Adult Enterprise Innovation Manual


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Adult Enterprise Innovation Manual

  2. 2. IntroductionBackgroundIn 2011-12 a diverse group of nine partner organisations from the Further Education(FE), Adult Learning, Voluntary and private sectors worked together to create aninnovative new qualification framework and curriculum materials to help adults gainthe skills to become entrepreneurs. This was underpinned by the creative use oflearning technologies, a strong brand identity and a sustainable approach tocontinued sharing in the sector.The project was entitled „Adult Enterprise‟ and was funded through the AoC/SFAInnovation and Shared Services Collaboration Fund. When the project fundingended in summer 2012 the original Project Steering Group set up a self-funded not-for-profit social enterprise to continue sharing the outcomes of Adult Enterprise withthe adult and FE sector. The results of this shared curriculum project caught theimagination of the sector and by January 2013, 34 institutions (seven local authorityAdult Learning services, one voluntary organisation and 26 FE Colleges) from acrossEngland had understood the merits of sharing an entrepreneurship curriculum andhad financially contributed to Adult Enterprise as member organizations to continueworking together. The Year 2 (2012/13) is now self-funded by member Collegeswhich has provided the new social enterprise with an important platform for thedevelopment work to continue. It is now running curriculum sharing across diverseinstitutions for field testing the prototype blended learning curriculum generated bythe project, which demonstrates that the sector can generate a cost-effective modelfor curriculum sharing.Using the ManualThis Manual1 analyses the learning points from this successful shared servicesproject to provide a useful model to improve innovation practice in the sector. It isdesigned as a ‗how to‘ guide for sector staff to improve strategies for innovation andcurriculum development through undertaking shared projects. The Manual is dividedinto nine sections and commences with a overview of the Adult Enterprise Project1 The Manual has been written by Christina Conroy OBE, who was Principal of RichmondAdult Community College and the Project Director for Adult Enterprise. It has contributionsfrom Dr Ruth Cherrington, Adult Enterprise Curriculum Manager, Peter Kilcoyne, ILTDirector and E-Learning staff from Worcester College of Technology (Dave Thurlby, E-Learning Coordinator and Adam Salem, IT Support Coordinator). 2
  3. 3. Case Study, followed by sections that detail the key themes and learning points forthe sector. It is designed for practitioners who would like more detailed information. Ashort document is also available ―Adult Enterprise: Curriculum Innovation‖ whichprovides an Executive Summary.Christina Conroy OBEChief Executive (Adult Enterprise)ContentsSection Topic Summary Page Numbers1 Adult Enterprise Project A contextual overview of the 5-15 Case Study project.2 New models of leadership This provides a conceptual for Project Innovation framework and guide to enable 16-22 using Co-creation through sector leaders to effectively lead Partnership Model for innovation and direct projects to Curriculum Development successful implementation. It will identify the essential elements that are required to generate new ideas through co- creation and an overview of the key management principles to be followed.3 Using the Innovation This covers the ‗how to‘ of Code to create New creating new qualifications to 23-29 Qualifications meet the needs of industry, or new and emerging markets. It covers a methodology for qualification and assessment design with a toolkit to follow.4 Creating a blended This provides an analysis of the learning Solution manufacturing process for 30-40 creating blended learning materials within a pedagogic framework, and a toolkit for subject writers for developing blended learning and e-learning products. 3
  4. 4. 5 E-learnification This section provides an overview and evaluation of 41-46 software available for online education and training with pros and cons. It also provides guidelines on how to ‗e-learnify‘ subject writers curriculum‘ content.6 Developing a shared This section provides guidance learning platform on how to adapt Moodle and 47-49 integrate education and training software to create a strong user interface and user experience (UI/UX) for online learning. A guide to managing learners, providing online helpdesk support, and collecting data for benchmarking.7 Managing a virtual team This covers the methods and processes for managing a virtual 50-54 team of curriculum writers, curriculum editors, assessment specialists, awarding body staff and e-learning designers to create a shared team.8 Brand development in a This section explores the shared environment marketing principles to create a 55 white label design and marketing proposition that can be shared.9 Models for network A toolkit for selling shared generation for sharing and services and creating a 56-57 sustainability sustainable vehicle for sharing. 58Bibliography 4
  5. 5. Section 1Adult Enterprise project case studyIntroductionThe Adult Enterprise project, funded through the SFA Grant Fund and supported byAoC, came about because of a business problem experienced by Richmond AdultCommunity College (RACC) regarding its relationship with local customers and itscontract as an FE College to the national Government Skills Funding Agency. Thissection gives a background to the project inception in terms of an individualCollege‘s problem and an overview of the project.The business problem Richmond Adult Community College (RACC) is a General Further Education College for adults based in South West London, providing annually over 1500 skills and leisure courses for 12,000 part-time adults. Over 80% of its teaching was delivered by part-time, hourly paid lecturers the majority of which are professionally and industrially active portfolio workers. The College had been successively rated Outstanding by OFSTED (2006 and 2010) in recognition of its excellent quality of provision and its responsiveness to the local community. The College had its own dedicated Richmond Business School specialising in Digital Technologies, Business and Enterprise.The business problem that the College faced was: Between 2010-2011 RACC was delivering entrepreneurship training in an innovative way to meet local skills demand but this was not recognised by Government. The College was unable to generate funding for this activity and was at risk of not meeting its funding targets as a GFE. This had major financial consequences for the College in that penalties were implemented by the SFA if the College did not comply with its funding target. There was a clear mismatch between what the local community needed in terms of skills training and what was recognised nationally. The general narrowing of the curriculum in terms of what was recognised as fundable for adult skills was a general problem that affected all Colleges but it 5
  6. 6. affected RACC particularly as a GFE College because of its niche offer to adults.Innovation through co-creation (Organisation and customer)Since 2008 the College had experienced strong local demand from unemployedprofessionaladults and existing small businesses, in response to the recession, for a broad rangeof shortcourses in entrepreneurship training particularly around new technologies. TheCollege hadgenerated these curriculum solutions in its Richmond Business School as a result ofa richdialogue between the users and part-time lecturers who were portfolio workersrunning their own enterprises or working for global high tech companies such aseBay and PayPal (Both have their European Head Offices in Richmond).This dialogue resulted in the users shaping and co-creating the Colleges curriculumto respond quickly to their local circumstances to gain the skills to get started as theysought to make sense of the increasingly difficult UK economy. The co-createdenterprise curriculum at Richmond Business School was innovative, personalisedand designed around the learning journeys of adults in Richmond and South WestLondon. The South West London economy profile has the highest proportion ofmicro-businesses with less than 10 employees (91% of businesses) than anywhereelse in the country. Of this proportion 19% of all businesses are self-employed soletraders. A rich eco-system of small businesses generates more small businesses asa result of the low barriers to entry, both for trading and in terms of the socialacceptance towards start-up. Annual destination surveys since 2005 had highlightedthat between 25%- 30% of College leavers from RACC went on to sell their workprofessionally, become self-employed or start a business after undertaking a courseat the College.Innovation as rule-breakingDespite designing and implementing a rich innovative adult skills curriculum that theCollege was delivering, RACC was unable to draw down national funding becausethe National Qualifications Framework (NQF) did not recognise this type ofentrepreneurship training for over 19s or enterprise short courses for adults. Incontrast the NQF only recognised enterprise qualifications for 16-18 year olds andsubstantive long courses for adults. The NQF (National Qualification Framework)system and bureaucracy became a gatekeeper to legitimacy and thereby stifled 6
