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Water leakage problem

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Water leakage causes damage to structures and its contents Reinforcement corrosion , delamination, accelerated aging and increased maintenance costs are all serious concerns
Application design requirement specification for water demand , and water seepage study and investigation to locate the source of the seepage will reduce future damage to the structure and reduce maintenance costs. There are many reasons for water
leakage in buildings, some cases are caused by defective water pipes, sanitary fittings or drainage pipes or rain water leakage from roof and walls . Water leakage may come from dilapidated pipes in adjacent flats or even from inside the same flat. It may also be due to water seeping through common areas, such as the roof or external walls due to poor workmanship or inadequate design.
If water leakage is found in roof or walls or water supply or sewerage pipes and fitting and fixtures a proper investigation of the cause needs to be carried out

Published in: Engineering
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Water leakage problem

  1. 1. Seminar presented by Anwer Hazim D. Msc. In Dam and Water Resources Engineering Geotechnical Engineering Dept. Water Leakage problem in Buildings
  2. 2. Contents - Introduction - Objectives - Effect of leakage - Testing Water leakage in Building - Causes of leakage - leakage in buildings and remedies - Maintenance for leakage - Material for Damp proofing - Conclusion 2 3 4 5 10 19 23 27 28 33
  3. 3. 3 1. Introduction One of the basic requirements in all buildings is that the structure should remain dry as far as possible. If this condition is not achieved, the building may become un habitable and unsafe from structural point of view. The entry of water or dampness into a building is termed as leakage. Leakage in buildings is common and it is important to understand the causes and measures to be taken for their prevention . Most of the building materials having pores in their structure as for example concrete expand on absorbing moisture from atmosphere and shrink on drying. These movements are reversible . at condition of saturation Leakage in buildings occurs in walls, flat roof, and parapet wall …. etc.
  4. 4. 2. OBJECTIVES To upgrade Maintenance Technologies and Methodologies to achieve improvement in productivity and performance Of our buildings by applying Leakage Treatment . 4
  5. 5. 5 3. Effect of leakage The structure is badly affected by dampness. The prominent effect of dampness is as follows: 1) A damp building creates unhealthy conditions for those who occupy it (give a rise for breeding of mosquitoes ). 2) The metals used in the construction of the building are corroded.
  6. 6. 6 3) Unsightly patches are formed on the wall surfaces and ceilings. 4) Decay of timber takes place rapidly due to dampness
  7. 7. 7 5) The electric fittings are deteriorated due to dampness. 6) The material used as floor coverings are seriously damaged.
  8. 8. 8 7) 8)Wall decoration and paint damaged. softening and crumbling plasters
  9. 9. 9 9- disintegration of thermistone and brick wall by dampness
  10. 10. 4. Testing Water leakage in Building ASTM E2128-01a, Standard Guide for Evaluating Water Leakage of Building Walls, published in January 2002 by ASTM International This guide describes methods for determining and evaluating causes of water leakage of exterior walls. This guide is intended to provide building professionals with a comprehensive methodology for evaluating water leakage through walls. 10
  11. 11. systematic approach to an evaluation 1) Review of project documents, 2) Evaluation of the wall’s design concept, 3) Determination of the building’s service history, 4) Inspection, 5) Investigative testing, 6) Analysis, and 7) Report preparation 11
  12. 12. Test opening at -clad wall 12
  13. 13. Field testing of suspect window installation. 13
  14. 14. ASTM spray rack in use on the exterior of an aluminum and glass curtain wall.
  15. 15. 15 spray rack in use to test the interior side of a parapet wall.
  16. 16. 16 Leakage detection by Digital leakage correlator IR camera Field inspection leakage by IR
  17. 17. 17 Our leakage problems
  18. 18. 18 Our leakage problems
  19. 19. 19 5. Causes of leakage - Action of rainfall : If the faces of wall exposed to heavy showers of rain are not suitably protected, they become source of leakage in a structure. Similarly leakages from roofs also permit rainwater or drain water to enter in a structure , Some times leakage from drain water cause settlement by washing the soil under foundations . - Condensation: The moisture is deposited on the walls, ceilings etc. due to condensation process. Adequate ventilation is essential in any property for the wellbeing of the residents - Water storage in building
