25. 25. <href> <href> <href> <href> <href> <href> <href> <href> <href> from Web of Documents (unstructured information) to Web of Linked Data (structured information) RDF Links <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <href> Towards single OER global dataspace Using RDF to publish structure data on the Web, ontologies as an explicit specification of a conceptualization, URI for every Web resource, and linking between data resources within different data sources. @nopiedra2016
  26. 26. Linked Data core stack HTTP URI RDF SPARQL
  27. 27. Semantic Interoperability
  28. 28. Legal International and national legislation and agreements about Education for all and Open Access Organizational Strategy, Support and Process Agreements Information and Semantic Meaning Exchange Technological Data/Content Exchange Information systems can interoperate with multi-providers educational processes. Information systems can exchange meaningful data and share common vocabularies/ontologies. Information systems can connect and exchange data globally. Enable the maximum degree of interoperability, access to and reuse of educational and research content. Public domain & Open licensing. Levels / Dimensions Interoperability goals @nopiedra LOD4OER
  29. 29. Breaking down the walls. Understanding an greater empathy. (z)autonom y heterogeneity (x)distribution(y) W orking togetherand connecting experiences Connectand informationexchange Autonomy, heterogeneity and distribution are not the bigger problem. The key problem is the presence of silos and poor collaboration to establish agreements towards global interoperability. Linked Open Data initiative is a effort fostering global collaboration to address interoperability and integration challenges in open data ecosystem. Silos and isolation must stop. The way is breaking down the silos and facilitating collaboration. Grade of Interoperability P(x,y,z) @nopiedra2016 Interoperability, the ability of Open Data information systems to exchange and make use of information. Ecosystem Semantically Interoperable
  30. 30. Information and Semantic Interoperability Layer (based on Linked Data) C. User Layer A. Internet Layer B. Web Layer A. Internet Layer B. Web Layer C. User Layer From Current Web of Documents The Web as Platform Linked Data Querying and Browsing (SPARQL). Linked Data Linking and Publishing. Ontologies and Semantic Vocabularies. RDF to information exchange. HTTP-URI to be connected and queried. URIs to global identification of resources. URI <href> Towards Semantic Web @nopiedra LOD4OER @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  31. 31. Linked Data Core Stack, Specifications • RFC 2616 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1: Defines HTTP, a generic and stateless application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. • RFC 3986 Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax: Defines a generic URI syntax and a process for resolving URI references that might be in relative form, along with guidelines and security considerations for the use of URIs on the Internet. • RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax: Defines the RDF graph data model and key concepts. • SPARQL Query Language for RDF: Defines defines the syntax and semantics of the SPARQL query language for RDF.
  32. 32. Estándares Abiertos Interoperabilidad • Romper Silos de Datos • Separar datos de aplicaciones • Compartir modelos de datos e interfaces de programación • Habilitar posibilidades de integración a nivel de herramientas y repositorios Interoperabilidad Estándares abiertos = “El Internet está fundamentalmente basado en la existencia de estándares abiertos y no-propietarios.” Vint Cert, Padre del Internet. Semántica +
  33. 33. OER + Linked Data #Ecuador ! #OER #LinkedData #LOD With LinkedData, users (human beings and machines) can discover more and more interlinked data/ information while using #OpenContent. @nopiedra oerLOD4 powered by linked open data for open educational resources
  34. 34. URIs Use URI as names for things. HTTP URIs Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. RDF, SPARQL When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL). Linking Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. Ontologies “An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization. 1 2 3 4 +1 The Linked Data Rules of the Game The inventor of the World Wide Web and the creator and advocate of the Semantic Web and Linked Data, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, laid down the four design principles of Linked Data as early as in 2006. @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  35. 35. The notion of instance - :Persona rdf:type rdfs:Class . A particular issue of class is named an instance of class rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type a world of interconnected knowledge graphs @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  36. 36. Sujeto Predicado Objeto http://telecincostatic-a.akamaihd.net/informativos/ sociedad/Trillizos-reciben-quimioterapia-lucha- cancer_MDSIMA20140315_0098_21.jpg