  7. 7. innovative approaches to meeting new economic needs. Consequently the Collegewas losing out on over half a million pounds of funding because what wasrecognised and funded nationally, and what was wanted locally, were at odds. If theCollege had tried to claim funding for this work it would be breaking the ‗rules‘ andundertaking an illegitimate act. If it carried on delivering innovative co-createdsolutions for contemporary economic needs it would lose money and face fundingpenalties from the SFA. If it stopped delivering it would not be meeting its servicemission to the local economy.In the perverse financial situation of potentially not meeting targets and not pullingdown funding the Colleges options were to either stop being a College responsive tothe community or try and change the national framework. It needed a way to makeclaiming the funding ‗legitimate‘ but also ensure the curriculum was sustainable sothat other Colleges could benefit within a national framework. Both solutions werenot easily achievable as the way the College had developed the in-house enterprisecurriculum was based on individual tutors and students through co-creation, and ifthey left the College had no sustainable curriculum plan or framework to repeat.Similarly stopping the entrepreneurship training during a recession when local adultswant to make their own job would also have been perverse. The College recognisedit needed a dialogue at national level to resolve the NQF issue and also develop astrategy to make the curriculum sustainable and usable by other learning and skillsproviders.At that time changing national rules was risky for the SFA because their strategy hadbeen to only fund robust, nationally recognised qualifications to ensure proper use ofpublic funds. Yet new qualification frameworks were needed to respond to changesin the economy. The College was able to generate a dialogue with the SFAregarding this provision and the use of a holding code Z90P (now the InnovationCode) to claim funding until the provision was on the NQF. This provided the SFAscope for managed risk but also local responsiveness. The holding code wasdesigned to fund qualifications for a temporary period if they were awaitingrecognition on the NQF.This still left RACC with a problem, as a small institution of how to create a nationalcurriculum framework for adult entrepreneurs to get NQF recognition. RACC hadachieved a solution to part of its business problem which was achieving its fundingtarget for 2010-11 and securing half a million pounds of funding but it still faced thechallenge of future proofing ‗legitimacy‘ and developing a national framework.Making innovation sustainable through partnership co-creationThe solution to creating a national qualification framework was to engage a diverserange of partners who had similar problems with the narrowing of the adultcurriculum or who were working in the adult entrepreneurship space without funding 7
  8. 8. who could help co-create a robust national framework. For example what is neededfor entrepreneurship training by well-educated professional adults in Richmond willbe different for adults on benefits in East London. Yet a national qualificationframework needs to be flexible and robust enough to serve a variety of users. Apartnership of diverse providers was set up of like-minded leaders from thevoluntary, FE, Adult and private sectors who bid for extra resources to the AoC/SFAShared Services and Innovation Fund to develop the Adult Enterprise Project in2011. This provided valuable resources to enable staff across the partnership towork together and solve the problem for mutual benefit.The Adult Enterprise projectThe Adult Enterprise project was funded for one year from September 2011- August2012. 2 The overall aim was to provide a national qualification and curriculumframework that would be available to all Learning and Skills providers nationally from2012/13. The skills qualification framework was designed to be at level 2 and 3 foradults who wish to be entrepreneurs. The Project also sought to develop ‗blendedlearning‘ curriculum materials that could be shared with the rest of the learning andskills sector to enable national roll-out. The aim was to develop a prototypecurriculum development and delivery model for a new curriculum area(Entrepreneurship Studies) and achieve increased innovation and efficiency gains bysharing across diverse partners, disseminating across the whole learning and skillssector, and ‗designing in‘ flexibility and cost savings in how it could be delivered. TheProject Director was Christina Conroy OBE, formerly Principal of Richmond AdultCommunity College who reported to an Adult Enterprise Steering Group comprisingHeads of partner organisations.Five PhasesThe project was organised into five Phases. At every phase the project sought howto ‗do things differently‘ and ‗design in‘ innovation and efficiency. 1. Curriculum development (September – December 2011)This involved:2 The Adult Enterprise Partnership ( services curriculum project comprised9 private, public and voluntary sector Partners including 4 General FE Colleges (Richmond AdultCommunity College, City of Bath College, Morley College, Tower Hamlets College, Paypal (Europe),HOLEX, WCL, Community Links, Social Enterprise London). 8
  9. 9. Researching the learning journeys of adults who want to become entrepreneurs and identifying what qualifications were available. Developing a new model that is more applicable to adults from a wide variety of backgrounds (socio-economic, ethnicity, age and vocational area). Using diverse partners from the public, private and voluntary sector to provide diverse perspectives on the learning needs of adult entrepreneurs.Research with adults over 18 from a variety of vocational areas, educationalattainment levels, and social and geographical backgrounds indicated that over 40%express an interest in running their own business or being self-employed, yet lessthan 10% actually do take the plunge. The lack of enterprise skills was cited as oneof the greatest barriers to business start-up. Further research across the ninepartners identified that successful adult entrepreneurs go through four main stagesto business start-up which are First Steps, Creating, launching and growing. Whilstsocial entrepreneurs often have to transition out of the public sector or voluntarysector roles before Creating, Launching and Growing their enterprises. 2. Qualification framework development– (January - April 2012)This involved the following: Developing a national skills framework at level 2 and level 3, and compiling it into unitised qualifications that were flexible and attractive for charging fees but inclusive enough to attract funding for disadvantaged groups. Ensuring the framework was robust and distinctive enough to be approved by OFQUAL. (The Adult Enterprise Partnership worked with Open College Network London Region (OCNLR) as the Awarding Body as the majority of the partners were based in London.) Setting up the skills qualification framework which has been devised in a unitised fashion so that an adult can select units of learning that meet their training needs at the right time during their learning journey to entrepreneurship. (The qualifications have now all been accredited by a national awarding body (OCNLR). Both the Level 2 and level 3 were approved by OFQUAL and were recognised for funding (both the whole qualification and the units in 2012/13). All of the qualifications became freely available in July 2012 on the NQF. Undertaking further work, due to the introduction of new regulations on adult loans for over 25s in 2013/14 to combine the level 3 awards into Certificates and Diplomas so that they are suitable and eligible to attract to loans).An individual can take whole awards or just units of learning. A credit representsaround 10 hours of learning. There is a rich mix of units including running a streetmarket, social media, and developing an on-line store that would be attractive asstand-alone or as whole awards. The rules of combination involve mandatory andoptional units. The assessment model is using an online portfolio of evidence 9
  10. 10. (business development log) to demonstrate skills in developing their own businessidea and running a business.The new qualification framework is as follows:Name of the Award UnitsOCNLR Level 2 Certificate in Generating and Assessing a Business Idea 2First Steps to Enterprise credits Assessing Your Capacity to Start and Run a Business 1 credit Financial Considerations for a New Business 3 credits Understanding the Benefits and Tax Credit System for a New Business 2 credits Understanding the uses of Social Media for Business 2 credits Street Market Trading as a Business Option 1 credit Considering the potential to Run a Business from Home 1 credit Legal Aspects of Trading 2 credits Understanding Social Enterprise 2 credits Understanding how to Sell a Product or Service 2 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Deciding on a Business Model for a Product orCreating a Business – Service 2 creditsConcept and Planning Producing a Business Plan 3 credits Finances for a New Business 3 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Making a Product of Saleable Quality 3 creditsCreating a Business – Establishing a Service of Saleable Quality 3 creditsProduct and Sales Showcasing a Product or Service 3 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Selling and Branding a Product or Service 3 creditsLaunching a Business – Working with Suppliers 3 creditsProduct and SalesOCNLR Level 3 Award in Website fundamentals for a Business 3 creditsLaunching a Business – Launching an online Business 3 creditsTechnologies Managing an Online Store 3 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Keeping up to date with Current BusinessSustaining and Growing a Legislation 3 creditsBusiness – Business Survival Assessing Health and Safety Risks in a Business 2Skills credits Self-Development for Business Sustainability and Growth 3 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Sub-Contracting Work 3 creditsSustaining and Growing a Recruiting Employees 3 creditsBusiness – Planning for Giving a Business Presentation 3 creditsGrowth Project Management for a Business 3 credits Tendering for Work 3 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Trading in Overseas Markets 4 credits 10
