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polyester presentation


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polyester presentation

  1. 1.  Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contains the ester functional group in their main chain. Polyester is currently defined as:  “Long chain polymers chemically composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester and a dihydric alcohol and terephthalic acid”.  The name “polyester” refers to the linkage of several monomers (esters) within the fiber. Although there are many polyesters, the term "polyester" as a specific material most commonly refers the Polyethylene Terephthalate(PET) .
  2. 2.  In 1926, United States-based E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. began research into very large molecules and synthetic fibers .  W.H. Carothers, centered on what became nylon, the first synthetic fiber.  1939-41, British research chemists took interest in the du Pont studies and conducted their own research in the laboratories of Calico Printers Association, Ltd. This work resulted in the creation of the polyester fiber known in England as Terylene.  In 1946, du Pont purchased the right to produce this polyester fiber in the United States.  The company conducted some further developmental work, and in 1951, began to market the fiber under the name Dacron .
  3. 3. Polyester can also be classified into two types 1.Saturated polyesters. 2.Unsaturated polyesters.  Saturated polyesters refer to that family of polyesters in which the polyester backbones are saturated. They are thus not as reactive as unsaturated polyesters. They consist of low molecular weight liquids used as plasticizers.  Unsaturated polyesters refer to that family of polyesters in which the backbone consists of alkyl thermosetting resins characterized by vinyl unsaturation. They are mostly used in reinforced plastics
  4. 4. Polyesters are generally manufactured from petroleum from which the constituent acids and alcohols are derived. There are three steps in the synthesizing of polyester 1.Condensation Polymerization: When acid and alcohol are reacted in a vacuum at high temperatures it results in condensation polymerization. 2.Melt-spun Fiber: The chips are dried completely. Hopper reservoirs are then used to melt the chips. A unique feature of polyester is that it is melt-spun fiber. 3.Drawing: The fibers consequently formed are hot stretched to about five times their original length. This helps to reduce the fiber width.
  5. 5.  Resists abrasion (but can "pill")  Very resilient (springs back into shape) and hence is good for making outdoor clothing for harsh climates.  Polyester is hydrophobic in nature and quick drying. It can be used for insulation by manufacturing hollow fibers.  Resist wrinkling and effects of mildew.  Very high heat can "melt" the fabric .  The right amount of heat can be used to permanently "heat set" a crease or pleat .  Easy to wash ,dry and wear .  Does not absorb water (can be uncomfortable when worn next to the skin in warm weather unless loosely woven) but it can be produced in such a way (as in polypropylene and microfibers) as to "wick" water away from the skin . Characteristics of Polyester Fibers and Products
  6. 6.  Attracts static electricity which also attracts dirt and lint .  Although they do NOT absorb water, they DO absorb oil and grease.  Resist soiling, but once an oil based stain soaks in, it can be difficult to clean.  Strong fiber (but nylon is stronger) .  Often blended with cotton or even wool to add crease resistance .
  7. 7. Polyester is used in the manufacturing of all kinds of clothes and home furnishings like bedspreads, sheets, pillows, furniture, carpets and even curtains  Hydrophobic nature: High tenacity and good durability makes polyester the choice of fabric for high stress outdoors use. Polyester is also a strong fiber that is hydrophobic in nature. It is thus ideal for clothing to be used in wet and damp environments. The fabric is also coated with a water-resistant finish and further intensifies the hydrophobic nature.  Creating insulation: By creating hollow fibers it is also possible to build insulation into the polyester fiber. Air is trapped inside the fiber, which is then warmed by the heat of the body. This keeps the body warm in cold weather. Another method to build insulation is to use crimped polyester in a fiberfill.
  8. 8.  Wrinkle resistant: Polyester is also wrinkle resistant and is used very often in everyday clothing like pants, shirts, tops, skirts and suits. Used either by itself or as a blend, it is also stain resistant and hence is very popular.
  9. 9. Polyester fiber had been successfully blended with other fibers to enhance the positive characteristics of polyester or to develop combination of new properties. Few common polyester blends are:  Polyester and Cotton 1. Resist wrinkles 2. Resist stains 3. Retain shape  Polyester and Rayon 1. More durable 2. Shape retention 3. More resilience
  10. 10.  PET: The most common use of polyester today is to make the plastic bottles that store our much beloved beverages.  Mylar: An unusual and little known use of polyester is in the of balloons.These are the really pretty decorated ones that are gifted on special occasions. These are made of Mylar – a kind of polyester film manufactured by DuPont.The balloons are made of a composite of Mylar and aluminum foil.  Miscellaneous: Polyester is also used to manufacture high strength ropes (Due to its strength and tenacity ) thread, hoses, sails, floppy disk liners, power belting and much more in industries. Thus, polyester has many uses for homes and industries as well.
  11. 11. TRADE NAME PRODUCT COMPANY Alcryn Halogenated polyolefin DuPont Amodel Polyphthalamide Solvay Durel PAR Occidental Durethan Nylon 6 Bayer Vydyne PA Monsanto Uvex CAB Eastman Chemical Zylar Acrylic Novacor
  12. 12.  The total market for polyester was estimated at 5.8 Million tonnes in 2012. Western Europe and North America represent the largest markets with 36 % and 39 % share of the global markets, respectively.  Polyester is an extensively used textile in the Indian subcontinent and stood next to Cotton in terms of cotton. India produced total 1.4 Million Tonnes of polyester Fiber in 2001- 2002 against 2.3 Million Tonnes of Cotton.
  13. 13. THANK YOU