  37. 37. :Artist :Work rdf:type rdf:type :author @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  38. 38. foaf:Person :Guayasamin @base <http://example.org/> . @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . @prefix dbo: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . @prefix wikidata: <http://www.wikidata.org/entity/> . :Guayasamin rdf:type foaf:Person . Oswaldo Oswaldo Guayasamín (Quito, 6 de julio de 1919 - Baltimore, 10 de marzo de 1999) fue un destacado pintor, dibujante, escultor, grafista y muralista ecuatoriano. rdf:type Guayasamín :PremioEugenioEspejo1991 :award :bio foaf:givenName foaf:familyName @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  39. 39. OER Ecosystem (Global Dataspace Semantically Interoperable) OER ecosystem composed of silos of information — heterogeneous, autonomous and distributed. Silo B Silo A Models: OWL, RDFS, SKOS Silo C Information exchange and Queries: RDF and SPARQL URIs — Global names for entities, data properties and relationships. HTTP URIs enables data from different sources to be connected and queried. The Web as Platform Federated Queries OER services/applications based on LOD4OER OA Ecosystem Semantically Interoperable Global Dataspace — Efficient and effective cross-border and cross- knowledge interaction/integration between information systems. Linked Data is used to publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful. SemanticWebApproachandLinkedDataDesign Issues|OpenLicensing|QualityAssurance| DataProvenance|ReuseofSemanticResources |LDBestPracticesandTools @nopiedra LOD4OER @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  40. 40. OER + Linked Data #Ecuador ! #OER #OpenData #LinkedData #LOD #LinkedData + #OpenContent: the Web as a global, heterogeneous, autonomous, distributed and open database knowledge base. @nopiedra oerLOD4 powered by linked open data for open educational resources
  41. 41. agile linked open data life-cycle Project Initiation Visioning, Requirements and Planning (team, time, resources, agreements, support) ⟩ ⟩ ⟩⟩ Evaluation of current information situation (legal, organizational, semantic/information and technological) 2 3 4 5 6 Data Extraction, data fixing/cleansing, and Entities/Relationships Patterns Identification Specification consensus on the universe of discourse, reuse of ontological /non- ontological resources, and URI design. Publication of developed resources. Design mapping between ontology and data collected, Process mappings, tuning and cleansing of generated data Linking and Publication of LOD4OER resources. Open Licensing Exploration of current information resources Exploitation of current information resources Ontology Modeling and URI designLinked Data Generation: mapping, generation and RDF tuning Linking, Publication and Diffusion Social and Continuos Improvement Linking with other LOD datasources; semantic annotations; data maintenance and updating; open data licensing, data quality assurance, and data provenance. ./ ⚒ + % ⌛ ✍ 2'Fundamentals: Semantic Web Approach and Linked Data Design Issues | Open Licensing | Quality Assurance | Data Provenance | Reuse of Semantic Resources | LD Best Practices and Tools The Web as Platform; Global names for OER entities, data properties and relationships; HTTP-URIs enables data from different sources to be connected and queried.; Information exchange and Queries: RDF and SPARQL; Linking; Ontologies and Knowledge models: OWL, RDFS, SKOS. 1 from information Silos (Web of Documents - Unstructured information) to Global Dataspace semantically interoperable (Web of Linked Data - structured and meaning information) OER Linked Open Data SPARQL endpoint ⚙⚙ ⚙ 7 3 ♻ Design Principles: (1) The Robustness Principle; (2) The Pareto Principle; (3) The Principle of Least Surprise; (4) The DRY Principle — Don't repeat yourself—; (5) Keep it Simple Stupid Principle; (6) OER + Open Licensing + machine readable; (7) Linked Data Design Issues + 1; (8) E pluribus Unum @nopiedra LOD4OER ⟩ powered by
  42. 42. — LOD4OER Life-cycle — Extraction, Ontology Modeling, Mapping, Transformation, Linking and LD Publication (agile and continuos) @nopiedra LOD4OER User interface and Open Data Applications Current information Silos <> HTML <href> <href> <> HTML <> HTML Framework Ontology Modeling and URI design Data Exploration and Exploitation, raw data cleansing Linked Data Generation: mapping, transformation and RDF tuning LD Linking and Publication Social and Continuos Improvement of LD Linking with other LOD datasources; semantic annotations; data maintenance and updating; open data licensing, data quality assurance, and data provenance. SPARQL endpoint 5 Apps OER Linked Open Data The Web as Platform; Global names for OER entities, data properties and relationships; HTTP-URIs enables data from different sources to be connected and queried.; Information exchange and Queries: RDF and SPARQL; Linking; Ontologies and Knowledge models: OWL, RDFS, SKOS. from information Silos (Web of Documents - Unstructured information) to Global Dataspace semantically interoperable (Web of Linked Data - structured and meaning information) 2 ' ⚙⚙ ⚙ / ⚒ 3 + ♻ raw data extracted data stream Ontology and URI design Open Data Interoperability Ecosystem Efficient and effective cross-border and cross-knowledge interaction/integration between OER information systems. An information silo is an isolated information system incapable of reciprocal operation with other, related information systems. An OER Information silo occurs whenever a OER system is incompatible or not interoperable with other OER systems. Hyperlinks (<href>) are not sufficient to achieve semantic interoperability between OER repositories.
