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The prevalence of hypertension in children is reported to be 1–3%. In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension
in school-aged children appears to be increasing, perhaps as a result of the increased prevalence of obesity (Sorof JM,
Lai D, Turner J, Poffenbarger T, Portman PJ. Overweight, ethnicity and the prevalence of hypertension in school-aged
children. Pediatrics . The majority of these children have mild hypertension, most often primary.
However, secondary causes of hypertension such as renal parenchymal diseases and renovascular disorders still
remain the leading cause of paediatric hypertension, particularly in children < 12 years of age. Regardless of its
cause, the significant elevation of blood pressure can lead to acute organ dysfunction, and hypertensive child almost
always warrants a diagnostic evaluation.