  11. 11. Sustaining and Growing aBusiness – Business in anInternational ContextOCNLR Level 3 Award in Creating a Social Enterprise 3 creditsCreating, Launching and Social Enterprise for Voluntary Organisations andGrowing a Social Enterprise Charities 3 credits Developing Social Enterprise for Public Sector Services 3 credits 3. Content development and shared delivery strategies – (May - August 2012) A key aim of the Adult Enterprise project was to design a way to provide curriculum materials to share across the sector to support the new qualification framework and thereby reduce the costs of delivery. The pedagogic approach, which has been termed ‗flipping the classroom‘ whereby knowledge acquisition is developed through on-line content and understanding, meaning and skills is developed afterwards in the classroom,was used in planning the curriculum development. Currently teachers use their classroom time for giving knowledge but they would be more effective in generating learning if they spent more time developing understanding and skills in the classroom rather than lecturing content. Consequently Adult Enterprise developed e-learning content to go alongside classroom materials.The blended learning solution; The teaching and learning strategy that Adult Enterprise used is known as ‗a blended learning solution‘ on a learning platform hosted centrally to enable more efficient and effective implementation across the education sector. The e-learning content was placed on a customised Moodle 2 platform with embedded articulate software. It was customised to commercial standards. The platform was designed to facilitate easy management and tracking of delivery of over 80 standardised, separate L2 and L3 units to students across a large number of partner learning providers as well as delivering e-learning products with high user interface and user experience.The blended learning content; The blended learning content was developed by different partners and independent curriculum writers, with 50% of the curriculum materials to be used in the classroom and 50% to be available on an e-learning platform to be used directly by learners. 11
  12. 12. A web front-end was developed to be the learner portal for delivery backed up by a Moodle platform hosted by a leading e- learning College as a service to the sector (Worcester College of Technology). By the end of the project funding the full level 2 content was completed and quality assured for sharing with the sector. New contracting arrangements had to be developed for curriculum writers who were disconnected from direct delivery in the classroom. Worcester College provided e-learning support staff to work with curriculum writers to undertake ‗e-learnification‘ of content. This deconstruction of the curriculum development and delivery process provided scope for innovation as well as significant efficiency gains.In addition to a shared curriculum, a shared marketing model was developed whereAdult Enterprise was branded alongside an individual College/institution‘s brand. Aset of shared marketing materials was developed with a shared website. All the artwork has been designed centrally which can then be repurposed locally. Themarketing pack includes a prospectus, promotional leaflets, display stands, posterdesigns, conference packs, learner badges, standardised hand-outs and powerpoints. The designs chime with the user look and feel of the learning platform. 4. Sector roll-out and Dissemination - (May -July 2012)Briefings were arranged with AoC groups such as ILT Managers, EnterprisePortfolio, Innovation Committee and the Shared Services Group which generatedsignificant interest. Forty Colleges signed up to the website to get more information.The Project Director visited individual Colleges to gauge interest to identify whatwould be the most useful strategy for sector testing. As a result of sector feedback itwas agreed to test the teaching and learning model, and the content across theregions with both HOLEX members and FE Colleges. The Adult EnterprisePartnership focused on having a number of the level 2 first steps to Enterprise unitsand the shared marketing materials ready for sector testing.Five dissemination days were organised hosted at Tower Hamlets College, LondonFashion Retail Academy, City of Bath College, Solihull College and WakefieldCollege, in July 2012. The dissemination events were presented by the ProjectDirector, Curriculum Manager, Assessment Manager and a Worcester ILTrepresentative.Over 100 attendees from around 80 institutions attended the 5 dissemination daysacross the country. Sector institutions were given access the materials to reviewcontent to enable them to give feedback. Excellent feedback was received on theprogress of the project, the blended curriculum materials and the shared curriculummodel. The overview was that sector colleagues liked: Excellent professional materials 12
  13. 13. Meets a large market demand from different adult target markets Professional high-quality appearance Excellent range of units and attractive qualification framework Blended learning approach Cohesive marketing and branding materials Flexibility for delivery Flexibility for learners Relevant content to suit the needs of adult target markets Openness to ideas from sector colleges Support for refreshing and updating materials Quality of on-line platform Collaborative approach Pre-prepared for teachers Opportunity to deliver bite size elements Reduction of delivery costsThings Adult Enterprise needs to do to develop were: Development of a Level one programme Tracking student progress online Size of print on marketing materials Need for clear explanation of difference between level 2 and 3 for learners Clarity on funding for each qualification for each eligible group, clarified with SFA Combining level 3 Awards into Certificates and Diplomas in preparation for Student Loans in 2013 Need to raise awareness of JCP and HMRC nationally Usage with 16-18 and HE students Business Development Log needs to be more user friendly Access to social media in councils may preclude offering the social media unit 5. Developing a Sustainability Model – (July - September 2012)All the blended learning level 2 units were completed and were quality assured inAugust 2012. The aim was for interested sector Colleges to be able to start using theLevel 2 curriculum in October 2012, with the rest of the Level 3 content available in2013. By offering a blended learning solution the attraction for sector Colleges wasthat this will reduce teaching costs, save on curriculum development time, andstandardise the quality of delivery but also provide scope for local customisation.Although the project was funded ‗by the sector for the sector‘ the reality was that ithad to be self-financing if it was to continue in 2012/13 as AoC/SFA Project ceasedin its entirety by 31 October 2012. The overall conclusion from the evaluation formsfrom the dissemination events was that there was a clear consensus that there 13
  14. 14. would be value in the Adult Enterprise initiative continuing in a sustainable form.Over 30 Colleges and Adult Learning Services expressed an interest in providing theAdult Enterprise qualification framework and blended learning content.The final stage of the AoC/SFA project was to explore what would be the mostappropriate business model for its on-going roll-out to the sector given that thenational qualification framework was freely available to the sector, in July 2012.Feedback from AOC and BIS was that because the intellectual property wasdeveloped with Government funds a not for profit social enterprise should beestablished.To date (January 2013) 34 Colleges/providers (this includes 4 Founder providermembers) have paid £5,000 membership fees to continue the work of AdultEnterprise and to continue to share the curriculum and marketing materials. In returnthey get unlimited use of the materials, reduced OCNLR fees, shared marketingmaterials, train the trainer events, central website and shared learning platform,curriculum writing opportunities for sector professionals and centrally providedlearner MIS on destinations and success.There is a good geographic spread across England with good representation in theNorth, Midlands and London and the South East.A Board of Directors/Trustees was appointed in their own right comprising six Headsof institutions from the original nine Founding partners after discussions with theirCollege/institutional boards (Morley College, Tower Hamlets College, CommunityLinks, HOLEX, City of Bath College, WCL). The Social Enterprise has beenregistered as a Company Limited by Guarantee. The 34 providers are as follows: Kent Adult Education and KEY Training London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham Accrington and Rossendale College Burton and South Derbyshire College Redbridge Institute Westminster Adult Education Service Doncaster College Warwickshire College The Sheffield College Highbury College Stanmore College Solihull College New College Nottingham Uxbridge College Community Links City of Bath College Morley College 14
  15. 15. Tower Hamlets CollegeOxford and Cherwell Valley College (including Reading College)North Hertfordshire CollegeBirmingham Adult Learning ServiceWorcester College of TechnologyWest Suffolk CollegeSouthend Adult Community CollegeWest Herts CollegeNewcastle Adult Learning ServiceColchester InstituteSparsholt CollegeGrimsby Institute of Further and Higher EducationThe Adult College of Barking and DagenhamCentral Bedfordshire CollegeFurness CollegeSouth Essex CollegeTotton College 15