  43. 43. OER + Linked Data #Ecuador ! #OER #OpenData #LinkedData #LOD #LinkedData + #OER enables global sharing of data and semantics beyond technological, organizational, legal or geographic boundaries . @nopiedra oerLOD4 powered by linked open data for open educational resources
  44. 44. Information Silos (Fragmentation) Semantically Interoperable Ecosystem (Global Space of Resources) Open License: No Web Availability: Optional Resources Identification: Local Metadata Availability: Optional Metadata Vocabulary: Optional Query Mechanism: Optional • Open License: Yes • Web Availability: Yes • Resources Identification: Local • Metadata Availability: Natural Language • Metadata Vocabulary: Natural Language • Query Mechanism: Human User Interface • Open License: Yes • Web Availability: Yes • Resources Identification: Local, via API • Metadata Availability: Structured and Proprietary Format • Metadata Vocabulary: Proprietary/local • Query Mechanism:All previous levels + Service metadata query • Open License: Yes • Web Availability: Yes • Resources Identification: Local, via API + Open Metadata • Metadata Availability: Structured and Open Standard/Format • Metadata Vocabulary: Proprietary and local • Query Mechanism:All previous levels Optimizing/ Linking Level Initial Level Ad-Hoc level Maturity Levels • Open License: Yes • Web Availability: Yes • Resources Identification: Global using URIs • Metadata Availability: Yes, structured metadata. Description of resources using RDF. • Metadata Vocabulary: Ontologies and semantic vocabularies. Open. • Query Mechanism:All previous levels + SPARQL End Point • Open License: Yes • Web Availability: Yes and linked with other datasets • Resources Identification: Global using URIs • Metadata Availability: Yes, structured metadata. Description of resources using RDF. • Metadata Vocabulary: Ontologies and semantic vocabularies. Open. • Query Mechanism:All previous levels + SPARQL End Point Resources available on the Web (whatever format) under an open license Resource its available as structured data offers via API Non-proprietary formats for resources metadata and schemas URIs to denote resources, properties and relations, RDF for resources description, SPARQL for queries Link resources to other data to provide context 1 2 3 4 5 Five Stars Open Data (adapted from 5 stars, Tim Berners-Lee) Open License Reusable Open Formant URIs & RDF LinkedData {api} Open Services preservation availability @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  45. 45. "Next challenge: build a knowledge graph and turn text processing into knowledge”
  46. 46. https://lod-cloud.net The Linked Open Data Cloud
  47. 47. The construction of the Semantic Web is a challenging and constantly evolving construct. The Semantic Web seeks to lead the communication between people, software agents and devices towards intelligent content infrastructures and a smarter collaborative future for humans.
  48. 48. Extraer (Extract) Transformar (Transform) Cargar (Load) Usecases
  49. 49. Semantic Web Technologies + Open Education Using Semantic Web Technologies, publishers can: • Connect content silos across a heterogeneous, distributes and autonomous Open Education Ecosystem • Build smart digital open education content infrastructures • Leverage OER metadata to provide richer experiences • Discover, curate, reuse and integrate open content more efficiently • Connect internal and external open content sets • Build towards real augmented and artificial intelligence • Power-up authoring experiences and workflow processes
  50. 50. http://opencampus.utpl.edu.ec aprendizaje Colaborativo y abierto, a cualquier hora, en cualquier lugar
  51. 51. Open Data Cloud !! ! ! !
