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The tragedy of julius ceaser


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The tragedy of julius ceaser

  1. 1. THE TRAGEDY OF JULIUS CEASER The English PlayAct 2, Scene 2 Original Text Modern Text Thunder and lightning Enter Julius CAESAR in his Thunder and lightning. CAESAR enters in his nightgown nightgown. CAESAR CAESAR Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace tonight. Neither the sky nor the earth have been quiet tonight. Thrice hath Calphurnia in her sleep cried out, Calphurnia cried out three times in her sleep, “Help, “Help, ho! They murder Caesar!”—Who’s within? someone! They’re murdering Caesar!” Who’s there? Enter a SERVANT A SERVANT enters. SERVANT SERVANT My lord. My lord? CAESAR CAESAR5 Go bid the priests do present sacrifice Go tell the priests to perform a sacrifice immediately, And bring me their opinions of success. and bring me their interpretation of the results. SERVANT SERVANT I will, my lord. I will, my lord. Exit SERVANT The SERVANT exits. Enter CALPHURNIA CALPHURNIA enters. CALPHURNIA CALPHURNIA What mean you, Caesar? Think you to walk forth? What are you doing, Caesar? Are you planning to go You shall not stir out of your house today. out? You’re not leaving the house today. CAESAR CAESAR10 Caesar shall forth. The things that threatened me I will go out. The things that threaten me have only Neer looked but on my back. When they shall see seen my back. When they see the face of Caesar, they The face of Caesar, they are vanishèd. will vanish. CALPHURNIA CALPHURNIA Caesar, I never stood on ceremonies, Caesar, I never believed in omens, but now they Yet now they fright me. There is one within, frighten me. A servant told me the night-watchmen15 Besides the things that we have heard and seen, saw horrid sights too, but different ones from what we Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch. heard and saw. A lioness gave birth in the streets, and A lioness hath whelpèd in the streets, graves cracked open and thrust out their dead. And graves have yawned and yielded up their dead.Act 2, Scene 2, Page 2
  2. 2. Original Text Modern Text Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the clouds Fierce, fiery warriors fought in the clouds in the usual20 In ranks and squadrons and right form of war, formations of war—ranks and squadrons—until the Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol. clouds drizzled blood onto the Capitol. The noise of The noise of battle hurtled in the air. battle filled the air, and horses neighed, and dying men Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan, groaned, and ghosts shrieked and squealed in the And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets. streets. Oh, Caesar! These things are beyond anything25 O Caesar! These things are beyond all use, we’ve seen before, and I’m afraid. And I do fear them. CAESAR CAESAR What can be avoided     How can we avoid what the gods want to happen? But Whose end is purposed by the mighty gods? I will go out, for these bad omens apply to the world in Yet Caesar shall go forth, for these predictions general as much as they do to me. Are to the world in general as to Caesar. CALPHURNIA CALPHURNIA30 When beggars die there are no comets seen. When beggars die there are no comets in the sky. The The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes. heavens only announce the deaths of princes. CAESAR CAESAR Cowards die many times before their deaths. Cowards die many times before their deaths. The The valiant never taste of death but once. brave experience death only once. Of all the strange Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, things I’ve ever heard, it seems most strange to me35 It seems to me most strange that men should fear, that men fear death, given that death, which can’t be Seeing that death, a necessary end, avoided, will come whenever it wants. Will come when it will come. Enter SERVANT The SERVANT enters. What say the augurers?      What do the priests say? SERVANT SERVANT They would not have you to stir forth today. They don’t want you to go out today. They pulled out Plucking the entrails of an offering forth, the guts of the sacrificed animal and couldn’t find its40 They could not find a heart within the beast. heart. CAESAR CAESAR The gods do this in shame of cowardice. The gods do this to test my bravery. They’re saying I’d Caesar should be a beast without a heart be an animal without a heart if I stayed home today out If he should stay at home today for fear. of fear. So, I won’t. No, Caesar shall not. Danger knows full wellAct 2, Scene 2, Page 3 Original Text Modern Text45 That Caesar is more dangerous than he. Danger knows that Caesar is more dangerous than he We are two lions littered in one day, is. We’re two lions born on the same day in the same And I the elder and more terrible. litter, and I’m the older and more terrible. I will go out.
  3. 3. And Caesar shall go forth. CALPHURNIA CALPHURNIA Alas, my lord,     Alas, my lord, your confidence is getting the better of Your wisdom is consumed in confidence. your wisdom. Don’t go out today. Say that it’s my fear50 Do not go forth today. Call it my fear that keeps you inside and not your own. We’ll send That keeps you in the house, and not your own. Mark Antony to the senate house, and he’ll say that We’ll send Mark Antony to the senate house, you’re sick today. (she kneels) Let me, on my knees, And he shall say you are not well today. win you over to this plan. (kneels) Let me, upon my knee, prevail in this. CAESAR CAESAR55 Mark Antony shall say I am not well, All right. Mark Antony will say I’m not well, and to And for thy humor I will stay at home. please you I’ll stay at home. CALPHURNIA rises CALPHURNIA gets up. Enter DECIUS DECIUS enters. Here’s Decius Brutus. He shall tell them so. Here’s Decius Brutus. He’ll tell them so. DECIUS DECIUS Caesar, all hail! Good morrow, worthy Caesar. Hail, Caesar! Good morning, worthy Caesar. I’ve come I come to fetch you to the senate house. to take you to the senate house. CAESAR CAESAR60 And you are come in very happy time And you’ve come at a good time, so you can convey To bear my greeting to the senators my greetings to the senators and tell them I won’t And tell them that I will not come today. come today. It wouldn’t be true to say that I can’t “Cannot” is false, and that I dare not, falser. come, and even less true to say that I don’t dare I will not come today. Tell them so, Decius. come. I simply won’t come today. Tell them so, Decius. CALPHURNIA CALPHURNIA65 Say he is sick. Say he’s sick. CAESAR CAESAR Shall Caesar send a lie?    Would I send a lie? Have I accomplished so much in Have I in conquest stretched mine arm so far battle, but now I’m afraid to tell some old men the To be afraid to tell graybeards the truth? truth?2, Page 4 Original Text Modern Text Decius, go tell them Caesar will not come. Decius, go tell them that Caesar won’t come. DECIUS DECIUS Most mighty Caesar, let me know some cause, Most mighty Caesar, give me some reason, so I won’t70 Lest I be laughed at when I tell them so. be laughed at when I tell them so. CAESAR CAESAR The cause is in my will. I will not come. The reason is that it’s what I want. I’m not coming.