  16. 16. Section 2New Models of Leadership Through Co-creationIn this section we explore the following: What are the learning points with respect to leadership and management. The concept of co-creation through partnership The management strategies for handling uncertainty and dealing with risk, and identifing the important role of diversity.Literature reviewThe academic literature on co-creation is focused principally on the relationshipbetween consumers and the firm. Co-creation is a form of market or businessstrategy that emphasises the generation and on-going realization of mutual firm-customer value. It views markets as forums for firms and active customers to share,combine, and renew each others resources and capabilities to create value throughnew forms of interaction, service and learning mechanisms. It differs from thetraditional active firm - passive consumer market construct of the past.The future of competitionCo-created value arises in the form of personalised, unique experiences for thecustomer (value in-use) and on-going revenue, learning and enhanced marketperformance drivers for the firm (loyalty, relationships, customer word of mouth).Value is co-created with customers if and when a customer is able to personalizehis/her experience using a firms product-service proposition – in the lifetime of itsuse – to a level that is best suited to get his/her job(s) or tasks done, and whichallows the firm to derive greater value from its product-service investment in the formof new knowledge, higher revenues/profitability and/or superior brand value/loyalty.C K Prahalad and Venkat Ramaswamy introduced the concept and developed theirarguments further in ―The Future of Competition‖ (2004) where they offeredexamples including Napster and Netflix showing that customers would no longer besatisfied with making yes or no decisions on what a company offers. Value will beincreasingly co-created by the firm and the customer, they argued, rather than beingcreated entirely inside the firm. Co-creation in their view not only describes a trend ofjointly creating products. It also describes a movement away from customers buyingproducts and services as transactions, to those purchases being made as part of anexperience. The authors held that consumers seek freedom of choice to interact withthe firm through a range of experiences. Customers want to define choices in amanner that reflects their view of value, and they want to interact and transact intheir preferred language and style. Prahalad and Ramaswamy identify that theinformed, networked, empowered, and active consumers are increasingly co- 16
  17. 17. creating value with the firm. The interaction between the firm and the consumer isbecoming the locus of value creation and value extraction. As value shifts toexperiences, the market is becoming a forum for conversation and interactionsbetween consumers, consumer communities, and firms.Customer community leadershipRowley, Kupiec-Teahan and Leeming (2007) explore a case study of a leadingplayer in the UK and international ―sportkiting‖ market which focuses on productinnovation through customer community development. Their study provides insightsinto the development and management of a customer community, informing productinnovation and engaging customers in co-creation of a consumption experience. Thecase companys innovative product development strategy provides the catalyst forco-creation of a customer experience. Its marketing actions extend beyond productdevelopment and innovation to actively co-creating experiences with customers,fostering a sense of community among users, facilitating communication within thatcommunity, acting on the feedback, and continuously developing and maintainingthe community relationship. The companys marketing strategy can be summed upas ―customer community leadership‖. This paradigm proposes a new role forbusinesses in sectors where there is a potential to develop and engagecommunities. It provides a context for the effective facilitation of customer knowledgemanagement, within which marketing intelligence plays a significant role.Co-creation through partnershipWhilst the academic literature on co-creation is rich in relation to consumers andorganisations, it is less well-developed on how co-creation can be used betweenpartners through collaboration as a business strategy for innovation.Pavlovich and Doyle 2006 explored a case study of a range of diverse organizationsin Waitamo, New Zealand collaborating to develop innovation in the tourism offerafter the decline in day visitors to the Waitamo Cave system. The study examinesthe role that social capital plays when partners collectively develop new knowledgeto pursue entrepreneurial opportunities. They explore the structural, cognitive andrelational dimensions of social capital and showed that the structural dimensionhelps initiate partnerships, gain access to important markets and build capabilitieswithin partnerships. The cognitive dimension involved partners unfreezing the sensemaking frames of the parent company and co-constructing a new interpretiveframework, specific to the partnership, with the alliance partner. Relational aspects oftrust through professional competency, open communication and personal integritywere critical for close relationships to be formed in order that ideas could beintegrated and developed. Thus they argue that co-entrepreneurship is a processwhereby both partners contribute to value creation through their ability to transcenddifferences and negotiate space in order to learn how to learn for knowledgecreation. 17
  18. 18. Leadership skills for co-creationIf co-creation through partnership is going to be successful the type of leadershipskills required will be different from traditional models of leadership. From aleadership and management perspective the National School of Governmentidentified co-creation and new models of leadership as imperative to respond to thechallenges and changes facing public services economically, globally and in termscustomer expectations. They ask the question: ‗What would it take to create moreeffective leadership of the whole governmental and public service system?‘ Thereport puts forward the findings from the Warwick Business School (Hartley andBennington 2009) research on public leadership which identified the need for newpatterns of ‗adaptive leadership‘ to tackle tough, complex, cross-cutting problems inthe community. Whole systems thinking and action includes the capacity to analyseand understand the inter-connections, inter-dependencies and inter-actions betweencomplex issues, across multiple boundaries, between different sectors, services, andlevels of government. They argue that leadership development programmes need totranslate individual learning into organisational and inter-organisational action andimprovement."Think about leadership not just as about individuals but also about ‗leadershipconstellations‘ which consist of a team, a partnership group or other stakeholderswho can work in a whole systems way.""Leadership development programmes in the public and voluntary sectorsincreasingly therefore need to cultivate the knowledge and capabilities necessary towork effectively across the boundaries and networks of the whole public servicesystem, in order to tackle the complex cross-cutting issues which concern citizensand communities."A shared visionA central theme is that diversity enriches but diverse partners need to all have ashared vision and values. This is the bedrock of co-creation through partnership. Thechallenge of the Adult Enterprise project was that it was required to develop aneffective national approach to identifying the skills and qualification framework thatadult entrepreneurs needed. Potential adult entrepreneurs come from a variety ofmarket segments such as age, ethnicity, social class, gender, educational andoccupational backgrounds so it was important to work with diverse partners from avariety of sectors who would have insight into this range of needs. However diversepartners create tensions because they have different world views. The view ofvoluntary sector practitioners from East London working with disadvantaged groupswas necessarily different from private sector partners in West London working withaffluent professional adults.The shared vision of all the partners was that adults need the skills to survive andprosper in business to generate sustainable self-employment and business start-up. 18
  19. 19. 40% of adults nationally report that they would like to start a business and yet only5% do. There is clearly a mismatch between aspiration and ability which results inlack of confidence and inaction. All of the partners believed strongly that learningchanges lives and life chances, and if you give adults the skills to be entrepreneursthey will have more choices to support themselves, their families and theircommunities.Diversity is creativeThe diversity of partners provided a rich range of perspectives in viewing theframework required for adult learners wanting to become entrepreneurs.Often partnerships are characterised by working with the same type of organisations,within same sectors, of similar size, operating in similar markets. Co-creation throughpartnership requires a different approach. In the case of Adult Enterprise eachpartner came with a different perspective and expertise which proved very creativeand innovative.The partners in the Adult Enterprise Project were:PARTNER TYPE OF EXPERTISE ORGANIsATIONRichmond GFE for Adults Leisure and skills courses for adults inAdult Richmond and South West London, with keyCommunity specialism‘s in Digital Technologies, BusinessCollege and Creative and Cultural StudiesMorley Specialist Leisure and skills courses for adults acrossCollege designated adult London with key specialism‘s in Creative Arts College and Crafts, and Music based in Waterloo, central LondonTower A GFE College Based in Poplar in East London providing FEHamlets for Young people courses for young people and adults with a keyCollege and Adults specialism of Full-time 16-18 programmes, Technical skills and ESOL for AdultsCity Of Bath A GFE College Based in Bath, Somerset providing FE coursesCollege for Young people for young people and adults with key and Adults specialism‘s in Media & Performing Arts, Creative Arts and Beauty TherapyHOLEX A membership Representing 105 local education authority adult learning services across England. Strong 19