  52. 52. Linked Open Data UTPL • Name in the Cloud: UTPL LOD • Graph IRI: http:// data.utpl.edu.ec/utpl/lod • Data Prefix: http:// data.utpl.edu.ec/utpl/lod/ resource/ • SPARQL Endpoint: http:// data.utpl.edu.ec/utpl/lod/sparql • DataHub.io: http://datahub.io/ dataset/utpl-lod
  53. 53. Serendipity OCW • Name in the Cloud: Serendipity • Graph IRI: http:// serendipity.utpl.edu.ec/lod • Data Prefix: http:// serendipity.utpl.edu.ec/lod/ resource/ • SPARQL Endpoint: http:// serendipity.utpl.edu.ec/lod/ sparql • DataHub.io: http://datahub.io/ dataset/serendipity
  54. 54. Publicaciones Científicas Ecuador • Name in the Cloud: Open Data Ecuador • Graph IRI: http://opendata.ec/lod • Data Prefix: http://data.utpl.edu.ec/ ecuadorresearch/lod/resource/ • SPARQL Endpoint: http:// data.utpl.edu.ec/ecuadorresearch/ lod/sparql • DataHub.io: http://datahub.io/ dataset/opendataec
  55. 55. Geo Ecuador • Name in the Cloud: Geo Ecuador • Data Prefix: http:// geo.linkeddata.ec/resource • SPARQL Endpoint: http:// apolo.utpl.edu.ec:8080/ parliament/sparql • DataHub.io: http://datahub.io/ dataset/geoecuador
  56. 56. Universidad de Cuenca Linked Data • Name in the Cloud: Universidad de Cuenca Linked Data • Data Prefix: http:// ucuenca.edu.ec/institucion • SPARQL Endpoint: http:// 190.15.141.102:8890/sparql • DataHub.io: http://datahub.io/ dataset/universidad-de- cuenca-linkeddata
  57. 57. Base de Conocimiento Multi-Dominio DBpedia es un proyecto para extraer información estructurada desde Wikipedia, y que luego es publicada según el enfoque de la Web Semántica, bajo los términos de licencias abiertas Creative Commons y GNU. El énfasis es contenido en Español, especialmente Latinoamericano. http://es-la.dbpedia.org Grupo de Trabajo de Web Semántica en LatAm Se promueve la discusión, diseminación e investigación de la Web Semántica y Linked Data en Latinoamérica. Es un espacio abierto a comunidades académicas y científicas, así como a organismos gubernamentales, organizaciones ciudadanas, y emprendedores. http://datosenlazados.io Plataforma para Descubrir y Visualizar Recursos Educativos Abiertos Serendipity es una plataforma semántica creado por investigadores de UTPL y Universidad Politécnica de Madrid que apoya y promueve el al acceso universal a la educación a través del descubrimiento y reuso de Recursos Educativos Abiertos (OER and OCW) en varios idiomas y múltiples temáticas. Es el buscador semántico Oficial del Open Educational Consortium. http://serendipity.utpl.edu.ec http://serendipity.utpl.edu.ec/map http://www.oeconsortium.org/courses/ocw-search-engines/ Iniciativas de Web Semántica y BigData
  58. 58. Consuming and producing linked open data: the case of Opencourseware Purpose – The aim of this paper is to present an initiative to apply the principles of Linked Data to enhance the search and discovery of OpenCourseWare (OCW) contents created and shared by the universities. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is a case study of how linked data technologies can be applied for the enhancement of open learning contents. Findings – Results presented under the umbrella of OCWC (current Open Education Consottium) and OCW-Universia, as the integration and access to content from different repositories OCW and the development of a query method to access these data, reveal that linked data would offer a solution to filter and select semantically those open educational contents, and automatically are linked to the linked open data cloud. Originality/value – The new OCW semantic integration
  59. 59. Contenidos Abiertos atrapados en Silos de Información Muestran un entorno fracturado de contenido y oportunidades; con limitaciones obvias para que un usuario o aplicación pueda acceder, descubrir, visualizar e interactuar con el contenidos. Elena Berriolo, Drawing for The Silo, 2010; courtesy Raphael Rubinstein
  60. 60. OER cómo Silos: ¿Qué se puede hacer? • Acceder, buscar y explorar datos desde cada repositorio. • Usar solamente las herramientas que soporta el repositorios • Mirar la información en las vías establecidas por el diseñador del repositorio • El curado de la información está centralizado
  61. 61. OER como Silos: ¿Qué NO se puede hacer? • Colaborar Globalmente. • Acceder, buscar y explorar datos relacionados que esté otros repositorios. • Mirar la información en otras vías (Usar herramientas diferentes a las disponibles en cada repositorio, hacer búsquedas cruzadas) • Usar los datasets existentes para otros propósitos • Visibilizar los gaps que existen en las colecciones de datos. • Contribuir o corregir descripciones e informaciones adicionales • Soportar anotación, manipulación, citación y e interacción personalizada de datos en diferentes repositorios. • Disponer de apps creados por emprendedores a partir de datos almacenados en diferentes repositorios.