  4. 4. That is enough to satisfy the senate. That’s enough for the senate. But for your private But for your private satisfaction, satisfaction, because I love you, I’ll tell you. Because I love you, I will let you know. Calphurnia, my wife, is keeping me at home. Last75 Calphurnia here, my wife, stays me at home. night, she dreamed she saw a statue of me with a She dreamt tonight she saw my statue, hundred holes in it, like a fountain with pure blood Which, like a fountain with an hundred spouts, flowing from it, and many happy Romans came smiling Did run pure blood. And many lusty Romans and washed their hands in it. She takes these signs for Came smiling and did bathe their hands in it. warnings and predictions of terrible evils to come, and,80 And these does she apply for warnings and portents on her knee, she begged me to stay home today. And evils imminent, and on her knee Hath begged that I will stay at home today. DECIUS DECIUS This dream is all amiss interpreted. This dream has been interpreted all wrong. It was a It was a vision fair and fortunate. good and lucky vision. Your statue spouting blood85 Your statue spouting blood in many pipes, through many holes, in which many smiling Romans In which so many smiling Romans bathed, bathed, means that you’ll provide great Rome with Signifies that from you great Rome shall suck sustaining blood, and that great men will strive to get Reviving blood, and that great men shall press some token of approval from your holy blood. This is For tinctures, stains, relics, and cognizance. what Calphurnia’s dream means.90 This by Calphurnia’s dream is signified. CAESAR CAESAR And this way have you well expounded it. You’ve offered an excellent interpretation. DECIUS DECIUS I have, when you have heard what I can say. I will have when you hear the rest of what I have to And know it now: the senate have concluded say. The senate has decided to give mighty Caesar a To give this day a crown to mighty Caesar. crown todayAct 2, Scene 2, Page 5 Original Text Modern Text If you shall send them word you will not come, If you send them word that you won’t come, they Their minds may change. might change their minds. CAESAR CAESAR105 How foolish do your fears seem now, Calphurnia! How foolish your fears seem now, Calphurnia! I’m I am ashamèd I did yield to them. ashamed that I yielded to them. Give me my robe, Give me my robe, for I will go. because I’m going. Enter BRUTUS, LIGARIUS, METELLUS, CASCA, PUBLIUS, BRUTUS, LIGARIUS, METELLUS, TREBONIUS, CINNA, and PUBLIUS CASCA, TREBONIUS, and CINNA enter. And look, where Publius is come to fetch me. And look, here’s Publius, come to fetch me. PUBLIUS PUBLIUS Good morrow, Caesar. Good morning, Caesar. CAESAR CAESAR
  5. 5. 110 Welcome, Publius. Welcome, Publius. What, Brutus? Are you up this —What, Brutus, are you stirred so early too? early too? Good morning, Casca. Caius Ligarius, I —Good morrow, Casca.—Caius Ligarius, was never your enemy so much as the sickness that’s Caesar was neer so much your enemy made you so thin. What time is it? As that same ague which hath made you lean.115 —What is ’t oclock? BRUTUS BRUTUS Caesar, ’tis strucken eight.     Caesar, the clock has struck eight. CAESAR CAESAR I thank you for your pains and courtesy. I thank you all for your trouble and courtesy. Enter ANTONY ANTONY enters.Act 2, Scene 2, Page 6 Original Text Modern Text CAESAR CAESAR Good friends, go in and taste some wine with me. Good friends, go in and have some wine with me. And And we, like friends, will straightway go together. we’ll leave together, like friends. BRUTUS BRUTUS (aside) That every “like” is not the same, O Caesar, (quietly to himself) That we are now only “like” friends130 The heart of Brutus earns to think upon. —Oh Caesar—makes my heart ache. Exeunt They all exit.Act 3 Scene IRome. Before the Capitol: the Senate sitting above.Act 3, Scene 1, Page 3 Original Text Modern Text METELLUS METELLUS (kneeling) (kneeling) Most high, most mighty, and most powerful Most high, most mighty, and most puissant Caesar, Caesar, Metellus Cimber kneels before you with a Metellus Cimber throws before thy seat humble heart—40 An humble heart— CAESAR CAESAR I must prevent thee, Cimber.     I have to stop you, Cimber. These kneelings and These couchings and these lowly courtesies humble courtesies might excite ordinary men, flattering Might fire the blood of ordinary men them into turning Roman law into children’s games. And turn preordinance and first decree But don’t be so foolish as to think you can sway me Into the law of children. Be not fond, from what’s right by using the tactics that persuade
  6. 6. 45 To think that Caesar bears such rebel blood fools—I mean this flattery, low bows, and puppy-like That will be thawed from the true quality fawning. Your brother has been banished by decree. If With that which melteth fools—I mean, sweet words, you kneel and beg and flatter for him, I’ll kick you out Low-crookèd curtsies, and base spaniel fawning. of my way like I would a dog. Know that I am not Thy brother by decree is banishèd. unjust, and I will not grant him a pardon without50 If thou dost bend and pray and fawn for him, reason. I spurn thee like a cur out of my way. Know, Caesar doth not wrong, nor without cause Will he be satisfied. METELLUS METELLUS Is there no voice more worthy than my own Is there no voice worthier than my own to appeal to55 To sound more sweetly in great Caesar’s ear Caesar to repeal the order that my brother be For the repealing of my banished brother? banished? BRUTUS BRUTUS (kneeling) I kiss thy hand, but not in flattery, Caesar, (kneeling) I kiss your hand, but not in flattery, Caesar. I Desiring thee that Publius Cimber may ask you to repeal Publius Cimber’s banishment Have an immediate freedom of repeal. immediately.Act 3, Scene 1, Page 4 Original Text Modern Text CAESAR CAESAR60 