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Intro to Apache Apex (next gen Hadoop) & comparison to Spark Streaming


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Presenter: Devendra Tagare - DataTorrent Engineer, Contributor to Apex, Data Architect experienced in building high scalability big data platforms.

Apache Apex is a next generation native Hadoop big data platform. This talk will cover details about how it can be used as a powerful and versatile platform for big data.

Apache Apex is a native Hadoop data-in-motion platform. We will discuss architectural differences between Apache Apex features with Spark Streaming. We will discuss how these differences effect use cases like ingestion, fast real-time analytics, data movement, ETL, fast batch, very low latency SLA, high throughput and large scale ingestion.

We will cover fault tolerance, low latency, connectors to sources/destinations, smart partitioning, processing guarantees, computation and scheduling model, state management and dynamic changes. We will also discuss how these features affect time to market and total cost of ownership.

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Intro to Apache Apex (next gen Hadoop) & comparison to Spark Streaming

  1. 1. Devendra Tagare <> Software Engineer @DataTorrent Inc @devtagare July 6h, 2016 The next generation native Hadoop platform Introduction to Apache Apex
  2. 2. What is Apex 2 • Platform and runtime engine that enables development of scalable and fault-tolerant distributed applications • Hadoop native • Process streaming or batch big data • High throughput and low latency • Library of commonly needed business logic • Write any custom business logic in your application
  3. 3. Applications on Apex 3 • Distributed processing • Application logic broken into components called operators that run in a distributed fashion across your cluster • Scalable • Operators can be scaled up or down at runtime according to the load and SLA • Fault tolerant • Automatically recover from node outages without having to reprocess from beginning • State is preserved • Long running applications • Operators • Use library to build applications quickly • Write your own in Java using the API • Operational insight – DataTorrent RTS • See how each operator is performing and even record data
  4. 4. Apex Stack Overview 4
  5. 5. Apex Operator Library - Malhar 5
  6. 6. Native Hadoop Integration 6 • YARN is the resource manager • HDFS used for storing any persiste nt state
  7. 7. Application Development Model 7  A Stream is a sequence of data tuples  A typical Operator takes one or more input streams, performs computations & emits one or more output streams • Each Operator is YOUR custom business logic in java, or built-in operator from our open source library • Operator has many instances that run in parallel and each instance is single-threaded  Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is made up of operators and streams Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) Output StreamTuple Tuple er Operator er Operator er Operator er Operator er Operator er Operator
  8. 8. Advanced Windowing Support 8  Application window  Sliding window and tumbling window  Checkpoint window  No artificial latency
  9. 9. Application in Java 9
  10. 10. Operators 10
  11. 11. Operators (contd) 11
  12. 12. Partitioning and unification 12 NxM PartitionsUnifier 0 1 2 3 Logical DAG 0 1 2 1 1 Unifier 1 20 Logical Diagram Physical Diagram with operator 1 with 3 partitions 0 Unifier 1a 1b 1c 2a 2b Unifier 3 Physical DAG with (1a, 1b, 1c) and (2a, 2b): No bottleneck Unifier Unifier0 1a 1b 1c 2a 2b Unifier 3 Physical DAG with (1a, 1b, 1c) and (2a, 2b): Bottleneck on intermediate Unifier
  13. 13. Advanced Partitioning 13 0 1a 1b 2 3 4Unifier Physical DAG 0 4 3a2a1a 1b 2b 3b Unifier Physical DAG with Parallel Partition Parallel Partition Container uopr uopr1 uopr2 uopr3 uopr4 uopr1 uopr2 uopr3 uopr4 dopr dopr doprunifier unifier unifier unifier Container Container NICNIC NICNIC NIC Container NIC Logical Plan Execution Plan, for N = 4; M = 1 Execution Plan, for N = 4; M = 1, K = 2 with cascading unifiers Cascading Unifiers 0 1 2 3 4 Logical DAG
