Diabetes and its Types

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This presentation talks about Diabetes, its types and treatment.

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Diabetes and its Types

  1. 1. Diabetes • ‘Diabetes mellitus’ occurs when the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood becomes higher than normal • Two main types of diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes
  2. 2. Type 1 Diabetes • Pancreas stops making insulin • Symptoms develop in days or weeks • Insulin in the blood is very low • Also called: Juvenile, Early onset, Insulin-dependent • Children or young adults usually affected although adults can also be affected • Treated with Insulin injections and diet
  3. 3. Type 2 Diabetes • Symptoms develop gradually compared with Type 1 Diabetes • Pancreas still secreting Insulin unlike Type 1 Diabetes, but not sufficient to meet body needs • Adults usually affected (and children these days!!) • Develop Diabetes because: not make enough Insulin for body's needs cells in body unable to use Insulin properly, called ‘Insulin Resistance'
  4. 4. Type 2 Diabetes • Tends to run in families • More common in South Asians • Risk factors: a first-degree relative with Type 2 diabetes overweight or obese waist circumference more than 80cm in women, 85cm in men Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Blood glucose in between ‘normal’ and ‘Diabetes range’ Gestational Diabetes Old age
  5. 5. OBESITY DIABETES MELLITUS INSULIN RESISTANCE INSULIN SECRETION DEFECT GENETIC PREDISPOSITION ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS GLUCO- AND LIPO- TOXICITY Low physical activity High energy intake Genes Vicious circle IGT FFA TNF-a, resistin, leptin, adiponectin … Liver Muscles
  6. 6. Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes • Vague at first • Often come on gradually • Have Diabetes for long time pre-diagnosis • Common symptoms: excessively thirsty passing large amounts of urine waking frequently at night to pass urine tiredness weight loss blurred vision frequent infections such as Candida
  7. 7. How is Diabetes diagnosed? • Blood tests for glucose- fasting, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test • A routine medical or when tests are done for unrelated medical condition
  8. 8. Why treat Diabetes? • To treat symptoms • Needs treatment even if no symptoms to prevent complications
  9. 9. Possible complications of Diabetes • Short-term complication - a very high blood glucose level can sometimes lead to Coma • Long-term complications  Hardening of the arteries :angina, heart attacks, stroke  Poor circulation  Kidney damage  Eye problems  Nerve damage  Foot problems  Impotence • Complications of treatment- Hypoglycaemia i.e., ‘low blood sugar level’
  10. 10. Aims of Diabetes Treatment • Maintain blood glucose level as near normal as possible • ↓ other 'risk factors' that ↑risk of developing complications- BP, cholesterol, smoking cessation • Detect complications as early as possible- heart, eyes, feet, liver, kidneys
  11. 11. How to Treat Diabetes • Lifestyle changes:  Exercise  Dietary changes • Medications:  Oral medications  Insulin injections and other injectable medications that reduce blood glucose
  12. 12. Monitoring in Diabetes • Blood tests:  HbA1c blood test 3-4 monthly for monitoring the last 3 months blood glucose average  Creatinine to monitor kidney function  Liver enzymes to screen for Fatty Liver  Lipid profile to assess fat content in blood • Urine Tests: Albumin-Creatinine Ratio to detect any damage to kidneys due to high Sugar levels and high blood pressure • BP monitoring • Foot Screen: To assess nerve damage and decreased blood circulation • Eye Screen: To screen for damage to Retina, Cataracts, Glaucoma • ECG to screen for underlying heart problems

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