What, Brutus? What, even you, Brutus? CASSIUS CASSIUS (kneeling)Pardon, Caesar. Caesar,    pardon. (kneeling) Pardon him, Caesar, pardon him. I fall to As low as to thy foot doth Cassius fall your feet to beg you to restore Publius Cimber to To beg enfranchisement for Publius Cimber. citizenship. CAESAR CAESAR I could be well moved if I were as you. I could be convinced if I were like you. If I could beg If I could pray to move, prayers would move me. others to change their minds, begging would convince65 But I am constant as the northern star, me, too. But I’m as immovable as the northern star, Of whose true-fixed and resting quality whose stable and stationary quality has no equal in the There is no fellow in the firmament. sky. The sky shows countless stars. They’re all made The skies are painted with unnumbered sparks. of fire, and each one shines. But only one among all of They are all fire and every one doth shine, them remains in a fixed position. So it is on earth. The70 But there’s but one in all doth hold his place. world is full of men, and men are flesh and blood, and So in the world. Tis furnished well with men, they are capable of reason. Yet out of all of them, I And men are flesh and blood, and apprehensive, know only one who is unassailable, who never moves Yet in the number I do know but one from his position. To show you that that’s me, let me That unassailable holds on his rank, prove it a little even in this case. I was firm in ordering75 Unshaked of motion. And that I am he that Cimber be banished, and I remain firm in that Let me a little show it even in this: decision.
  7. 7. That I was constant Cimber should be banished, And constant do remain to keep him so. CINNA CINNA (kneeling) O Caesar— (kneeling) Oh, Caesar— CAESAR CAESAR80 Hence! Wilt thou lift up Olympus? Enough! Would you try to lift Mount Olympus? DECIUS DECIUS (kneeling) Great Caesar— (kneeling) Great Caesar— CAESAR CAESAR Doth not Brutus bootless kneel? Haven’t I resisted even Brutus, begging from his knees? CASCA CASCA Speak, hands, for me! Hands, speak for me!Act 3, Scene 1, Page 5 Original Text Modern Text CASCA and the other conspirators stab CAESAR, CASCA and the other conspirators stab CAESAR. BRUTUS last BRUTUS stabs him last. CAESAR CAESAR Et tu, Bruté?—Then fall, Caesar. And you too, Brutus? In that case, die, Caesar.85 (dies) (he dies) CINNA CINNA Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead! Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead! Run and proclaim Run hence, proclaim, cry it about the streets. it in the streets. CASSIUS CASSIUS Some to the common pulpits, and cry out, Some should go to the public platforms and cry out, “Liberty, freedom, and enfranchisement!” “Liberty, freedom, and democracy!”Act 3, Scene 1, Page 8 Original Text Modern Text140 If Brutus will vouchsafe that Antony If Brutus will swear that Antony may come to him May safely come to him and be resolved safely and be convinced that Caesar deserved to be How Caesar hath deserved to lie in death, killed, Mark Antony will love dead Caesar not nearly Mark Antony shall not love Caesar dead as much as living Brutus, and with true faith he’ll So well as Brutus living, but will follow follow the destiny and affairs of noble Brutus through145 The fortunes and affairs of noble Brutus the difficulties of this unprecedented state of affairs.”
  8. 8. Thorough the hazards of this untrod state That’s what my master, Antony, says. With all true faith. So says my master Antony. BRUTUS BRUTUS Thy master is a wise and valiant Roman. Your master is a wise and honorable Roman. I never I never thought him worse. thought any less of him. Tell him, if he comes here, I’ll150 Tell him, so please him come unto this place, explain everything to him and, on my word, he’ll leave He shall be satisfied and, by my honor, unharmed. Depart untouched. ANTONYS SERVANT ANTONYS SERVANT (rising)I’ll fetch him presently.     (getting up) I’ll get him now. Exit ANTONYS SERVANT ANTONYS SERVANT exits. BRUTUS BRUTUS I know that we shall have him well to friend. I know that he’ll be on our side. CASSIUS CASSIUS I wish we may. But yet have I a mind I hope we can count on him, but I still fear him, and155 That fears him much, and my misgiving still my hunches are usually accurate. Falls shrewdly to the purpose. Enter ANTONY ANTONY enters. BRUTUS BRUTUS But here comes Antony.—Welcome, Mark Antony. But here comes Antony.—Welcome, Mark Antony. ANTONY ANTONY O mighty Caesar! Dost thou lie so low? Oh, mighty Caesar! Do you lie so low? Have all your Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, conquests, glories, triumphs, achievements, come to160 Shrunk to this little measure? Fare thee well. so little? Farewell. Gentlemen, I don’t know what you —I know not, gentlemen, what you intend, intend to do, who else you intend to kill, who else you Who else must be let blood, who else is rank. consider corrupt.Act 3, Scene 1, Page 9 Original Text Modern Text If I myself, there is no hour so fit If it’s me, there’s no time as good as this hour of As Caesar’s death’s hour, nor no instrument Caesar’s death, and no weapon better than your165 Of half that worth as those your swords, made rich swords, covered with the noblest blood in the world. I With the most noble blood of all this world. ask you, if you have a grudge against me, to kill me I do beseech ye, if you bear me hard, now, while your stained hands still reek of blood. I Now, whilst your purpled hands do reek and smoke, could live a thousand years and I wouldn’t be as ready Fulfill your pleasure. Live a thousand years, to die as I am now. There’s no place I’d rather die170 I shall not find myself so apt to die. than here by Caesar, and no manner of death would No place will please me so, no mean of death, please me more than being stabbed by you, the As here by Caesar, and by you cut off, masters of this new era.