  14. 14. Dynamic Partitioning 14 • Partitioning change while application is running ᵒ Change number of partitions at runtime based on stats ᵒ Determine initial number of partitions dynamically • Kafka operators scale according to number of kafka partitions ᵒ Supports re-distribution of state when number of partitions change ᵒ API for custom scaler or partitioner 2b 2c 3 2a 2d 1b 1a1a 2a 1b 2b 3 1a 2b 1b 2c 3b 2a 2d 3a Unifiers not shown
  15. 15. How tuples are partitioned 15 • Tuple hashcode and mask used to determine destination partition ᵒ Mask picks the last n bits of the hashcode of the tuple ᵒ hashcode method can be overridden • StreamCodec can be used to specify custom hashcode for tuples ᵒ Can also be used for specifying custom serialization tuple: { Name, 24204842, San Jose } Hashcode: 001010100010 101 Mask (0x11) Partition 00 1 01 2 10 3 11 4
  16. 16. Custom partitioning 16 • Custom distribution of tuples ᵒ E.g.. Broadcast tuple:{ Name, 24204842, San Jose } Hashcode: 001010100010 101 Mask (0x00) Partition 00 1 00 2 00 3 00 4
  17. 17. Fault Tolerance 17 • Operator state is checkpointed to a persistent store ᵒ Automatically performed by engine, no additional work needed by operator ᵒ In case of failure operators are restarted from checkpoint state ᵒ Frequency configurable per operator ᵒ Asynchronous and distributed by default ᵒ Default store is HDFS • Automatic detection and recovery of failed operators ᵒ Heartbeat mechanism • Buffering mechanism to ensure replay of data from recovered point so that there is no loss of data • Application master state checkpointed
  18. 18. • In-memory PubSub • Stores results emitted by operator until committed • Handles backpressure / spillover to local disk • Ordering, idempotency Operator 1 Container 1 Buffer Server Node 1 Operator 2 Container 2 Node 2 Buffer Server 18
  19. 19. Recovery Scenario … EW2, 1, 3, BW2, EW1, 4, 2, 1, BW1 sum 0 … EW2, 1, 3, BW2, EW1, 4, 2, 1, BW1 sum 7 … EW2, 1, 3, BW2, EW1, 4, 2, 1, BW1 sum 10 … EW2, 1, 3, BW2, EW1, 4, 2, 1, BW1 sum 7 19
  20. 20. Processing Guarantees - Recovery 20 Atleast once • On recovery data will be replayed from a previous checkpoint ᵒ Messages will not be lost ᵒ Default mechanism and is suitable for most applications • Can be used in conjunction with following mechanisms to achieve exactly-once behavior in fault recovery scenarios ᵒ Transactions with meta information, Rewinding output, Feedback from external entity, Idempotent operations Atmost once • On recovery the latest data is made available to operator ᵒ Useful in use cases where some data loss is acceptable and latest data is sufficient Exactly once • At least once + state recovery + operator logic to achieve end-to-end exactly once
  21. 21. Stream Locality 21 • By default operators are deployed in containers (processes) randomly on different nodes across the Hadoop cluster • Custom locality for streams ᵒ Rack local: Data does not traverse network switches ᵒ Node local: Data is passed via loopback interface and frees up network bandwidth ᵒ Container local: Messages are passed via in memory queues between operators and does not require serialization ᵒ Thread local: Messages are passed between operators in a same thread equivalent to calling a subsequent function on the message
  22. 22. Next Gen Stream Data Processing • Data from variety of sources (IoT, Kafka, files, social media etc.) • Unbounded, continuous data streams ᵒ Batch can be processed as stream (but a stream is not a batch) • (In-memory) Processing with temporal boundaries (windows) • Stateful operations: Aggregation, Rules, … -> Analytics • Results stored to variety of sinks or destinations ᵒ Streaming application can also serve data with very low latency 22 Browser Web Server Kafka Input (logs) Decompress, Parse, Filter Dimensions Aggregate Kafka Logs Kafka
  23. 23. Batch vs. Streaming Credit: Gyula Fóra & Márton Balassi: Large-Scale Stream Processing in the Hadoop Ecosystem 23