  62. 62. OCWC Repository (OpenCourseWare Consortium Directory) OCW-Universia Repository (Universia Directory) OCW Data are encoded in HTML-pages that are designed primarily for human consumption and not directly amenable to machine processing. Current situation OCW environment is a web of documents connected by anchors. URIs are used for webpages and anchors. OCW Content is represented in natural language and suitable for humans. WebSearchEnginefrom OCWConsortiums WebSearchEnginefromOCW Sites(keyword-based) OCW Site University Y repository based on eduCommons OCW Site University O repository based on Drupal/Moodle OCW Site University U repository based on other OCW-CMS <href> Some modules: OCW directory, metadata extractor from rss feed, content translate, index builder <href> <href> <href> StandardsincludexHTML,XML,XSLT,RSS,DOM... <href><href> @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  63. 63. raw data within UPM opencourseware web page Title OCW University Author(s) year description knowledge area bibliography ects credits time autoself Department syllabus
  64. 64. LOCWD Architecture Linked OpenCourseWare Data
  65. 65. Data source analysis: identify OER providers & select content/ resources offered with a free and open license. i. Select sources of data (information sources) • Specification: scope and explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by LOCWD. • Describe the main technical features of the data selected. Concept mapping base URI: http://purl.org/locwd/ RDFS: http://purl.org/locwd/schema# Resources: http://purl.org/locwd/resources/ URI design Vocabulary development (search/reuse ontologies) ii. Ontology modelling LOCWD Common and consensuated ontology 2 3 4 iii. Generation of RDF resources Define data patterns for RDF conversion Data cleansing (detecting and correcting corrupt or inaccurate data), disambiguation & data reconciliation Content extraction from selected datasources (scraping for non- structured content) iv. Data publication (storage level) Data enrichment Extractor of data patterns (entity recognition, classification & clustering) • Generation of URI Cools • Create RDF links to resources in the LOD- Cloud) Publish extracted data as LinkedData 5 6 7 8 9 10 Public Domain Repositories of Open Educational Resources API 1 Sparql EndPoint Repositories of Open Educational Resources OCW mobile data visualization recommender systems (for use, reuse and adaptation of OER) OER discovery tools Faceted semantic search OER and OCW Apps based on Linked Data Learning assistant based on OER LOCWD Triple-store Linked Open CourseWare DataSet • URIs for OCW/OER things • RDF for describe Entities • Links to other LOD-things v. Application Layer 11 12 raw content raw data Facilitate finding, retrieving, sharing and adaptation of OER linked data design issues and data quality assurance OCW-S Builder (MOOCs based on OER) OCW-nuggets @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  66. 66. ‘Ontologies and Semantic Web’ author-creator Asunción Gómez Pérez has a whose name is subject predicate object
  67. 67. http://ocw.upm.es/ciencia-de-la- computacion-e-inteligencia- artificial/ontologies-and- semantic-web http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1// creator Asunción Gómez Pérez has a whose name is subject predicate object
  68. 68. example for locwd dataset Subject Predicate Object locwd:opencourseware dc:creator foaf:Person locwd:opencourseware dc:title xsd:string locwd:opencourseware dc:description xsd:string locwd:opencourseware dc:subject skos:Concept, xsd:string locwd:biblio rdfs:subclassOf bibo:document locwd:biblio dcterms:isPartOf, bibo:DocumentPart, dc:title xsd:string locwd:ocwRepository dc:creator foaf:Organization
  69. 69. http://serendipity.utpl.edu.ec a semantic and faceted OER search Engine
  70. 70. http://serendipity.utpl.edu.ec/map/ a semantic and faceted OER search Engine
  71. 71. Una base de conocimiento multi-dominio en donde es posible hacer consultas sofisticadas a datos de Wikipedia en Español. Nelson Piedra | @nopiedra DBpedia-Latinoamérica http://es-la.dbpedia.org The Third Semantic Web and Linked Open Data workshop (SW-LOD) takes place on October at Ensenada B.C., Mexico. Co-located with ENC'2015.
  72. 72. DBpedia es un proyecto para extraer información estructurada desde Wikipedia, y que luego es publicada en la Web.  DBpedia permite hacer consultas sofisticadas hacia Wikipedia, y enlazar estos datos con otros conjuntos de datasets disponibles en la nube de datos abiertos enlazados (Linked Open Data Cloud, LOD).  http://dbpedia.org
  73. 73. DBpedia, una base de conocimiento multi-dominio  • Hoy en día, la mayoría de bases de conocimiento cubren solamente dominios específicos, que son creados por grupos relativamente pequeños de Ingenieros del Conocimiento, y que resultan muy costosos de mantener y actualizar. • La Wikipedia ha crecido como una de las principales fuentes de conocimiento de la humanidad, mantenida por miles de contribuyentes.  • El proyecto DBpedia aprovecha esta fuente gigantesca de conocimiento mediante la extracción de información estructurada de Wikipedia haciendo que esta información sea accesible en la Web, bajo los términos de licencias Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License y la GNU Free Documentation License.