  9. 9. The choice and master spirits of this age. BRUTUS BRUTUS O Antony, beg not your death of us. Oh, Antony, don’t beg us to kill you. Though we seem175 Though now we must appear bloody and cruel— bloody and cruel right now, with our bloody hands and As by our hands and this our present act this deed we’ve done, you’ve only seen our hands and You see we do—yet see you but our hands their bloody business; you haven’t looked into our And this the bleeding business they have done. hearts. They are full of pity for Caesar. But a stronger Our hearts you see not. They are pitiful. pity, for the wrongs committed against Rome, drove180 And pity to the general wrong of Rome— out our pity for Caesar, as fire drives out fire, and so As fire drives out fire, so pity pity— we killed him. For you, our swords have blunt edges, Hath done this deed on Caesar. For your part, too dull to harm you, Mark Antony. Our arms, which To you our swords have leaden points, Mark Antony. can be strong and cruel, and our hearts, filled with Our arms in strength of malice and our hearts brotherly love, embrace you with kind love, good185 Of brothers temper do receive you in thoughts, and reverence. With all kind love, good thoughts, and reverence. CASSIUS CASSIUS Your voice shall be as strong as any man’s Your vote will be as strong as anyone’s in the In the disposing of new dignities. reordering of the government.Act 3, Scene 1, Page 10 Original Text Modern Text ANTONY ANTONY I doubt not of your wisdom.     I don’t doubt your wisdom. Each of you, give me your Let each man render me his bloody hand. bloody hand. You are all gentlemen—alas, what can I (shakes hands with the conspirators) say? Now that I’ve shaken your hands, you’ll take me Gentlemen all, alas, what shall I say? for either a coward or a flatterer—in either case, my My credit now stands on such slippery ground credibility stands on slippery ground. It’s true that I That one of two bad ways you must conceit me, loved you, Caesar—nothing could be truer. If your Either a coward or a flatterer spirit is looking down upon us now, it must hurt you —That I did love thee, Caesar, O, ’tis true. more than even your death to see your Antony making If then thy spirit look upon us now, peace—shaking the bloody hands of your enemies— Shall it not grieve thee dearer than thy death in front of your corpse To see thy Antony making his peace, Shaking the bloody fingers of thy foes— Most noble!—in the presence of thy corse? CASSIUS CASSIUS Mark Antony— Mark Antony— ANTONY ANTONY Pardon me, Caius Cassius. Pardon me, Caius Cassius. Even Caesar’s enemies
  10. 10. The enemies of Caesar shall say this; would say the same. From a friend, it’s a cool225 Then, in a friend, it is cold modesty. assessment—no more than that.Act 3, Scene 1, Page 11 Original Text Modern Text CASSIUS CASSIUS I blame you not for praising Caesar so. I don’t blame you for praising Caesar like this, but But what compact mean you to have with us? what agreement do you intend to reach with us? Will Will you be pricked in number of our friends? you be counted as our friend, or should we proceed Or shall we on, and not depend on you? without depending on you? ANTONY ANTONY230 Therefore I took your hands, but was indeed I took your hands in friendship, but, indeed, I was Swayed from the point by looking down on Caesar. distracted when I looked down at Caesar. I am friends Friends am I with you all and love you all with you all and love you all, on one condition—that Upon this hope: that you shall give me reasons you prove to me that Caesar was dangerous. Why and wherein Caesar was dangerous. BRUTUS BRUTUS235 Or else were this a savage spectacle! Without that proof, this would’ve been a savage Our reasons are so full of good regard action! Our reasons are so well considered that even That were you, Antony, the son of Caesar, if you, Antony, were Caesar’s son, you would be You should be satisfied. satisfied with them. ANTONY ANTONY That’s all I seek.     That’s all I ask—and that you let me carry his body to And am moreover suitor that I may the marketplace and, as a friend ought to do, stand on240 Produce his body to the marketplace, the platform and give a proper funeral oration. And in the pulpit, as becomes a friend, Speak in the order of his funeral. BRUTUS BRUTUS You shall, Mark Antony. You may, Mark Antony. CASSIUS CASSIUS Brutus, a word with you.     Brutus, may I have a word with you? (speaking so (aside to BRUTUS) You know not what you do. that only BRUTUS can hear) You don’t know what245 Do not consent you’re doing. Don’t let Antony speak at his funeral. That Antony speak in his funeral. Don’t you know how much the people could be Know you how much the people may be moved affected by what he says? By that which he will utter? BRUTUS BRUTUS (aside to CASSIUS)By your     pardon. (speaking so that only CASSIUS can hear) With your250 I will myself into the pulpit first, permission, I’ll stand on the platform first and explain And show the reason of our Caesar’s death. the reason for Caesar’s death.
