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PPLE UNIT_1 ENVIRONMENTAL BREACHES PPT'.pptx

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PPLE UNIT_I PART-1.pptx
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PPLE UNIT_1 ENVIRONMENTAL BREACHES PPT'.pptx

  1. 1. PPLE UNIT-I CONTENT 1 DEFINITION OF ETHICS 8 ENVIRONMENTAL BREACHES 2 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS 9 DEFICIENCIES IN STATE-OR-ART 3 PERSONAL ETHICS 10 VIGIL MECHANISM 4 ENGINEERING ETHICS 11 WHISTLE BLOWING 5 CODE OF ETHICS --PROFESSION, --PROFESSIONALISM AND --PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY 12 PROTECTED DISCLOSURES 6 CONFLICT OF INTEREST 13 INTRODUCTION TO GST 7 GIFT VS BRIBERY 14 VARIOUS ROLES OF VARIOUS STAKE HOLDERS
  2. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL BREACHES Engineers and the Environment 1. Three engineering codes on engineering and environment. 2. Reserved attitude of engineering codes towards environmental issues. 3. Lack of consensus on how to implement protection of the environment. 4. Environmental laws. 5. How to define ‘clean’. How to set the criteria? 6. Trade-off between development and environmental protection. The Degree-of-Harm Criterion. 7. Philosophy of Environmental Ethics. 8. Professional obligations of engineers. 9. Minimalist Standpoint and Organizational Disobedience related to environmental issues.
  3. 3. Engineering and Environmental Issues • Engineers in the Aberdeen Three Case were charged of environmental pollution. • Engineers have obligations with respect to environmental issues (apart from being responsible ordinary citizens): • Projects, products, or processes designed by engineers can release toxic wastes. • Some engineering developments flood farmlands, drain wetlands, and destroy forests. • On the other hand engineers work on improvements to reduce/eliminate negative impact to environment.
  4. 4. The IEEE Code (1990) “to accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment” (Canon 1 as revised in 1990). IEEE Code (Institute of Electrical and Eletronics Engineers) commits its members to disclose possible threats to the public and the environment. To whom they should disclose? To one’s immediate superior? (what if the superior does not react positively?) Should an engineer report such threats outside his/her organization? (if there is no internal remedy.) Does the engineer have a right to refuse participating in projects due to environmental concerns? IEEE Code does not address these questions.
  5. 5. The ASCE Code (1977 through 1996) “Engineers should be committed to improving the environment to enhance the quality of life” (section 1.f) This was the first reference to environment in general (1977). “Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of public and shall strive to comply with the principles of sustainable development in the performance of their professional duties” (Canon 1, as in 1996). Further statements under Canon 1 make specific references to environmental issues (see p.216/208). The ASCE Code(American Society of Civil Enngineers) makes recommendations as well as stating requirements for engineers in relation to the environment. “engineers shall” -> requirements “engineers should” -> recommendations
  6. 6. The ASME Code (1998) “Engineers shall consider environmental impact in the performance of their professional duties” (Canon 8 as revised in 1998). ASME Code does not require engineers to modify their designs or change their professional work due to environmental factors. It does not say that environmental considerations should override others. (ASME- American Society of Mechanincal Engineers)
  7. 7. Sustainable Development “The Role of the Engineer in Sustainable Development” (released by ASCE) “Sustainable development is a process of change in which 1. the direction of investment, 2. the orientation of technology, 3. the allocation of resources, and 4. the development and functioning of institutions To meet present needs and aspirations without endangering the capacity of natural systems to absorb the effects of human activities, and without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs and aspirations.”
  8. 8. • Development: economic and technical activity to meet present requirements of people. • Sustainable Activity: this activity must not jeopardize the environment neither for today, nor for the future generations. • Sustainable Development: involves political, social and moral dimensions going beyond environment- friendly technology.
  9. 9. Scope of Obligations to the Environment • Why should professional engineering obligations to the environment extend beyond factors endangering humans? • Engineers should have some obligations because they are capable of environmental degradation as well as improvement. • Engineers are essential participants in projects which can potentially affect the environment. Their environment-conscious attitudes will have substantial positive impact. • As far as non-health related issues are concerned engineers can make their judgments based on their personal moral beliefs rather than professional ethics: • Many such situations fall beyond the expertise of engineers. • Extending professional responsibility for the environment into areas not clearly related to public health or safety might cause considerable problems for engineering societies. • Requiring engineers to protect the environment where human health is not an issue can produce problems of the conscience for some engineers.
  10. 10. Minimalist Standpoint and Organizational Disobedience • To formulate the professional engineering obligations in relation to non-health related issues two perspectives can be adopted: • The Minimalist Stand: Engineers should be required to hold paramount human health, they should not be required as professionals to inject non-health related environmental concerns into their engineering work. • Disobedience: Engineers should have the right to organizational disobedience with regard to environmental issues, as this is required by their own personal beliefs or their own interpretations of what professional obligation requires. • It should be noted that the two perspectives do not necessarily contradict each other.

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