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History of the_internet

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A talk about the history of the Internet given at an Erasmus+ /KA2 training event.

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History of the_internet

  1. 1. A brief history of the Internet 1 Chalkia Kalliopi MSc Computer Science 11/1/2016
  2. 2. Topics of discussion • History of the Internet • Basic network terminology • The growth of the Internet 2 • The growth of the Internet • Internet services • Mobile Internet • The Future
  3. 3. What is the Internet? 3
  4. 4. Precursors of the Internet • Invention of electricity • Telegraph system 4 • Telephone • Radio • Television
  5. 5. Basic Network Terminology • Computer Network • Transmission medium 5 • Communication Protocol • Services
  6. 6. What is a Network 6
  7. 7. Transmission medium 7
  8. 8. Protocol • IPX/SPX, X.25, ATM, Apple Talk, FDDI, TCP/IP • NCP used by ARPANET TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol 8 TCP is one of the Core Protocol of Internet (IP) TCP provides reliable, ordered, error-checked, communication on devices connected to a LAN, WAN or the Internet
  9. 9. Network Services • Remote login • Ftp – File transfer • E-mail • Space sharing 9 • Space sharing • Software sharing • Hardware sharing • voip • Video conference Time for animation ….
  10. 10. 1957 – Lets talk about politics … USSR launches Sputnik 10 US forms ARPA in DoD
  11. 11. Galactic Network • 1962 Licklider - The idea of a globally interconnected set of computers 11 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hxVbRz6udmI
  12. 12. Packet S. vs Circuit S. Networks 1962 Emersion of packet switching 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. ARPANET • 1969 ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) – Network Control Protocol Nodes of Net: Interface Message Processors (IMP) 14IMP1 at UCLA IMP2 at SRI LOGIN
  15. 15. What is the Internet? 3
  16. 16. IMP - Router 16 Honeywell 316
  17. 17. 1970 – ALOHAnet • ALOHAnet developed by Norman Abrahamson, Univ of Hawaii, connected to ARPANET in 1972 17
  18. 18. 1971 Electronic-mail • Ray Tomlinson creates email (SNDMSG+CPYNET) • People – to – people communication 18 • E-mail became the most famous application for the next two decades • @ symbol separates user name from host name (e.g. halkia@sch.gr)
  19. 19. ARPANET in 1971 19
  20. 20. ARPANET • 1972 –Telnet specifications • 1973 20 • 1973 –First international connection to ARPANET (satellite connection) • University College of London (England) • Royal Radar Establishment (Norway) –Full standardization of FTP
  21. 21. 1974 - TCP/IP 1974 - Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf creates TCP/IP - Each network can connect to others with no internal changes - In case of a packet lost, the source retransmits 21 - In case of a packet lost, the source retransmits the data - Black boxes connect the networks together (later called router/bridge/gateway) - There is no centralized authority to manage the protocol
  22. 22. 1974 - First packet data Service • BBN opens Telenet, the first public packet data service (a commercial version of ARPANET) • Various commercial and government entities paid monthly fees for dedicated lines connecting 22 paid monthly fees for dedicated lines connecting their computers and local networks to this backbone network. • Free public dialup access to Telenet, for those who wished to access these systems, was provided in many cities throughout the US
  23. 23. • 1979 USENET a worldwide distributed discussion system - Newsgroups • 1982 ARPA establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite for ARPANET (Internet) 23 • 1983 ARPANET splits into ARPANET and MILNET • 1984 Number of hosts breaks 1,000 • 1984 Domain Name System (DNS) introduced
  24. 24. Identification of devices on the Internet • Each Ethernet Network Card has a unique 48 bit number called Media Access Control address 24 • Each computer on Internet has a 32 bit number called IP (192.168.114.1) • Intranet communication uses MAC address • Internet communication uses IP address
  25. 25. Address classification • Initially using IP the address space is 2^32 ~ 4.2 billion addresses (hosts) • Now, IP address space is 2^128 25 • Now, IP address space is 2^128 • IP has Public and Private addresses • IP multicast addresses
  26. 26. Precursors of the Internet • Invention of electricity • Telegraph system 4 • Telephone • Radio • Television
  27. 27. Precursors of the Internet • Invention of electricity • Telegraph system 4 • Telephone • Radio • Television
  28. 28. Precursors of the Internet • Invention of electricity • Telegraph system 4 • Telephone • Radio • Television