  20. 20. organization specialism and connectivity to adult education and leisure local authority servicesSocial A voluntary Providing training and funding to support theEnterprise organisation development of social enterprises across theLondon supported by capital London CouncilsCommunity A voluntary Based in Canning Town in East London,Links organisation providing advice and guidance, training and tackling Poverty support structure to tackle poverty, with a key and disadvantage specialism in understanding and analysing the benefits system and the ‗black economy‘.PARTNER TYPE OF EXPERTISE ORGANISATIONPayPal, part of A multinational Providing a global online payment system foreBay private sector individuals, small businesses and corporate organization partnersWCL Ltd A private sector Providing project and change management business solutions for the public and private sector consultancy serviceOpen College A private sector Exam validation and accreditation service forNetwork London Region FE and adult education Colleges in London andLondon Examining Board the South East.Region(OCNLR)Co-entrepreneurshipPavlovich and Doyle (2006) argue that this type of co-creation should be termed co-entrepreneurship whereby partners contribute to value creation through their abilityto transcend differences and negotiate space in order to learn how to learn forknowledge creation. Diverse partners provide different perspectives that enrich thecreativity of the whole group.However Pavlovich and Doyle identify that the partnership needs to take cognisanceof the structural, cognitive and relational dimensions to generate new innovativesocial capital.LEADERSHIP THEMES BENEFITSSTRUCTURE A clear partnership structure helps initiate partnerships, gain access to 20
  21. 21. important markets and build capabilities within the partnershipsCOGNITIVE The cognitive dimension involves partners unfreezing the sense-making frames of their existing organisation and co-constructing a new interpretive framework, specific to the partnership.RELATIONAL The aspects of trust through professional competency, open communication and personal integrity are critical for close relationships to be formed in order that ideas could be integrated and developed.Innovation as a national movementAll of the partners shared a common vision and were committed to solving thebusiness problem, and developed a strong trust framework for action. The SteeringGroup and Curriculum Groups met regularly and worked together to co-create thenew qualification framework, the curriculum materials, the shared delivery strategyand new social enterprise. This generated on-going team development and a sharedpurpose. Each of the partners was very engaged and proud of their involvement andkeen to encourage other providers to join in the project as part of a nationalmovement.Learning Points for Future Curriculum InnovationThrough Co-creation with Partners1 Develop a high level understanding of the curriculum innovation problem that you aretrying to solve e.g. the desire to be an entrepreneur cuts across vocational areas, cutsacross different localities, different sectors and adults from different backgrounds - Can oneinstitution innovate alone in a complex situation?2 Work with enablers such as SFA and agree the use of an Innovation code and get theirbuy in to the Project3 Identify partners who can help from different sectors, different localities, differentvocational areas and serving different adults, and will work effectively on co-creation4 Find resources to invest in co-creation as it takes time to generate effective solutions e.g.The shared services and collaboration bid to resource the project through AoC/SFA providedvaluable resources to move the project forward but with clear milestones and effectiveevaluation. 21
  22. 22. 5 Identify the importance of diversity in the partnership and how it can be led and managed6 Develop a shared vision and an absolute shared commitment to project goals. Build trustand the inclusive sharing of information. Shared goals are more important than individualgoals7 Get the Structure right. This involves ensuring that there are clear roles andresponsibilities at three levels strategic Project Director and steering group leaders,Operational and task Management Project Manager and curriculum developers/practitionersand staying in touch with learners8 Ensure Steering Group cohesion, and try and involve leaders in their sector so that theycan be ambassadors to other Providers whilst staying in touch with Curriculum Developersworking on project task and engaging with learners9 Find committed suppliers who want to join in and add to co-creation effort10 Celebrate and disseminate to different sectors to ensure sustainability 22
  23. 23. Section 3Using the Innovation CodeThis section covers the new Innovation Code Guidelines with a Table setting out theFunding Rules and a toolkit on how to identify and create new areas of provision andthe process for working with Awarding Bodies. In April 2011 Richmond AdultCommunity College was one of the first institutions to seek to use a more flexiblemethod of recognising and funding new provision for its short courseentrepreneurship programmes. This was the basis for the development of the AdultEnterprise Project in 2011/12. Since then the current regulations have beendeveloped in relation to the introduction of an Innovation Code to enable all providersto create new qualifications to meet the needs of industry or new and emergingmarkets.In Baroness Sharp‘s report A dynamic nucleus: Colleges at the heart of localcommunities (November 2011) recognised that learning and skills providersnationally needed to have a mechanism to fund ‗responsive provision which meetslocally assessed priority needs.‘ In New Challenges New Chances (December2011), BIS accepted this recommendation and stated that they would introduce anInnovation Code to be used by the Skills Funding Agency from April 2012 whichwould be used to: ―support FE Colleges and providers to draw down funding forprogrammes that meet a particular employer skills need whilst they aresimultaneously developed for the QCF‖.The Innovation Code therefore is a mechanism designed to help Colleges andtraining organisations respond quickly to local employer needs and emerging skillsgaps by designing and deliver new programmes. It allows them to deliver customisedprogrammes of learning without having to wait for new qualifications to be developedand accredited. This is possible because the Code is designed specifically to meetdemand where there is no current qualification offer. This could include provisionwhich tackles unemployment and helps learners progress and remain in work, orwhich addresses a particular skills gap within a local area. It allows them to enrollearners on a course that at present does not lead to a Qualifications and CreditFramework (QCF) qualification and draw down funding.Central to the use of the innovation Code is that there is the understanding that thequalification has been designed in partnership with business, with a commitment totime limited funding, and that the qualification will migrate onto the Qualifications andCredit Framework (QCF)‖ 23
  24. 24. Providers are currently able to use the Code for a period of 12 months during2012/13, working with local businesses and employers to develop and deliverprovision. They will also need to work with an Ofqual-recognised awardingorganisation, so that the provision can be migrated onto the Qualifications and CreditFramework using the Innovation Code. The Code initially consists of six learningaims which will enable Providers to draw down funding within a Provider‘s existingfunding allocation whilst simultaneously developing the programme and qualification.The Rules for the use of the Innovation Code are as follows: 24
  25. 25. GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF THE INNOVATION CODE 2012-14WHO CAN EMPLOYERS/LOCAL METHOD OF TYPE OF PROVISION INELIGIBLE PROVISIONBENEFIT COMMUNITY NEED IDENTIFICATIONThe Code is for It should be used for Local needs might LEVEL Large Employers with Direct GrantColleges and Developing specialist skills, be identified Provision delivered through the Innovation Code Provisiontraining Up-skilling in a particular sub- through a college can be at any level of learning, from Entry throughorganisations that sector, and/or training to Level 8 Apprenticeshipsappear on the Re-skilling as a result of organisation‟s TYPEAgency‟s economic conditions in a existing links with It can be: Where QCF provision exists and isRegister of particular local area, local/regional completely new provision planned to be removed fromTraining Specific skills required to employers, with adaptation of existing provision fundingOrganisations support a growth sector, representative a new combination of QCF unitsand have a Supporting entrepreneurship, organisations such SIZE Non-regulated versions of units andcurrent contract Supporting employment as National Skills The Code may be used for short course provision qualifications that are already in theas a prime and/or progression and further Academies, Sector where that provision can, for instance, support QCF.contractor to learning in a particular sub Skills Councils, someone into employment; or it can be used for For providing finance for awardingdeliver Adult sector or sector Local Enterprise slightly longer provision. There are six sizes of organisation (AO) for developmentSkills Budget responding to local needs – Partnership or provision costs(ASB) or Offender for example, adapting training Employment and based on credit value aligned to the QCF which 24+ Advanced Learning Loans willLearning and for the needs of local Skills Boards. relate to SFA Funding (Full Funding and Co- be introduced in 2013/14 and willSkills employers seeking to recruit Funding Rates): provide funding for the delivery ofService Phase 4 unemployed people ZINN0001 Innovation Code Award (1 to 6 Level 3 qualifications for learners(OLASS4) credits) £203 £102 aged 24 or above. As the enabling individuals to prepareprovision ZINN0002 Innovation Code Award (7 to 12 Innovation Code relates to the for and progress into an apprenticeship. credits) £401 £200 delivery of provision that does notIt can also be ZINN0003 Innovation Code Certificate (13 to currently lead to a qualification, theused by sub- 24 credits) £703 £352 Code would not be eligible for 24+contractors with ZINN0004 Innovation Code Certificate (25 to Advanced Learning Loans The Code can be used for boththe permission in 36 credits) £1,302 £651 provision. (Once a qualification has employed and unemployedwriting from their ZINN0005 Innovation Code Diploma (37 to been developed for provision contractor 24 credits) £2,005 £1,002 delivered through the Innovationto use the Code. ZINN0006 Innovation Code Diploma (49 to Code, if it is a Certificate or Where the