  74. 74. @nopiedra2015 Extracción Mapeo Transformación Publicación Photo: iStock Información no estructurada Datos estructurados
  75. 75. Data Transformation SPARQL endpoint Pubby LD-Frontend for SPARQL Endpoints DBpedia APPs Sparql Clients RDF Browsers HTML Browsers Explotación Vista Macro DBpedia-LatAm http://es-la.dbpedia.org SPARQL endpoint: http://es-la.dbpedia.org/sparql graph:http://es-la.dbpedia.org/graph/data @nopiedra2015 DBpedia Data Stack
  76. 76. Webpage: Cordillera de Los Andes http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordillera_de_los_Andes Resource: Cordillera de Los Andes http://es-la.dbpedia.org/resource/Cordillera_de_los_Andes @nopiedra2015
  77. 77. #43Ayotzinapa Desde cualquier lugar del mundo colaboremos para que la Identidad de los estudiantes desaparecidos en Iguala, México, se registre en la Web Semántica. Hackathon Collaborative Linked Open Data from anywhere in the world UTPL San Cayetano Alto - Loja Ecuador Mayo 2015 Son bienvenidos: desarrolladorxs, programadorxs, diseñadorxs, periodistas, bibliotecarixs, estadísticxs, ciudadanxs… http://es-la.dbpedia.org/resource/43Ayotzinapa/Category:Desaparición_Forzada_en_Iguala_2014 @DBPedia_LatAm #43Ayotzinapa #linkeddata
  78. 78. http://es-la.dbpedia.org/resource/43Ayotzinapa/ Category:Desaparición_Forzada_en_Iguala_2014 http://es-la.dbpedia.org/values/-dcterms:subject/resource/ 43Ayotzinapa/Category:Desaparición_Forzada_en_Iguala_2014 #43Ayotzinapa Desde cualquier lugar del mundo colaboremos para que la Identidad de los estudiantes desaparecidos en Iguala, México, se registre en la Web Semántica.
  79. 79. Integración Semántica de Recursos Educativos Abiertos cosechados con OAI-PMH y Registros Bibliográficos en Marc21
  80. 80. Situación a resolver: La presencia de silos de contenidos dificulta la integración e interoperabilidad, descubrimiento, síntesis, y el flujo de conocimiento. Es difícil y costoso desarrollar aplicaciones que consuman datos desde múltiples repositorios digitales abiertos.
  81. 81. Integración de Recursos de Información: OAI y LD Data Provider Data Provider Data Provider Harvester Requests (OAI “verbs”): Identify, ListMetadataFormats; ListSets; ListRecords; ListIdentifiers Responses: General Information; Metadata formats; Set structure; Record identifier; Metadata Web OAI-PMHOAI-PMHOAI-PMH Data Provider Data Provider Data Provider Federated SPARQL endpoint Web SPARQL endpoint SPARQL endpoint SPARQL endpoint a. Aproximación Usando OAI-PMH. La Web es la infraestructura de transporte de datos y metadatos b. Aproximación Usando Linked Open Data. Los datos y los metadatos son parte de la misma Web. Fedora, DSpace, and EPrints implement the OAI-PMH protocol by default. Service Provider SPARQL endpoint OAR Data integrator
  82. 82. Repositorios Digitales Extraer (Extract) Transformar (Transform) Cargar (Load)
  83. 83. Biblioteca UTPL Extraer (Extract) Transformar (Transform) Cargar (Load)
  84. 84. Biblioteca UTPL: Integración de Recursos de información y Linked Data Data Provider SPARQL endpoint Get id and type of record Get record in marcxml format
  85. 85. Architecture to Integration of Digital Resources using an approach based on Linked Open Data Dataismadeavailableunderopenlicense SPARQL AQueryLanguageforRDFData Extraction,CleaningandtransformationofDataand metadatafromdifferentdatasources Integration of several semantic web services/tools Transporting based on HTTP RDF for modeling data and metadata URIs for digital resources Ontology Merging / Ontology Mapping: Semantic descriptions based on standard vocabularies and ontologies (e.g. DC, Vivo, Bibo, FOAF) Storing and publishing Linked OAR Data Hub Lifecycle Interlinking data (subjects, knowledge areas, authors, languages…) RDF generation from extracted metadata Datasets are maintained over time Search across the Web of Data OAR Federated Linked Data Search Engine Interoperability Web Services Linked Data facilites data interoperability and integration of digital resources and other data resources form Linked Open Data Cloud Exploitation and Mashups Web Services that combine multiple data sources to create a new service, data visualization or information derived from Linked Data Machine and Human access to data Ad hoc queries Selection of Data Sources Data Provider A Data Provider B Data Provider C OAI-PMHOAI-PMHOAI-PMH Open Access Repositories e.g. Fedora, DSpace, and EPrints implement the OAI- PMH protocol by default. OAR data hub Piedra, N., Chicaiza, J., Quichimbo, P., Saquicela, V., Cadme, E., López, J., ... & Tovar, E. (2015). Marco de trabajo para la integración de recursos digitales basado en un enfoque de web semántica. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação, (SPE3), 55-70.