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. The expansion of the Internet • 1986 NSFNET - National Science Foundation Network - created at 56Kbps • 1988 The Morris worm or Internet worm was one of the first computer worm distributed via the Internet, affecting ~ 6,000 of its 60,000 hosts 30 • 1989 – Number of hosts breaks 100,000 – Internet Service Providers begin appearing • 1990 – ARPANET ceases to exist – Linus Torvalds began a project that later became the Linux
  31. 31. World Wide Web - WWW • In 1991 Tim Berners-Lee introduced the World Wide Web • Instead of sending files from one place to another, he organizes information as a 31 another, he organizes information as a number of nodes linked together as a web • Anyone on the Internet could retrieve and browse information form node to node • Berners-Lee created the Internet that we know today.
  32. 32. • 1991 – NSF lifts restrictions on the commercial use of the Net – PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), a program for symmetric cryptography released by Philip Zimmerman – Security … • 1992 – Number of hosts breaks 1,000,000 32 – Number of hosts breaks 1,000,000 – First MBONE audio multicast – Video multicast • 1993 – New Worms over net named WWW Worms (W4) – Internet radio broadcasting – Mosaic browser released by NSCA
  33. 33. • 1994 – URL from Tim Berners-Lee – Shopping malls arrive on the Internet – E-commerce • 1995 – Java released by Sun Microsystems 33 – Java released by Sun Microsystems – streaming technologies for audio and video – WWW surpasses ftp-data in March as the service with greatest traffic – NSFNET replaced by traditional online dial-up systems (Compuserve, America Online) begins to provide Internet access – Entertainment
  34. 34. • 1996 – Internet2 project is initiated by 34 universities – Nokia releases first cell phone with internet access • 1999 – A wireless technology called 802.11b, Wi-Fi, is standardized (54Mbps). 34 – Salesforce.com delivers enterprise applications (cloud computing) • 2001 – Blackberry releases first internet cell phone in the United States. – spread of P2P for file sharing across the Internet
  35. 35. 2004 - From Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 • In Web 1.0 (1991-2004) the vast majority of users simply acting as consumers of content • In Web 2.0 a user is invited to contribute to 35 • In Web 2.0 a user is invited to contribute to the site's content by commenting on published articles or creating a user profile on the site, which may enable an increased participation • Facebook launched
  36. 36. Social Networks • dedicated websites that enable users to communicate with each other by posting information, comments, messages, images … 36 … • Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn, Instagram, Myspace, …
  37. 37. 2005 Youtube launches 2006 – Twitter service launched – Amazon launched its Elastic Compute cloud (EC2) – There is an estimated 92 million websites online 2007 37 2007 – Internet2 passes to level3 Network – Google releases GoogleDocs providing free web-based spreadsheets and word processing tools. 2008 – Google index reaches 1 Trillion URLs
  38. 38. Basic Network Terminology • Computer Network • Transmission medium 5 • Communication Protocol • Services
  39. 39. 2012 – Twitter surpasses 200M active users (Dec), and 500M tweets per day (Oct) 2013 – The number of Internet hosts surpasses 1billion 2014 39 2014 – The number of Web servers surpasses 1billion Abundant Information Resources Inexhaustible Education
  40. 40. Not only advantages … • Piracy • Security – Theft of Personal Information 40 – Spamming – Malware Threats • Age-inappropriate Content • Social Isolation, Obesity and Depression
  41. 41. Percentage of Internet Users 2015 60 70 80 90 100 41 0 10 20 30 40 50 Africa Asia Europe MiddleEast North America Latin America Australia
  42. 42. Internet Usage November 30, 2015 World Regions Population ( 2015 Est.) Population % of World Internet Users 30 Nov 2015 Penetration (% Population) Growth 2000-2015 Users % of Table Africa 1,158,355,66 3 16.0 % 330,965,359 28.6 % 7,231.3% 9.8 % Asia 4,032,466,88 2 55.5 % 1,622,084,293 40.2 % 1,319.1% 48.2 % 42 Europe 821,555,904 11.3 % 604,147,280 73.5 % 474.9% 18.0 % Middle East 236,137,235 3.3 % 123,172,132 52.2 % 3,649.8% 3.7 % North America 357,178,284 4.9 % 313,867,363 87.9 % 190.4% 9.3 % Latin America / Caribbean 617,049,712 8.5 % 344,823,099 55.9 % 1,808.4% 10.2 % Oceania / Australia 37,158,563 0.5 % 27,200,530 73.2 % 256.9% 0.8 % WORLD TOTAL 7,259,902,24 3 100.0 % 3,366,260,056 46.4 % 832.5% 100.0 %
  43. 43. Internet mapping based on DNS 43 net, ca, us mil, gov, edu uk, it, fr
  44. 44. 44 Level3 network
  45. 45. The Future • higher transmission speeds • advanced applications for distributed computing • digital libraries 45 • digital libraries • virtual laboratories • E- learning • tele-immersion

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