  11. 11. Act 3, Scene 1, Page 12 Original Text Modern Text What Antony shall speak, I will protest, What Antony says, I’ll announce, he says only by our He speaks by leave and by permission, permission . CASSIUS CASSIUS (aside to BRUTUS) I know not what may fall. I like it not. (speaking so that only BRUTUS can hear) I’m worried about the outcome of his speech. I don’t like this plan. BRUTUS BRUTUS Mark Antony, here, take you Caesar’s body. Mark Antony, take Caesar’s body. You will not blame You shall not in your funeral speech blame us, us in your funeral speech, but will say all the good you260 But speak all good you can devise of Caesar, want to about Caesar and that you do it by our And say you do ’t by our permission. permission. Otherwise, you’ll have no role at all in his Else shall you not have any hand at all funeral. And you’ll speak on the same platform as I About his funeral. And you shall speak do, after I’m done. In the same pulpit whereto I am going,265 After my speech is ended. ANTONY ANTONY Be it so. So be it. I don’t want anything more. I do desire no more. BRUTUS BRUTUS Prepare the body then, and follow us. Prepare the body, then, and follow us. Exeunt. Manet ANTONY Everyone except ANTONY exits. ANTONY ANTONY O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth, Oh, pardon me, you bleeding corpse, for speaking270 That I am meek and gentle with these butchers! politely and acting mildly with these butchers! You are Thou art the ruins of the noblest man what’s left of the noblest man that ever lived. Pity the That ever livèd in the tide of times. hand that shed this valuable blood. Over your wounds Woe to the hand that shed this costly blood! —which, like speechless mouths, open their red lips, Over thy wounds now do I prophesy— as though to beg me to speak—I predict that a curse275 Which, like dumb mouths, do ope their ruby lips will fall upon the bodies of men. To beg the voice and utterance of my tongue— A curse shall light upon the limbs of men.Act 3, Scene 1, Page 13 Original Text Modern Text
  12. 12. Domestic fury and fierce civil strife Fierce civil war will paralyze all of Italy. Blood and Shall cumber all the parts of Italy. destruction will be so common and familiar that280 Blood and destruction shall be so in use, mothers will merely smile when their infants are cut to And dreadful objects so familiar, pieces by the hands of war. People’s capacity for That mothers shall but smile when they behold sympathy will grow tired and weak from the sheer Their infants quartered with the hands of war, quantity of cruel deeds. And Caesar’s ghost, All pity choked with custom of fell deeds, searching for revenge with the goddess Ate by his285 And Caesar’s spirit, ranging for revenge, side, just up from Hell, will cry in the voice of a king, With Ate by his side come hot from hell, “Havoc!” and unleash the dogs of war. This foul deed Shall in these confines with a monarch’s voice will stink up to the sky with men’s corpses, which will Cry “Havoc!” and let slip the dogs of war, beg to be buried. That this foul deed shall smell above the earth290 With carrion men, groaning for burial. Exeunt withCEASER’s body OCTAVIUSS SERVANT enters.The Forum. Act III-Scene IIAct 3, Scene 2 Original Text Modern Text Enter BRUTUS and CASSIUS with the PLEBEIANS BRUTUS and CASSIUS enter with a throng of PLEBEIANS . PLEBEIANS PLEBEIANS We will be satisfied! Let us be satisfied! We want answers. Give us answers. BRUTUS BRUTUS Then follow me and give me audience, friends. Then follow me and listen to my speech, friends. —Cassius, go you into the other street Cassius, go to the next street and divide the crowd. And part the numbers. Let those who will hear me speak stay. Lead those5 —Those that will hear me speak, let em stay here. away who will follow you, and we’ll explain publicly the Those that will follow Cassius, go with him, reasons for Caesar’s death. And public reasons shall be renderèd Of Caesar’s death. FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN I will hear Brutus speak.     I’ll listen to Brutus. Exit CASSIUS with some of the PLEBEIANS BRUTUS CASSIUS exits with some of the PLEBEIANS. goes into the pulpit BRUTUS gets up on the platform. SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN The noble Brutus is ascended. Silence! Quiet! Noble Brutus has mounted the platform. BRUTUS BRUTUS Be patient till the last. Romans, countrymen, and lovers! Be patient until I finish. Romans, countrymen, and Hear me for my cause, and be silent that you may hear. friends! Listen to my reasons and be silent so you can Believe me for mine honor, and have respect to mine honor hear. Believe me on my honor and keep my honor in
  13. 13. that you may believe. Censure me in your wisdom, and mind, so you may believe me. Be wise when you awake your senses that you may the better judge. If there be criticize me and keep your minds alert so you can any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesar’s, to him I judge me fairly. If there’s anyone in this assembly, any say that Brutus love to Caesar was no less than his. If then dear friend of Caesar’s, I say to him that my love for that friend demand why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is Caesar was no less than his. If, then, that friend my answer: not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved demands to know why I rose up against Caesar, this is Rome more. my answer: it’s not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.Act 3, Scene 2, Page 2 Original Text Modern Text Had you rather Caesar were living and die all slaves, than Would you rather that Caesar were living and we that Caesar were dead, to live all free men? As Caesar would all go to our graves as slaves, or that Caesar loved me, I weep for him. As he was fortunate, I rejoice at it. were dead and we all lived as free men? I weep for As he was valiant, I honor him. But, as he was ambitious, I Caesar in that he was good to me. I rejoice in his good slew him. There is tears for his love, joy for his fortune, fortune. I honor him for being brave. But his ambition— honor for his valor, and death for his ambition. Who is here for that, I killed him. There are tears for his love, joy for so base that would be a bondman? If any, speak—for him his fortune, honor for his bravery, and death for his have I offended. Who is here so rude that would not be a ambition. Who here is so low that he wants to be a Roman? If any, speak—for him have I offended. Who is here slave? If there are any, speak, for it is he whom I’ve so vile that will not love his country? If any, speak—for him offended. Who here is so barbarous that he doesn’t have I offended. I pause for a reply. want to be a Roman? If there are any, speak, for it is he whom I’ve offended. Who here is so vile that he doesn’t love his country? If there are any, speak, for it is he whom I have offended. I will pause for a reply. ALL ALL None, Brutus, none. No one, Brutus, no one. BRUTUS BRUTUS Then none have I offended. I have done no more to Caesar Then I have offended no one. I’ve done no more to than you shall do to Brutus. The question of his death is Caesar than you will do to me. The reasons for his enrolled in the Capitol. His glory not extenuated wherein he death are recorded in the Capitol. His glory has not was worthy, nor his offenses enforced for which he suffered been diminished where he earned it, nor have those death. offenses for which he was killed been exaggerated. Enter Mark ANTONY with CAESAR’s body ANTONY enters with CAESAR’s body. Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony, who, Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony, who, though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit though he had no part in the killing, will benefit from of his dying—a place in the commonwealth—as which of his death—receiving a share in the commonwealth, as you shall not? With this I depart: that, as I slew my best lover you all will. With these words I leave. Just as I killed for the good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself my best friend for the good of Rome, so will I kill when it shall please my country to need my death. myself when my country requires my death. ALL ALL