Code is used forThe Prime 72 credits) £2,505 £1,252 Diploma at Level 3, then the new unemployed learners, this shouldContractor qualification would be eligible for be to support them in moving intoshould monitor 24+ Advanced Learning Loans funding, providing it meets other. funding criteria 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. Learning Points on how to Identify and Create New Areasof Provision Using The Innovation Code1 LISTENS TO THE USERS - CO-CREATIONValue will be increasingly co-created by the provider and the customer, rather thanbeing created entirely inside the learning provider. Co-creation is the trend towardsjointly creating products. The interaction between learning providers and theconsumer is becoming the locus of value creation and value extraction. As valueshifts to experiences, the market is becoming a forum for conversation andinteractions between consumers, consumer communities, and firms. In ―The Futureof Competition‖ (2004) Prahalad and Ramaswamy state that customers want todefine choices in a manner that reflects their view of value, and they want to interactand transact in their preferred language and style. The starting point for anycurriculum innovation is this dialogue.Learning providers need to consider whether their portfolio of learning products arestill fit for purpose for both young people, adults and employers. The nature ofgovernment funded regulated learning providers is that they fall into the strategic trapof ‗wanting to deliver what they like to deliver‘ and ‗dusting down last year‘sprospectus‘. The starting point has to be community and business needs to shapeprovision in a much more responsive way. The Skills Funding Agency indicate thatthese local needs might be identified through a college and/or training organisation‘sexisting links with local/regional employers, with representative organisations suchas National Skills Academies, Sector Skills Councils, Local Enterprise Partnership orEmployment and Skills Boards. However often the users and potential usersarticulate their need to front-line staff and there is limited capability within learningproviders to collect and analyse this market intelligence for curriculum decision-makers. A clear message is to ensure that your organization is alert to shiftingdemand and need.2. Articulate NeedOnce you have listened to the users you need to develop a high level understandingof the curriculum innovation problem that you are trying to solve. Try to articulatewhat is the problem, who does it affect and what is the training solution. Seeexample below: 27
  28. 28. What is the Type of Who does it What is the At what level Is there existing business need? affect? subject/ is it provision on the problem? Curriculum required? QCF? area?New types of Up-skilling Energy Energy Level 2, 3 Some unitsenergy in a business/recy generation/ and 4 are availablegeneration particular cling waste but new unitsusing sector companies management/ needs to berecycled who want to engineering accreditedmethane diversify The need might be for individuals or whole new industries. Boydell (1983) identifies that new training needs can occur at either the whole organizational level, at the job/occupational level or at the individual/employee level. The Skills Funding Agency identifies that new type of provision can be for: Developing specialist skills, Up-skilling in a particular sub-sector, Re-skilling as a result of economic conditions in a particular local area, Specific skills required to support a growth sector, Supporting entrepreneurship, Supporting employment and/or progression and further learning in a particular sub sector or sector Responding to local needs – for example, adapting training for the needs of local employers seeking to recruit unemployed people Enabling individuals to prepare for and progress into an apprenticeship. 3. Use ‘mash-ups’ as a source of creative ideas The term mash-up refers to the capability to mix and match from multiple sources into one dynamic entity. The term mash-up comes from the hip-hop music practice of mixing two or more songs. It is applied to a new breed of web-based applications to mix at least two different services from disparate, and even competing, web sites. A mash-up, for example, could overlay traffic data from one source on the Internet over maps from Yahoo, Microsoft, Google or any content provider. ‗Mash-ups‘ can be a very powerful way of developing new innovative curriculum and breaks the boundaries of traditional sector skills council approved provision. The way the economy is developing is where traditional areas merge and generate a new approach. For example Smart Phones were the combination of a phone, a web browser and personal computer. In the same way new areas of curriculum areas are generated through the merger of 2 or 3 subjects. It is useful to consider this when trying to address new and emerging community and business needs. 4. Identify the scale of the need 28
  29. 29. If you are tackling a new industrial area where there are no existing QCF provisionthis will require much greater resources than if you are creating new provision forspecific individual employees. You will need to consider that this might be a nationalneed and therefore you might need partners to help you shape a national framework.In the case of Adult Enterprise the desire to be an entrepreneur cut across vocationalareas, across different localities, different sectors and adults from differentbackgrounds and one institution could not have create a new national framework onits own.The long term requirement is that a new qualification is designed in partnership withbusiness/community, with a commitment to time limited funding, and that thequalification will migrate onto the QCF. If the provision is very distinctive and nichethen you need to evaluate whether it might be better to run the programme as fullcost delivery for a specific individual or company rather than to seek to claim fundingfor an area that an Awarding Body is not interested in accrediting because themarket demand is too small.5. Review the existing QCF to see what is availableSince 2011 there has been a narrowing of qualifications accredited with a removal ofduplicates but there are still many vocational qualifications available and approvedby OFQUAL. It is essential to undertake an analysis of what is currently available asthere may be relevant units already written that can be reconfigured into a newqualification. Working with an Awarding Body (AO) is a useful first step. It is in theirinterest to accredit new provision that meets an identifiable market need that willhave resonance for the sector. 29
  30. 30. Section 4Creating a Blended Learning SolutionThe Adult Enterprise Project developed through co-creation a new innovativequalification framework and shared curriculum across a group of partners which wasoriginal and inventive and met a market need but it also developed a strategy tomanufacture in a cost effective and efficient way ‗blended learning‘ products.In this section we explore: What is blended learning The manufacturing process for creating blended learning products The pedagogic framework It will also provide a toolkit for subject writers involved in, or who are considering developing blended learning and e-learning products based on the experiences of the Adult Enterprise Project.Meeting a market needThe new Adult Enterprise skills qualification framework met a significant market needand was devised in a unitised fashion so that an adult could select units of learningthat met their training needs at the right time during their learning journey toentrepreneurship. The qualifications were all accredited by a National AwardingBody (Open College London Region), approved by OFQUAL and recognised forSFA funding. In addition the Adult Enterprise Project devised a teaching andlearning strategy for wider sector roll-out which was ‗a blended learning solution‘ ona moodle learning platform hosted on a by Worcester College of Technology (actingas a community cloud) to enable more efficient and effective implementation acrossthe sector. The Adult Enterprise Partnership developed e-learning content to go onto a Moodle 2 platform which was customised to commercial standards thatcombined both online and classroom based learning. The aim was to create 50% ofthe content online and 50% deliverable in the classroom to reduce costs.Definitions of blended learningFrom the outset, it is important to recognize that a variety of definitions andapplications exist for key teaching and learning terms. Some are usedinterchangeably with a blurring of the boundaries that can cause confusion andhinder communication.A Google search in December 2012 generated 6,390,000 results including numerousdefinitions, discussions, books, journal articles, conference papers, numerous 30