  86. 86. (Leaked documents empowered by Semantic Web Approach and Linked Data Design Issues) The Panama Papers are 11.5 million leaked documents that detail financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,488 offshore entities. The documents, which belonged to the Panamanian law firm and corporate service provider Mossack Fonseca,were leaked in 2015 by an anonymous source, some dating back to the 1970s. Models: OWL, RDFS, SKOS Information exchange & Queries: RDF / SPARQL URIs — Global names for entities, data properties and relationships. HTTP URIs enables data from different sources to be connected and queried. The Web as Platform This database is powered by Neo4j, a graph database that structures data in nodes (the icons you see in the visualization) and relationships (the links between nodes). https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/pages/database SPARQL-Endpoint: http://data.utpl.edu.ec/ambar/sparql Examples: https://titanpad.com/ep/pad/view/gdVduv14jD/rev.342 LinkedOpenData for PanamaPapers Politicians, Criminals and the Rogue Industry That Hides Their Cash LOD4PanamaPapers OpenDataDay 2017 #Ecuador ! #ODD2017 #OpenData #LinkedData #LOD ⚙⚙ ⚙ Linked Data Transformation, Linking and Publication Cycle From Graph database to Linked Open Dataset PanamaPapers Graph Database ICIJ · The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists oerLOD4 powered by linked open data for open educational resources by: @nopiedra
  87. 87. http://www.parlatino.org/es/organos-principales/la-asamblea/declaraciones-y-resoluciones-de-la-asamblea/ declaraciones-aprobadas-xxix/resoluciones-aprobadas-xxix/resolucion/1943.html Plataforma de Web Semántica de datos universitarios abiertos que apoya la Creación del Espacio Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Educación Superior Resolución del Parlatino Resolución sobre el acceso a la información de ser un derecho para todos los ciudadanos y ciudadanas y que la transparencia y la equidad que promueven los gobiernos de nuestros países pueden ser potenciadas con la adopción permanente de tecnologías XXIX ASAMBLEA GENERAL DEL PARLAMENTO LATINOAMERICANO Ciudad de Panamá,  19 y 20 de octubre de 2013 RESOLUCION: AO/2013/03 “Acceso a la Información” EL PARLAMENTO LATINOAMERICANO CONSIDERANDO: Que el acceso a la información pública, es un derecho para todos los ciudadanos y ciudadanas y que la transparencia y la equidad que promueven los gobiernos de nuestros países pueden ser potenciadas con la adopción permanente de tecnologías de información y comunicación. Que en la actualidad la apertura de datos es una tendencia global, adoptada por varios organismos públicos y Parlamentos a nivel regional y mundial, comprometidos con el acceso e intercambio de información. Que los datos abiertos tienen el potencial de contribuir a la integración regional, la armonización legislativa y a la creación de un Espacio Común de Educación Superior para América Latina y el Caribe. Que los datos abiertos permiten que la información sea fácilmente accesible y libre de ser reusada por cualquier ciudadano, parlamentario, investigador, académico, estudiante, u organismos interesado en su reutilización. RESUELVE: Acoger favorablemente y apoyar el trabajo "Plataforma de Web Semántica de datos universitarios abiertos para el espacio Latinoamericano y del Caribe de educación superior", desarrollado por el grupo de investigadores de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL), Ecuador y el programa CAMPUS de la Organización Universitaria Interamericana, cuya propuesta se sustenta en la creación de un espacio común de educación superior fundamentado en el derecho a la educación y el acceso a la información, y como una vía de integración y desarrollo de nuestra región e impulsado por la UNESCO/IESALC, OUI, Virtual Educa, OEA, UDUAL y otros organismos y con apoyo del PARLATINO, al tenor de lo informado en las XIV y XVII reuniones de la Comisión de Educación, Cultura, Ciencia, Tecnología y Comunicación, del PARLATINO, realizadas respectivamente en la ciudad de México, D.F., México, los días 23 y 24 de junio de 2011 y en la ciudad Montevideo, Uruguay, del 27 al 29 de septiembre de 2012 Instar a los países miembros del PARLATINO a que adopten estrategias y mecanismos políticos y tecnológicos para que nuestros países se unan a la tendencia de datos abiertos enlazados (Linked Open Data) y compartan su legislación universitaria y datos públicos en el ámbito de educación superior, de forma libre, abierta y transparente, y tomando como referencia las siguiente orientaciones
  88. 88. Proyectos en Curso
  89. 89. + + Mejorar la capacidad emprendedora de las organizaciones y los ciudadanos usando REAs y Linked Data Emprende4Allempowered by