  14. 14. 45 Live, Brutus! Live, live! Live, Brutus! Live, live! FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN Bring him with triumph home unto his house! Let’s carry him in triumph to his house!Act 3, Scene 2, Page 3 Original Text Modern Text SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN Give him a statue with his ancestors! Let’s build a statue of him, near those of his ancestors! THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN Let him be Caesar! Let him become Caesar! FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN Caesar’s better parts     Caesar’s better qualities exist in Brutus, and we will Shall be crowned in Brutus! crown him. FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN50 We’ll bring him to his house with shouts and clamors. We’ll bring him to his house with shouts and celebration! BRUTUS BRUTUS My countrymen— My countrymen— SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN Peace, silence! Brutus speaks.     Silence! Brutus speaks. FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN Peace, ho! Quiet there! BRUTUS BRUTUS Good countrymen, let me depart alone. Good countrymen, let me leave alone. I want you to And, for my sake, stay here with Antony. stay here with Antony to pay respects to Caesar’s55 Do grace to Caesar’s corpse, and grace his speech corpse and listen to Antony’s speech about Caesar’s Tending to Caesar’s glories, which Mark Antony glories, which he gives with our permission. I ask that By our permission is allowed to make. none of you leave, except myself, until Antony has I do entreat you, not a man depart, finished. Save I alone, till Antony have spoke. Exit BRUTUS BRUTUS exits. FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN60 Stay, ho! And let us hear Mark Antony. Let’s stay and hear Mark Antony. THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN Let him go up into the public chair. Let him mount the pulpit. We’ll listen to him. Noble We’ll hear him.—Noble Antony, go up. Antony, mount the podium. ANTONY ANTONY
  15. 15. For Brutus sake, I am beholding to you. For Brutus’s sake, I am indebted to you. (ascends the pulpit) (he steps up into the pulpit)Act 3, Scene 2, Page 4 Original Text Modern Text FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN65 What does he say of Brutus? What does he say about Brutus? THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN He says for Brutus sake      He says that for Brutus’s sake he finds himself He finds himself beholding to us all. indebted to us all. FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN Twere best he speak no harm of Brutus here. He’d better not speak badly of Brutus here. FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN This Caesar was a tyrant. Caesar was a tyrant. THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN Nay, that’s certain.     That’s for sure. We’re lucky that Rome is rid of him. We are blest that Rome is rid of him. FOURTH PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN70 Peace! Let us hear what Antony can say. Quiet! Let’s hear what Antony has to say. ANTONY ANTONY You gentle Romans— You gentle Romans— ALL ALL Peace, ho! Let us hear him.     Quiet there! Let us hear him. ANTONY ANTONY Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears. Friends, Romans, countrymen, give me your attention. I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. I have come here to bury Caesar, not to praise him. The evil that men do lives after them; The evil that men do is remembered after their deaths,75 The good is oft interrèd with their bones. but the good is often buried with them. It might as well So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus be the same with Caesar. The noble Brutus told you Hath told you Caesar was ambitious. that Caesar was ambitious. If that’s true, it’s a serious If it were so, it was a grievous fault, fault, and Caesar has paid seriously for it. With the And grievously hath Caesar answered it. permission of Brutus and the others—for Brutus is an80 Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest— honorable man; they are all honorable men—I have For Brutus is an honorable man; come here to speak at Caesar’s funeral. He was my So are they all, all honorable men— friend, he was faithful and just to me. But Brutus says Come I to speak in Caesar’s funeral. he was ambitious, and Brutus is an honorable man. He He was my friend, faithful and just to me. brought many captives home to Rome whose ransoms85 But Brutus says he was ambitious, brought wealth to the city. And Brutus is an honorable man. He hath brought many captives home to Rome Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill.
  16. 16. Act 3, Scene 2, Page 5 Original Text Modern Text Did this in Caesar seem ambitious? Is this the work of an ambitious man? When the poor90 When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept. cried, Caesar cried too. Ambition shouldn’t be so soft. Ambition should be made of sterner stuff. Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, and Brutus is an Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, honorable man. You all saw that on the Lupercal feast And Brutus is an honorable man. day I offered him a king’s crown three times, and he You all did see that on the Lupercal refused it three times. Was this ambition? Yet Brutus95 I thrice presented him a kingly crown, says he was ambitious. And, no question, Brutus is an Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition? honorable man. I am not here to disprove what Brutus Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, has said, but to say what I know. You all loved him And, sure, he is an honorable man. once, and not without reason. Then what reason holds I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, you back from mourning him now? Men have become100 But here I am to speak what I do know. brutish beasts and lost their reason! Bear with me. My You all did love him once, not without cause. heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, and I must What cause withholds you then to mourn for him? pause until it returns to me. (he weeps) O judgment! Thou art fled to brutish beasts, And men have lost their reason. Bear with me.105 My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, And I must pause till it come back to me. (weeps) FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN Methinks there is much reason in his sayings. I think there’s a lot of sense in what he says. SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN If thou consider rightly of the matter, If you think about it correctly, Caesar has suffered a Caesar has had great wrong. great wrong. THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN Has he, masters?      Has he, sirs? I’m worried there will be someone worse110 I fear there will a worse come in his place. to replace him. FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN Marked ye his words? He would not take the crown. Did you hear Antony? Caesar wouldn’t take the Therefore ’tis certain he was not ambitious. crown. Therefore it’s certain that he wasn’t ambitious. FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN If it be found so, some will dear abide it. If it turns out he wasn’t, certain people are going to get it. SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN Poor soul! His eyes are red as fire with weeping. Poor man! Antony’s eyes are fiery red from crying. THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN115 There’s not a nobler man in Rome than Antony. There isn’t a nobler man than Antony in all of Rome.