  31. 31. examples plus video clips. This plethora of results reinforces the idea that oneperson‘s experience of blended learning and preferred definition is not necessarilythe same as someone else‘s.An article in the Washington Post summarized it in this way:‗..blended learning is some mix of traditional classroom instruction (which in itselfvaries considerably) and instruction mediated by technology. The latter can be onestudent with a tablet or laptop, or small groups of kids working together on devices.‘(2012/09/22)The common denominator brings it down to it being a mix of teaching/ learning in theclassroom combined with some online learning in some form or another.For some institutions and practitioners, blended learning involves the reproduction ofa classroom situation online, a virtual classroom, with interaction between learnersand tutors through video-conferencing, Skype and forums/blogs etc. This isconsidered in a video made by Common craft and the key points are that: The students are part of a digital learning environment These types of environments necessitate Learning Management Systems (LMS) that go beyond traditional classroom management. Curriculum writers contribute to such environments and systems when they are producing materials for blended learning.Blended learning can also be described as a form of technology enhanced learning(TEL). The result does not lead to a virtual classroom in this sense but one thatsupplements actual classroom sessions. According to a study carried out by theUniversity of Oxford blended or hybrid learning is 30- 79% online and ‗typically‘ usesonline discussions. (2010 p. 25) Another basic definition from the same report refersto blended learning as ‗online with attendance. ‘(2010, p. 13) Whatever definitionbeing used, the aim is always to produce effective blended learning, that will enablelearners and tutors to make good use of their time both inside and outside theclassroom and that will open up new opportunities in both content, delivery andresults.Blended learning can be compared to e-learning. The Joint Information SystemsCommittee (JISC) defines e-learning as ‗e-learning facilitated and supported throughthe use of ICT. It may involve the use of computers, interactive whiteboards, digitalcameras, the Internet, the college intranet, virtual learning environments andelectronic communication tools such as e-mail, discussion boards, chat facilities andvideo conferencing.‘ (Ofsted Handbook for Inspecting Colleges, p. 68)Another definition comes from ‗Move_On_UP_Etutor_Guide.txt‘. ‗E-learning: ageneral term referring to the use of digital technologies to support learning andteaching.‘ What is clear is that e-learning differs from ‗traditional learning‘ where 0%content is online, according to the Oxford Report (op.cit: 25) Even so-calledtraditional teaching is changing now with some elements going online such aslectures, powerpoints (ppts) and assessments. This can be referred to as WebSupplemented- classroom/campus learning but with materials available on the web.(Oxford Report op.cit:1) This might refer to the intranet of a particular 31
  32. 32. college/university rather than the internet such as ppts being posted only for studentsenrolled on the course, additional readings etc.The manufacturing process of shared blended learning productsThe manufacturing process for developing the shared blended learning curriculumfor Adult Enterprise was significantly different from traditional models of curriculumdevelopment where the teacher develops the courses and applies to an awardingbody for accreditation, the teacher designs the curriculum content for the course anddelivers and assesses the curriculum. In the model adopted by Adult Enterprise themanufacturing was disconnected from the teacher with the creation of a newqualification framework by partners in partnership with an Awarding Body (AO),procurement of curriculum writers to write content and elearning designers totransform the online materials into usable elearning content.The process was as follows:Stage 1: Market Map Need - The learning points from developing Adult Enterprisewas that it is beneficial to develop a new innovative qualification framework andshare its curriculum where the subject area is ‗ubiquitous‘ and can be repurposed fora variety of markets by different institutions. This makes sharing more attractive formore users.Stage 2: Development of a Qualification Framework - This needs the involvement ofan Awarding Body that is skilled in designing qualifications, has a goodunderstanding of the assessment and also how a new qualification fits alongsideexisting qualifications.Stage 3a): Content Creation – curriculum content needs to be designed and writtenby subject experts who work within a pedagogic framework that provides both on-lineand off-line content. The copyright needs to be owned by the Sharing Entity ratherthan individual writers.Stage 3b): Editing- This needs to be edited to ensure that separate content writers‘approach is consistent and coherent. This involves designing a pedagogic model fora scheme of work that reflects the blended learning approach to curriculumdevelopment. The scheme of work and the content selected needs to be clearly laidout so that the desired learning process can be clearly articulated.Stage 4: E-learnification – the content needs to be put on to a learning platform and‗e-learnified‘ which means that particular software needs to be used to enable thecontent to enable learning to take place online and offline. This requires technicalsoftware skills but also the ability to understand the learning process as set down bythe content writers and editor. 32
  33. 33. Stage 5: Creation and hosting on a Learning platform- there is a multiplicity ofplatforms available but Moodle represents the best value for education as it is writtenusing open source software. However it requires a degree of programming anddesign customisation to make it attractive and accessible for teachers and learners.The content and learning platform needs to be written in such a way so that it can bestreamed on to a variety of devices.In the case of Adult Enterprise the business model was B2B (Business to Business)which was that the finished entity was a ‗white label‘ brand that could be licensed toColleges. The benefits of this approach was that the marketing brand could beshared and also awarding body discounts could be negotiated for a wide variety ofusers as part of a consortium use.A B2C (Business to Customer) model where individual Colleges could develop theirown curriculum products is possible but there is one big limiting factor and that iscost. This proposal seeks to address this limiting factor and empower sectorColleges to develop their own products at low cost thereby creating multiple creatorsas well as giving them the ability to share at low cost.See Fig 1: Manufacturing Process 33
  34. 34. The pedagogic approachThe Adult Enterprise project‘s aim was to find ways to deliver a sharedentrepreneurship curriculum across the sector in a more efficient way using ablended learning model. Its aim was to seek to deliver 50% of the content online withcurriculum available for teachers to deliver the other 50% in the classroom. Forquality reasons, as well as efficiency, Adult Enterprise was also keen to effectivelyintegrate information technology into teaching and learning. OFSTED 2012 Reporton Learning and Skills state that the best teaching and learning is where teachersare “skilled at developing learners‟ vocational and subject expertise by engagingthem in stimulating and challenging learning activities. Their confident use ofinformation learning technology successfully helped learners become moreindependent in their learning through the use of technology at work and at home”.The pedagogic approach was rooted in trying to ‗flip the classroom‘ so theknowledge element could successfully go online but the higher order learning couldbe undertaken in a face–to-face interaction with a teacher. The flipped learningmodel, which started in the classroom, transposes homework with class work. In theworld of education, this means students get the presentation portion of a class ashomework through videos, screen casts and podcasts. Then during class, there istime for interaction, discussion, projects and individualised instruction. The model isbased on the idea that learner interaction and enrichment in the classroom are moreeffective than passively watching a teacher present or lecture.This model provided the starting point for schemes of work to be devised that couldintegrate learning objectives from both the online and classroom content. This isbased crudely on Blooms Taxonomy of Learning (1956) which set out thatknowledge can be acquired much more easily than higher level learning where theuse of the social aspects of learning is important.Fig 2 Bloom‘s TaxonomyThe Adult Enterprise Project used this model with curriculum writers to assist them indeveloping integrated schemes of work. 34
  36. 36. SCHEME OF WORK PRO-FORMA FOR CURRICULUM WRITERSUnit Title and OCNLR Level Credit GLH Unit sector Unit Writer(s)Unit Code Value Teacher(s)Please Complete in Full To be completed if knownPurpose and Aim: Provide brief statement (1 or 2 sentences)Part Learning Assessment Criteria Assessment Methods and Outcomes Evidence The learner will The learner can Online learning Classroom learning Please state Session 1,2, etc Please state Session 1, 2, etc 1. Insert as per Unit Insert as per Unit What will the learners be doing What will be happening in the classroom? Insert What will be assessed? outline outline on their own (or linked to other activities with links to any handouts/learning What is the learner expected learners through online guides that will be used and to submit for assessment? groups)? materials/resources. Clearly reference each e.g. [NB- not all activities have to 1.1, 1.2 etc. be assessed but learners Insert activities with links to advised to keep all their work any e-handouts/learning Please provide approximate timings for each as part of their portfolio]. You guides that will be used and activity - take into account that roughly 50% is can indicate what is for materials/resources. online/ 50% class-based activity. portfolio and what is for assessment (A and P) Please provide approximate Try to include a mix of teaching/ learning What will be the assessment timings for each activity- take activities - group work, role play, focus groups, products? E.g. Short reports, 2. into account that roughly 50% pair work, input from tutor, input from learners personal development plan, is online/ 50% class-based etc. set of notes, set of calculations, list of key Please provide in brief - for ‗at a Please provide in brief - for ‗at a glance‘ information- full websites, and use of Business glance‘ information- full details will be in details will be in your learner and teacher materials. Development Log etc. 3. your learner and teacher materials. etcAdditional Notes Insert here anything else you think would be useful such as any alternatives or optional, additional workResources and Materials:List here all resources and materials to be accessed and used for both classroom and online learning sessions.Resources can include- power points, YouTube videos, sections from books, learner handouts and notes prepared by tutor, indicative websites, TV programmes, film, newspaper articles,government reports, etc. Be as contemporary as possible but do include key works in the area that should be looked at. Newspaper articles and reports, for example, can be useful triggermaterials as well as business sections.You might like to indicate what is recommended for full participation in online/classroom learning (R) and those materials/resources that are additional (A) for those who have moretime/interest to pursue further. 36
