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Infectious diseases are the second most common cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Patients with ESRD are at high risk for several infections, due to exposure to blood products and frequent dialysis. The increased susceptibility to infections among these patients is indicative of a complex and varied state of immunodeficiency manifested by abnormal phagocytosis, T and B lymphocytes abnormalities and impaired response to T cell dependent pathogens such as hepatitis B and influenza viruses. These immunologic abnormalities are complicated by the use of immunosuppressive drugs used to treat and control underlying disease and exacerbated by nutritional deficiency and the dialysis procedure. Though many of these infections can be prevented by appropriate vaccination, the usual schedules of vaccination may be less effective.
The aim of this paper is to review the studies on the use of vaccines in ESRD patients
and summarize the vaccines required in this population.