  24. 24. Architecture and Features Spark Streaming Apex Model micro-batch native streaming/data-in-motion Language Java, Scala, client bindings Java (Scala) API declarative compositional (DAG), declarative* Locality data locality advanced processing locality Latency high very low (millis) Throughput very high very high Scalability scheduler limit horizontal Partitioning standard advanced (parallel pipes, unifiers) Connector Library Limited (certification), Rich library of connectors and24
  25. 25. Operability Spark Streaming Apex State Management RDD, user code checkpointing Recovery RDD lineage incremental (buffer server) Processing Sem. exactly-once* end-to-end exactly-once Backpressure user configuration Automatic (buffer server memory + disk) Elasticity yes w/ limited control yes w/ full user control Dynamic topology no yes Security Kerberos Kerberos, RBAC*, LDAP* Multi-tennancy depends on cluster manager YARN, full isolation DevOps tools basic REST API, DataTorrent RTS25
  26. 26. Data Processing Pipeline Example App Builder 26
  27. 27. Monitoring Console Logical View 27
  28. 28. Monitoring Console Physical View 28
  29. 29. Real-Time Dashboards Real Time Visualization 29
  30. 30. Resources 30 • Apache Apex website - • Subscribe - • Download - • Twitter - @ApacheApex; Follow - • Facebook - • Meetup - • Free Enterprise License for Startups - accelerator/
  31. 31. Maximize Revenue w/ real-time insights 31 PubMatic is the leading marketing automation software company for publishers. Through real-time analytics, yield management, and workflow automation, PubMatic enables publishers to make smarter inventory decisions and improve revenue performance Business Need Apex based Solution Client Outcome • Ingest and analyze high volume clicks & views in real-time to help customers improve revenue - 200K events/second data flow • Report critical metrics for campaign monetization from auction and client logs - 22 TB/day data generated • Handle ever increasing traffic with efficient resource utilization • Always-on ad network • DataTorrent Enterprise platform, powered by Apache Apex • In-memory stream processing • Comprehensive library of pre-built operators including connectors • Built-in fault tolerance • Dynamically scalable • Management UI & Data Visualization console • Helps PubMatic deliver ad performance insights to publishers and advertisers in real-time instead of 5+ hours • Helps Publishers visualize campaign performance and adjust ad inventory in real-time to maximize their revenue • Enables PubMatic reduce OPEX with efficient compute resource utilization • Built-in fault tolerance ensures customers can always access ad network
  32. 32. Industrial IoT applications 32 GE is dedicated to providing advanced IoT analytics solutions to thousands of customers who are using their devices and sensors across different verticals. GE has built a sophisticated analytics platform, Predix, to help its customers develop and execute Industrial IoT applications and gain real-time insights as well as actions. Business Need Apex based Solution Client Outcome • Ingest and analyze high-volume, high speed data from thousands of devices, sensors per customer in real-time without data loss • Predictive analytics to reduce costly maintenance and improve customer service • Unified monitoring of all connected sensors and devices to minimize disruptions • Fast application development cycle • High scalability to meet changing business and application workloads • Ingestion application using DataTorrent Enterprise platform • Powered by Apache Apex • In-memory stream processing • Built-in fault tolerance • Dynamic scalability • Comprehensive library of pre-built operators • Management UI console • Helps GE improve performance and lower cost by enabling real-time Big Data analytics • Helps GE detect possible failures and minimize unplanned downtimes with centralized management & monitoring of devices • Enables faster innovation with short application development cycle • No data loss and 24x7 availability of applications • Helps GE adjust to scalability needs with auto-scaling
  33. 33. We Are Hiring 33 • • Developers/Architects • QA Automation Developers • Information Developers • Build and Release • Community Leaders
  34. 34. End 34