  37. 37. Toolkit for Curriculum/Subject Writers Developing BlendedLearning MaterialsThe Adult Enterprise Project used a Curriculum Editor Manager, Dr Ruth Cherringtonto manage all of the Curriculum Writers to ensure a standardised approach. ThisToolkit provides advice for other organizations who might wish to employ thisapproach for creating blended learning. This Toolkit was written as a result of herexperience of managing a diverse team of writers to create rich blended learningcontent for Adult Enterprise suitable for use by a range of Colleges across thecountry.Toolkit for curriculum writersUltimately, however, what Curriculum writers use and how they adapt any templatesand other materials, depends on a range of factors:• The specific nature of the courses under development• What level they are• The target audiences• The resources of the learning providers• The nature of the e-learning platform/Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)When starting out, curriculum writers need to be provided with their remit. Thisshould detail what is expected of them, the boundaries of their work, deadlines andso on. They will also need to be provided with related documentation and course/unitspecifications. These should be read through carefully to gain a clear idea of:• The awarding body e.g. OCNLR, City and Guilds etc.• The key features of the units/modules/course• The level(s)• Number of hours and, if applicable, Guided Learning Hours (GLH)• Timings in terms of unit/module/course length or session length, both classroom and online• Other relevant informationIt is important for curriculum writers to gain as much contextual backgroundinformation as possible especially when working for a particular body or organizationfor the first time. Further information about awarding bodies and the courses can befound by going online to their websites. Some areas to consider are as follows: Are there areas that need clarifying? If so, the writer should contact the organization/body/employer. What degree of autonomy does the curriculum writer have in terms of deciding number of sessions, content, activities, and outcomes and so on? Are templates provided that have to be used or are they only suggestions? What does the VLE - Virtual Learning Environment look like? How are curriculum writers expected to contribute to this? What is the LMS and how does it work? How are the materials to be curated? 37
  38. 38. After considering all of the above and gaining any additional information required thecurriculum writers are ready to start designing their materials. They may alreadyhave some ideas about how to approach the unit. The best place to begin is with theUnit Specification and the learning outcomes and assessment criteria. These shouldguide writers into what sort of material and topics should be covered in eachclassroom and online session and help them envisage what will be the evidence forassessment.Scheme of workHow Many Sessions? How long should each be? What is the expected or preferredratio between online/classroom learning?If there is no given/ set number of sessions then writers must decide according tohow the teaching and learning is being built up throughout the Unit. The number ofGLH should also be a guide as well as the assessment criteria and expectations oflearning outcomes. There is also the possibility that the learning providers, whenthey deliver the Unit, might decide to merge some sessions or, alternatively, splitsome up into smaller sessions.It might be that three classroom sessions and two online sessions would work well,with each being 2 hours long. Writers are advised to carry out an initial mapping outof sessions and see how they look before filling them out with content and activities.Classroom Sessions A suggested time should being given for the session (1 hour, 90 mins, 2 hours etc.) A varied mix of teaching and learning activities should be included- not just ‗teacher talk‘ but activities in pairs and groups, role play and games, powerpoint presentations, guest speakers, recording (tape and video) activities where useful /feasible, etc. Any special facilities or equipment that are required such as computers, Wi- Fi/internet, TV, cameras etc., should be listed. Learner activities should be delineated as assessed/non-assessed.Please note: it is up to the learning providers to subsequently factor in time neededfor health and safety checks, taking of registers, tea/coffee breaks etc., not thecurriculum writers.Online Sessions A suggested time should being given for the session (1 hour, 90 minutes, 2 hours etc.) A varied mix of learner activities should be included in addition to researching relevant websites. Specific tasks/activities should be provided throughout the session with over- general and vague instructions avoided. Each session should have aims and specific learning outcomes- these are not just chunks of time to be filled. Tasks should be manageable and achievable within the time frame given and should facilitate improvement in the learner‘s research skills They can encourage further exploration and work outside the time set for each session 38
  39. 39. Learners should always be aware of what they are meant to be looking at, finding out about or practicing.Sequencing of classroom sessions and online sessionsThis is up to the writer to decide, based on what is trying to be achieved. It might beadvisable for learners to do an online session prior to their first classroom session,as a ‗warm-up‘, familiarisation exercise or to obtain some information they can bringwith them to the first class-based session. If this is the case, the Unit writer needs toflag this up on the Scheme of Work.Sourcing and referencing materials/contentOnly websites and links that are reputable, relevant and up-to-date should be usedwith alternatives provided in case these go down. Wikipedia has become a verypopular website, accessed by millions on a regular basis. It is certainly useful as astarting point but we have to remember that the information placed here is notalways correct, accurate or reliable. Most teachers and lecturers discourage the useof Wikipedia so curriculum writers should give this a wide berth as well. Tutors andlearners expect and are buying into something more thorough in their blendedlearning course. Whenever any existing material is cited, whether it is a journalarticle, book, a YouTube video, TV programme, etc., the full details should bereferenced. When a web link is given as a reference, the date this was accessedshould also be included. When repurposing materials that you have used in othercircumstances, all necessary permissions should be obtained.Blended learning tutor guidance notes for classroom sessionsUnit writers need to provide thorough instructions for the tutors so that theyunderstand what they are meant to be doing in the classroom. Suggested timingsgive them guidelines to work with though also offering some room for flexibility.Suggestions for individual, pair and group work are to be detailed and where learnerinput takes the form of an assessed activity.Learner guidance notes for online sessionsUnit writers are to provide instructions and materials for the learners in a way thatthey can follow easily, that are user-friendly yet not overly chatty. Illustrations, videoclips, animations, examples and case studies should all be included wherenecessary.It is advisable to avoid just providing pages of text or notes to read. Links to textsand notes which learners need to find and research for themselves, with associatedtasks/activities, are preferable. The online sessions should be informative,instructional, interactive and interesting- what is termed here as ‗the 4 i‘s‘.Writers must also bear in mind that these instructions will be prepared for the e-learning platform/VLE by the relevant team. Instructions for them should also beprovided logically and clearly.Assessment and Assessment Guidance NotesAssessments should be written according to the assessment criteria and learningoutcomes provided in the course/unit specifications. In the case of Adult Enterprisethe assessments formed part of the learners‘ portfolio of evidence and were part of 39
  40. 40. the Moodle package in the form of a Business Development Log. The followingguidance notes were used: Each assessment should be clearly numbered and/or labelled with a title such as ‗Going into Business SWOT analysis.‘ What the learner needs to do to meet the criteria should be detailed. It is possible for one activity to meet more than one assessment criteria. Each assessed task should enable the learner to produce evidence that is directly related to their own business or business plans as well as the assessment criteria. They can be uploaded for the tutor to access and assess but also downloaded for learner to retain. Each assessment builds on the others and leads to a tangible set of skills and experience. Any special instructions for the learners should be properly flagged up as well as any for the e-learning team. Learners should also be encouraged to make additional notes on any research activities they undertake as part of the online learning element of your unit content, even if not assessed content.ChecklistFinally this list was provided as a useful aide de memoire to ensure writers haveincluded everything in their package of materials in the form of a Checklist forCurriculum Writers. Checklist for Curriculum WritersITEM Submitted? (please Comments/queries tick)Completed Scheme of Work (withclassroom sessions and online sessions)Tutor guidance notes for classroomsessionsPowerpoints (where necessary)Learner guidance notes for online sessionsHandouts for classroom (where necessary)Assessment tasksNon - assessed activitiesAdditional resources/readingOther? 40