  17. 17. Act 3, Scene 2, Page 6 Original Text Modern Text FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN Now mark him. He begins again to speak. Now listen, he’s going to speak again. ANTONY ANTONY But yesterday the word of Caesar might Only yesterday the word of Caesar might have stood Have stood against the world. Now lies he there, against the world. Now he lies there worth nothing, And none so poor to do him reverence. and no one is so humble as to show him respect. Oh,120 O masters, if I were disposed to stir sirs, if I stirred your hearts and minds to mutiny and Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage, rage, I would offend Brutus and Cassius, who, you all I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong— know, are honorable men. I will not do them wrong. I Who, you all know, are honorable men. would rather wrong the dead, and wrong myself and I will not do them wrong. I rather choose you, than wrong such honorable men. But here’s a125 To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you, paper with Caesar’s seal on it. I found it in his room— Than I will wrong such honorable men. it’s his will. If you could only hear this testament— But here’s a parchment with the seal of Caesar. which, excuse me, I don’t intend to read aloud—you I found it in his closet. Tis his will. would kiss dead Caesar’s wounds and dip your Let but the commons hear this testament— handkerchiefs in his sacred blood, and beg for a lock130 Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read— of hair to remember him by. And when you died, you And they would go and kiss dead Caesar’s wounds would mention the handkerchief or the hair in your And dip their napkins in his sacred blood, will, bequeathing it to your heirs like a rich legacy. Yea, beg a hair of him for memory, And, dying, mention it within their wills,135 Bequeathing it as a rich legacy Unto their issue. FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN We’ll hear the will. Read it, Mark Antony! We want to hear the will. Read it, Mark Antony. ALL ALL The will, the will! We will hear Caesar’s will. The will, the will! We want to hear Caesar’s will. ANTONY ANTONY Have patience, gentle friends. I must not read it. Be patient, gentle friends, I must not read it. It isn’t140 It is not meet you know how Caesar loved you. proper for you to know how much Caesar loved you. You are not wood, you are not stones, but men. You aren’t wood, you aren’t stones—you’re men. And, And, being men, bearing the will of Caesar, being men, the contents of Caesar’s will would enrage It will inflame you, it will make you mad. you. It’s better that you don’t know you’re his heirs, for Tis good you know not that you are his heirs. if you knew, just imagine what would come of it!145 For, if you should—Oh, what would come of it!Act 3, Scene 2, Page 7
  18. 18. Original Text Modern Text FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN Read the will. We’ll hear it, Antony. Read the will. We want to hear it, Antony. You have to You shall read us the will, Caesar’s will. read us the will, Caesar’s will. ANTONY ANTONY Will you be patient? Will you stay awhile? Will you be patient? Will you wait awhile? I’ve said too I have oershot myself to tell you of it. much in telling you of it. I’m afraid that I wrong the150 I fear I wrong the honorable men honorable men whose daggers have stabbed Caesar. Whose daggers have stabbed Caesar. I do fear it. FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN They were traitors! “Honorable men”! They were traitors. “Honorable men!” ALL ALL The will! The testament! The will! The testament! SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN They were villains, murderers. The will! Read the will! They were villains, murderers. The will! Read the will! ANTONY ANTONY155 You will compel me, then, to read the will? You force me to read the will, then? Then make a Then make a ring about the corpse of Caesar, circle around Caesar’s corpse, and let me show you And let me show you him that made the will. the man who made this will. Shall I come down? Will Shall I descend? And will you give me leave? you let me? ALL ALL Come down. Come down. SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN Descend. Descend.    THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN You shall have leave.     We’ll let you. ANTONY descends from the pulpit ANTONY descends from the pulpit. FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN A ring!       Make a circle; stand around him.160 Stand round.Act 3, Scene 2, Page 8 ANTONY ANTONY If you have tears, prepare to shed them now. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now. You all165 You all do know this mantle. I remember know this cloak. I remember the first time Caesar ever The first time ever Caesar put it on. put it on. It was a summer’s evening; he was in his Twas on a summer’s evening in his tent, tent. It was the day he overcame the Nervii warriors.
  19. 19. That day he overcame the Nervii. Look, here’s where Cassius’s dagger pierced it. See Look, in this place ran Cassius dagger through. the wound that Casca made. Through this hole170 See what a rent the envious Casca made. beloved Brutus stabbed. And when he pulled out his Through this the well-belovèd Brutus stabbed. cursed dagger, see how Caesar’s blood came with it, And as he plucked his cursèd steel away, as if rushing out a door to see if it was really Brutus Mark how the blood of Caesar followed it, who was knocking so rudely. For Brutus, as you know, As rushing out of doors, to be resolved was Caesar’s angel. The gods know how dearly175 If Brutus so unkindly knocked, or no. Caesar loved him! This was the most unkind cut of all. For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar’s angel. For when the noble Caesar saw him stab, he Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him! understood his beloved Brutus’s ingratitude; it was This was the most unkindest cut of all. stronger than the violence of traitors, and it defeated For when the noble Caesar saw him stab, him, bursting his mighty heart. And at the base of180 Ingratitude, more strong than traitors arms, Pompey’s statue, with his cloak covering his face, Quite vanquished him. Then burst his mighty heart, which was dripping with blood the whole time, great And, in his mantle muffling up his face, Caesar fell. Oh, what a fall it was, my countrymen! Even at the base of Pompey’s statue, Then you and I and all of us fell down, while bloody Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell. treason triumphed. Oh, now you weep, and I sense185 O, what a fall was there, my countrymen! that you feel pity. These are gracious tears. But if it Then I, and you, and all of us fell down, overwhelms you to look at Caesar’s wounded cloak, Whilst bloody treason flourished over us. how will you feel, kind men, now? Look at this, here is Oh, now you weep, and, I perceive, you feel the man—scarred, as you can see, by traitors. (he lifts The dint of pity. These are gracious drops. up CAESARs cloak)190 Kind souls, what, weep you when you but behold Our Caesar’s vesture wounded? Look you here, Here is himself, marred, as you see, with traitors. (lifts up CAESARs mantle)Act 3, Scene 2, Page 9 Original Text Modern Text FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN O piteous spectacle! Oh, what a sad sight! SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN O noble Caesar!     Oh, noble Caesar! THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN195 O woeful day! Oh, sad day! FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN O traitors, villains! Oh, traitors, villains! FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN O most bloody sight!    Oh, most bloody sight! SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN We will be revenged. We will get revenge.