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22 Miscellaneous: i) The orientation of a building is also an important factor. The wall obtaining less sunshine and heavy showers of rain are liable to become damp and leaky. ii) Very flat slope of a roof may also lead to the penetration of rainwater or drain water, which is temporally stored on the roof. iii) The dampness also caused due to bad workmanship in construction such as defective rain water drain and water supply pipe connections, defective joints in the roofs, improper connection of the walls etc.
  23. 23. 23 6. leakage in buildings and remedies - Leakage through roofs: (i) Lack of proper slope thereby causing stagnation of water (1.25%) Remedy: Adequate slope should be provided to prevent stagnation of water With expansion joint , clogged gutters is the most common cause of leakage, check to see if they are clean.
  24. 24. 24 (ii) Lack of proper drainage system Remedy: Sufficient drainage pipes should be provided . (iii) Lack of coping of walls Remedy: coping on the top of the wall should be provided. (iv) Poor maintenance of water pipe connections and joints Remedy: Maintenance of water supply pipe connections and fitting should be leak proof.
  25. 25. 25 - Leakage through walls (i) Lack of stone cladding/ waterproof and painting (ii) Lack of chajjas over openings (iii) Poor orientation and wind direction Natural ventilation
  26. 26. 26 - Leakage from upper floor (i) Crack in the closet and its trap or sewerage network Remedy: It should be replaced. (ii) Leakage from the concealed pipe joints Remedy: It should be examined and replaced the same.
  27. 27. 27 7. Maintenance for preventing leakage Cleaning of terraces, drains before monsoon and when chocked. Replacement of leaky/damaged washers in fittings. Replacement of leaky/damaged pipe line, gate valves. etc. Replacement of leaky/damaged gasket in flanges. Replacements of leaky/damaged joints in CI drain pipes. Replacement of leaky/damaged MS trays under Air Handling Units.
  28. 28. 28 8 . Material for Damp proofing Requirement (specification) It should be impermeable or should have very low permeability. It should have strong adhesion with substrata. It should be sufficiently elastic due to temperature fluctuations. It should have high resistance of cracking. It should be resistant to ultra violet rays. It should be breathable i.e. permit vapor transmission. Its application should be easy. It should be durable.
  29. 29. 29 Materials used for damp proofing Types a) Flexible material: Material like bitumen felts, plastic sheeting (Polythene sheet) etc. . b) Semi rigid materials: Materials like mastic asphalt or combination of materials or layers. c) Rigid materials: Materials like first class bricks, stones, slates, cement concrete etc. d) Grout consisting of cement slurry and acrylic based chemicals/polymers.
  30. 30. 30 Commonly used materials for damp proofing. Hot bitumen: This is a flexible material and is placed on bedding of concrete or mortar. This material should be applied with a minimum thickness of 3 mm. Mastic asphalt: This is semi rigid material and it forms an excellent impervious layer for damp proofing. Good asphalt is a very durable and completely impervious material.
  31. 31. 31 Bituminous felts : isogam This is a flexible material. It is easy to lay and is available in rolls of normal wall width Metal sheets: The sheets of lead, copper and aluminum can be used as membranes for damp proofing. Combination of sheets and felts : A lead foil is sandwiched between asphalt or bituminous felt. This is known as lead core and it is found to be economical, durable and efficient. Stones: two course of sound and dense stones as granites, slates, etc. laid in cement mortar with vertical breaking joints .
  32. 32. 32 Bricks: Dense bricks, absorbing water less than 4.5 % of their weight, can be used for damp proofing . Mortar: The mortar to be used for bedding layers 1:3 A small quantity of lime is added to increase the workability. For plastering work,
  33. 33. 33 9. Conclusion 1- With new construction, if no rainfall water leaks into the interior of the structure clearly , this not enough according to ASTM we must check leak investigations by Techniques and Instruments of Water Leakage Detection in Buildings like sprinkler shower , infrared (IR) thermography in addition to visual inspection to determine whether water penetration is occurred or no . 2- inspection must be by a Professional staff to identify the cause(s) of leakage before repairs to prevent unnecessary and costly repairs
  34. 34. 34 Thanks a lot for your kind listening and attention Any Questions

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