Aftermath of the October Revolution


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During the October Revolution, Bolsheviks came to power, but what did they do afterwards? This slide show shows you what the Bolsheviks did and how they made sure that they have kept the power but at the same time how did they create a one state country. But did they all have it their way? What opposition did they have? This is formed from the IB syllabus but I think that it can be useful for anyone who is doing the Bolsheviks and Russian History.

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Aftermath of the October Revolution

  1. 1. Aftermath of the October Revolution 1917 TO 1920/21
  2. 2. Background on Lenin  Leader of the Bolsheviks  Exiled to Europe during the Tsars reing  Got back to Russi with the help of Germans in 1917  His April theses:  All power to the Soviets  Peace, Land and Bread
  3. 3. The October Revolution 1917: Background  The Provisional Government had lost support:  Failures in the War, dessertions increased  The Bolsheviks obtained support after Lenin‟s April theses  October 1917, Red Guard under the leadership of Leon Trotsky overthrew the government
  4. 4. Lenin's Government  Bread and Land  Peace, Treaty of Brest- Litovsk  Peasant obtained the Tsar‟s and the Churches land    Factories were put into the hands of the workers   Russia lost 32% of agricultural land and 54 % of its industry Fine of 300 million Gold Roubles The left SRs left the coalition and many of other Bolsheviks did not approve Lenin threatened to resign
  5. 5. Initial Decrees  Ranks in the army abolished  Workers controlled the factories  Gave peasants and workers what they wanted  Peasants received land
  6. 6. Elections to the Constituent Assembly  Free Elections in late 1917  Bolsheviks did not gain a majority (supported by workers)  The Social Revolutionaries (SRs) became the biggest party in the Assembly (supported by peasants)  Lenin closed down the Assembly  The Bolsheviks Dictatorship: led by Lenin
  7. 7. The Civil War: Politics  Government in the hands of the Congress of Soviets (mainly Bolsheviks)  Civil War:   The Whites (a coalition of the opposition of the Revolution) The Reds
  8. 8. The Civil War‟s Economy: War Communism  Nationalisation of all sectors of industry  State control over trade and requisitioning of food  Government trying to establish firm direction over economy  To help with the Civil War effort  Early reform proved too idealistic
  9. 9. The Government Controls productive means and organizes labour Large factories are controlled by the government An autarkic policy is developed to avoid the external blockade Large faries are controlled by the government War Communism Food is rationed and agricultural production has to be taken to the cities so that the government can distribute it Production is planned and organized by the Government Free enterprise is illegal and all production and trade is controlled by the government No Strikes Allowed
  10. 10. The Red Army  Supported by peasantry  Unity  Single, unified command  Trotsky organised the red army  Geological Advantage  Controlled central populated areas  Access to the main armament factories  Trotsky  Ability to inspire men  Introduced tough discipline and traditional hierarchy was restablished
  11. 11. The End of the Civil War  The Bolsheviks won the war  Peasants did not want to produce more as the government just took it away from them  Food Shortages + Bad Weather = Famines  1920-21 Famines: 7 million dead
  12. 12. Rebellions  Greens -> Peasantry    Used Gorilla Warfare Lenin thought that they were more dangerous than the Whites Tambov Raising  Central Russia  Kronstadt Mutiny   Supported the Oct. Revolution Make Lenin see that something has to change  “lit up reality like a flash of lightning”
  13. 13. The New Economic Policy (NEP)  Necessary step backwards in order to ensure the      Revolution survival Economy gradually started to recover Led to the introduction of the Bourgeois: the NEP men, kulaks and the „bourgeois experts‟ Heavy industry and the banks kept under the government control Compromised ideology in short term to ensure long term gain Ended grain requisitioning
  14. 14. The Role of Women  Polices aimed at women and families can be seen as driven by ideological consideration  Things done to give women more freedom:    Relaxation of divorce law Legalisation of abortion Opening of Creches  Encouraged to work during the Civil War  Many of these changes were reversed back after the war
  15. 15. Religion and the Orthodox Church  Orthodox Church seen as one of the “pillars of      Tsarism” Reduced power and influence radically During the Civil War harsh measures were taken to makes sure a counter-revolution would not take place After, a softer approach was taken Did not act on Islamic traditions Bolsheviks decided to tolerate rather than abolish religion
  16. 16. The Dictatorship of the Proletariat  The use of violence  Expansion of the Cheka  Lenin justified the use of terror by the need to ensure the Revolution did not fall to hostile forces  The Growth of Bureaucracy  Party and state bureaucracy  Criticised by Trotsky and Lenin
  17. 17. The media  All of the media was controlled  Propaganda used to:  Win hearts  And minds  Showed Bolsheviks as patriots  Showed the Whites as not patriotic and wanting to give back land to the nobility