  20. 20. ALL ALL Revenge! About! Seek! Burn! Fire! Kill! Slay! Revenge! Let’s go after them! Seek! Burn! Set fire! Let not a traitor live! Kill! Slay! Leave no traitors alive! ANTONY ANTONY Stay, countrymen.     Wait, countrymen. FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN200 Peace there! Hear the noble Antony. Quiet there! Listen to the noble Antony. SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN We’ll hear him. We’ll follow him. We’ll die with him. We’ll listen to him, we’ll follow him, we’ll die with him. ANTONY ANTONY Good friends, sweet friends! Let me not stir you up Good friends, sweet friends, don’t let me stir you up to To such a sudden flood of mutiny. such a sudden mutiny. Those who have done this They that have done this deed are honorable. deed are honorable. I don’t know what private205 What private griefs they have, alas, I know not, grudges they had that made them do it. They’re wise That made them do it. They are wise and honorable, and honorable, and will no doubt give you reasons for And will, no doubt, with reasons answer you. it. I haven’t come to steal your loyalty, friends. I’m no I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts. orator, as Brutus is. I’m only, as you know, a plain, I am no orator, as Brutus is, blunt man who loved his friend, and the men who let210 But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man me speak know this well. I have neither cleverness That love my friend. And that they know full well nor rhetorical skill nor the authority nor gesture nor That gave me public leave to speak of him. eloquence nor the power of speech to stir men up. I For I have neither wit nor words nor worth, just speak directly. I tell you what you already know. I Action nor utterance nor the power of speech, show you sweet Caesar’s wounds—poor, speechless215 To stir men’s blood. I only speak right on. mouths!—and make them speak for me. But if I were I tell you that which you yourselves do know, Brutus and Brutus were me, then I’d stir you up, and Show you sweet Caesar’s wounds, poor poor dumb install in each of Caesar’s wounds the kind of voice mouths, that could convince even stones to rise up and mutiny. And bid them speak for me. But were I Brutus,220 And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony Would ruffle up your spirits and put a tongue In every wound of Caesar that should move The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny.Act 3, Scene 2, Page 10 Original Text Modern Text ALL ALL We’ll mutiny. We’ll mutiny. FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN We’ll burn the house of Brutus.    We’ll burn Brutus’s house. THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN Away, then! Come, seek the conspirators. Let’s go, then! Come, find the conspirators! ANTONY ANTONY
  21. 21. 225 Yet hear me, countrymen. Yet hear me speak. Wait, and listen to me, countrymen. ALL ALL Peace, ho! Hear Antony. Most noble Antony! Quiet! Wait! Listen to Antony. Most noble Antony! ANTONY ANTONY Why, friends, you go to do you know not what. Why, friends, you don’t even know what you’re doing Wherein hath Caesar thus deserved your loves? yet. What has Caesar done to deserve your love? Alas, you know not. I must tell you then. Alas, you don’t know. I must tell you then. You’ve230 You have forgot the will I told you of. forgotten the will I told you about. ALL ALL Most true. The will! Let’s stay and hear the will. Yes! The will! Let’s stay and hear the will! ANTONY ANTONY Here is the will, and under Caesar’s seal Here’s the will, written under Caesar’s seal. To every To every Roman citizen he gives— Roman citizen he gives—to every individual man— To every several man—seventy-five drachmas. seventy-five drachmas. SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN235 Most noble Caesar! We’ll revenge his death. Most noble Caesar! We’ll revenge his death. THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN O royal Caesar! Oh, royal Caesar! ANTONY ANTONY Hear me with patience.    Listen to me patiently.Act 3, Scene 2, Page 11 Original Text Modern Text ALL ALL Peace, ho!       Quiet, there! ANTONY ANTONY Moreover, he hath left you all his walks, Also, he’s left you all his walkways—in his private His private arbors and new-planted orchards, gardens and newly planted orchards—on this side of On this side Tiber. He hath left them you the Tiber River. He’s left them to you and to your heirs240 And to your heirs forever—common pleasures, forever—public pleasures in which you will be able to To walk abroad and recreate yourselves. stroll and relax. Here was a Caesar! When will there Here was a Caesar! When comes such another? be another like him? FIRST PLEBEIAN FIRST PLEBEIAN Never, never.—Come, away, away! Never, never. Let’s go! We’ll burn his body in the holy We’ll burn his body in the holy place, place and use the brands to set the traitors houses on245 And with the brands fire the traitors houses. fire. Take up the body. Take up the body. SECOND PLEBEIAN SECOND PLEBEIAN Go fetch fire.     We’ll start a fire. THIRD PLEBEIAN THIRD PLEBEIAN
  22. 22. Pluck down benches. We’ll use benches for wood— FOURTH PLEBEIAN FOURTH PLEBEIAN Pluck down forms, windows, anything. And windowsills, anything. Exeunt PLEBEIANS with CAESAR’s body Citizens exit with CAESAR’s body. ANTONY ANTONY Now let it work. Mischief, thou art afoot. Now, let it work. Trouble, you have begun—take250 Take thou what course thou wilt! whatever course you choose! Exuent Exits