  90. 90. La competencia emprendedora en el EntreComp EntreComp: El documento define el emprendimiento como la capacidad de actuación frente a las oportunidades e ideas, transformándolas en valor para otros que puede ser financiero, cultural o social. Resalta el concepto sistémico y global de emprendimiento y define la competencia como una capacidad tanto grupal como individual. EntreComp ofrece un marco de consenso acerca de la definición de la competencia emprendedora y define 3 grandes áreas de competencias (Ideas y oportunidades; Recursos; y “Pasar a la acción”.) que a su vez engloban otras 15 sub-competencias. Cada subcompetencia se asocia a diferentes resultados de aprendizaje organizados en 6 niveles, desde un nivel inicial hasta un nivel experto. ENTRECOMP http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/ bitstream/JRC101581/lfna27939enn.pdf
  91. 91. OER repository OER repository OER repository Emprende4Allempowered by 6 7 8
  92. 92. Emprende4All - Roadmap • Establecer un Knowledge Graph relacionado con OER y competencias de emprendimiento basados en EntreComp • Disponer de un sistema de análisis del estado de competencias emprendedoras • Plataforma semántica para el desarrollo de Competencias • Formación abierta basada en OER
  93. 93. OER to IEEE Computer Science Curricula LOD-CS2013 Ontology agile ontology life-cycle CS2013 - Body of Knowledge to Computer Science Curricula 2013 for Undergraduate Degree Programs (The Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) IEEE Computer Society Version December 20, 2013)
  94. 94. LOD-CS2013 Ontology agile ontology life-cycle Project Vision Visioning, Requirements and Planning (team, time, resources, agreements, support) ⟩ ⟩ ⟩ 2 Achieve consensus on the universe of discourse. Identification of concepts, properties, relationships, and restrictions In this stage, the set of core concepts and relationship tables is encoded in the ontology language. Specification consensus on the universe of discourse, reuse of ontological /non- ontological resources, and URI design. Publication of developed resources. the consistency of the ontology is checked to detect contradictions in specification definition and the correctness of knowledge description is evaluated. Ontology FormalizationOntology Evolution Continuous improvement as an ideal in CS curricula interoperability. ./ ⚒ + % ⌛ ✍ 2'Curricula Interoperability Vision The Web as Platform; Global names for entities, data properties and relationships; HTTP-URIs enables data from different sources to be connected and queried.; Information exchange and Queries: RDF and SPARQL; Linking; Ontologies and Knowledge models: OWL, RDFS, SKOS. 1 ⚙⚙ ⚙ 5 ♻ @nopiedra LOD4OER powered by Initiating State 3 4 Confirmation and Ontology Evaluation An automatic reasoning tool is used to extract from the ontology the concepts and the logical relationships between concepts to determine whether logical conflicts exist. CS2013 - Body of Knowledge to Computer Science Curricula 2013 for Undergraduate Degree Programs (The Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) IEEE Computer Society Version December 20, 2013) @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  95. 95. CS2013 Computer Science Curricula 2013 for Undergraduate Degree Programs (The Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) IEEE Computer Society Version December 20, 2013) KA KnowledgeArea BoK BodyOfKnowledge KU KnowledgeUnit TopicCore-Tier1 Core-Tier2 LO LearningOutcome hasBodyOfKnowledge hasKnowledgeArea hasKnowledgeUnit hasTopic subClassOf Elective Core isIdentifiedAs isIdentifiedAs hasLearningOutcome Course hasAssociateKU isAssociateByCourse subClassOf LM LevelOfMastery hasLevelOfMastery integer (hours) integer (hours) Y/N haveCore-Tier2Hours includeElectives haveCore-Tier1Hours Syllabus hasSyllabus @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  96. 96. The Benefits of Linked (Open) Data • Linked Data breaks down the information silos that exist between various formats and brings down the fences between various sources. • Linked Data makes interoperability, data integration and browsing through complex data easier, due to the standards it adheres to. Those guidelines also allow for easy updates and extensions of the data models. • Representing data in a linked way under a set of global principles also increases data quality. • The semantic graph database for representing Linked Data creates semantic links between varied disparate sources and formats and infers new knowledge out of existing facts. • Furthermore, linking open datasets enhances research, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation as all developers, citizens and businesses can use all those datasets to put things into context and create knowledge and apps. • For example, Linked Open Data encourages the creation of applications to discover the best neighborhood to live in, based on data on schools, transportation, office buildings and clubs/parks in the area. Source: http://ontotext.com/knowledgehub/fundamentals/linked-data-linked-open-data/?utm_content=bufferc8e06&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer
  97. 97. Para artículos sobre trabajos desarrollados, ver Google Scholar https://scholar.google.es/citations?user=9iSWka8AAAAJ&hl=es&oi=ao
  98. 98. gracias! Nelson Piedra | @nopiedra @nopiedra #20180829

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