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Women In The Labour Market


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Women In The Labour Market

  1. 1. Role of Women in the Labour Market: Women in the clothing industry (Istanbul, Turkey) Presentation lead by: Anne-Marijn Post
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing Industry in Istanbul: </li></ul><ul><li>I The growth of the garment industry </li></ul><ul><li>II The importance of the garment industry </li></ul><ul><li>III Women migrant workers </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion Question </li></ul><ul><li>Possible conclusion of discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Loss of manufacturing centres </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of service sector </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses became more footloose due to technological advances </li></ul><ul><li>International shift  transnational businesses were set up in LDC (Less Developed Countries) </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Clothing Industry in Istanbul, Turkey <ul><li>The geographical location of Turkey is a great advantage; functions as a bridge between Europe and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Trade liberalizations (1980’s) pushed the clothing industry into a more privatised and market placed model of the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey traditionally is a cotton producing country </li></ul>
  5. 5. The importance of the Clothing Industry <ul><li>The clothing and textile industry is the most important and successful sector of the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in popularity in foreign markets </li></ul><ul><li>The country’s total value of clothing exports in 1998 was 6.6 billion dollars, which was 23% of their total exports </li></ul>
  6. 6. Women migrant workers <ul><li>They comprise nearly 60% of the total employees </li></ul><ul><li>With the “garment boom” in Istanbul, many female migrants entered the city in hope to find work in the factories. </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions: insufficient wages, long working hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Employed women are relatively young, 54% of the female workers are below the age of 25 and are poorly educated, as 64% reported that they had not proceeded beyond primary school </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conclusion <ul><li>Western transnational businesses want to maximise their profits </li></ul><ul><li>The garment industry has greatly affected the cultural position of women in Turkey, as a very large percentage of them are now wage-earners, playing a significant role in the labour market </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence on the core countries makes the clothing sector a vulnerable industry (they are dependent on foreign markets) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Discussion Question <ul><li>Are women victims or agents of change in the global economies?! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Short Conclusion of discussion question <ul><li>Women in the global economy can be seen as very complex and multidimensional. The outcome differs between countries, in some countries it may improve the status of women, while in others women are exploited as secondary wage earners without hope of advancement or increased incomes in the near- future. </li></ul>