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Smartwatches give people lightweight and immediate access to messages,
notifications, and other digital data while on the go. While already powerful as standalone
devices, the capa-bilities of smartwatches increase significantly when used in tandem with
other devices that people carry, such as their phones or tablets, which allows for novel cross-
device inter-action techniques. However, so far there are only a relatively small number of
explorations into watch-centric, cross-device interaction techniques. Building and exploring
cross-device interaction techniques and applications is a dificult task, as most existing
development kits have only lim-ited support for input gesture recognition, different sensor
hardware configurations, rapid interface designs, or cross-device connectivity and transfer of
To bridge the gap between concept design and full imple-mentation, we
introduce WatchConnect, a rapid prototyping toolkit for watch-centric cross-device
interaction techniques and applications (Figure 1). The toolkit provides (i) a modu-lar and
extendable hardware platform that emulates a smart-watch, (ii) a runtime system and user
interface components that support quick prototyping of watch interfaces using an existing UI
framework, and (iii) a rich set of input and output events and gestures using a range of built-
in sensor mappings and simulators. The contribution of this paper is a novel ap-proach for
rapidly prototyping and designing smartwatch-centric cross-device applications and
interaction techniques, using simulated hardware and software building blocks.
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1.1 What is Smart Watch?
A smartwatch is a computerized wristwatch with functionality that is enhanced
beyond timekeeping. While early models can perform basic tasks, such as calculations,
translations, and game-playing, modern smartwatches are effectively wearable computers.
Many smartwatches run mobile apps, while a smaller number of models run a mobile
operating system and function as portable media players, offering playback of FM radio,
audio, and video files to the user via a Bluetooth headset. Some smartwatches models, also
called watch phones, feature full mobile phone capability, and can make or answer phone
Such devices may include features such as a camera, accelerometer,
thermometer, altimeter, barometer, compass, calculator, cell phone, touch screen, GPS
navigation, Map display, graphical display, speaker, scheduler, watch, SDcards that are
recognized as a mass storage device by a computer, and rechargeable battery. It may
communicate with a wireless headset, heads-up display, insulin pump, microphone, modem,
or other devices.
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The idea of a SmartWatch has been taken from the 1940’s comic strip, Dick
Tracy, who was a detective. He had a two way communicating watch.The 1st SmartWatch
was introduced in 2004. Produced by SWATCH, FOSSIL and TISSOT . But these were
discontinued by 2008.
The first digital watch, which debuted in 1972, was the Pulsar manufactured by
Hamilton Watch Company. "Pulsar" became a brand name which would later be acquired by
Seiko in 1978. In 1982, a Pulsar watch (NL C01) was released which could store 24 digits,
making it most likely the first watch with user-programmable memory, or "memorybank"
watch. With the introduction of personal computers in the 1980s, Seiko began to develop
watches with computing ability. The Data 2000 watch (1983) came with an external keyboard
for data-entry. Data was synced from the keyboard to the watch via electro-magnetic
coupling (wireless docking). The name stems from its ability to store 2000 characters. The
D409 was the first Seiko model with on-board data entry (via a miniature keyboard) and
featured a dot matrix display. Its memory was tiny, at only 112 digits. It was released in 1984
in gold, silver and black. These models were followed by many others by Seiko during the
1980s, most notably the "RC Series":
During the 1980s, Casio began to market a successful line of "computer watches",
in addition to its calculator watches. Most notable was the Casio data bank series. Novelty
"game watches", such as the Nelsonic game watches, were also produced by Casio and other
In 2009, Samsung launched the S9110 Watch Phone which featured a 1.76-inch
color LCD display and was 11.98 millimeters thin.
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Consumer device analyst Avi Greengart, from research firm Current Analysis,
suggested that 2013 may be the "year of the smartwatch", as "the components have gotten
small enough and cheap enough" and many consumers own smartphones that are compatible
with a wearable device. Wearable technology, such as Google Glass, may evolve into a
business worth US$6 billion annually and a July 2013 media report revealed that the majority
of major consumer electronics manufacturers were undertaking work on a smartwatch device
at the time of publication. The retail price of a smartwatch could be over US$300, plus data
charges, while the minimum cost of smartphone-linked devices may be US$100.
At the 2014 Consumer Electronics Show a large number of new smartwatches
were released from various companies such as Razer Inc, Archos, and several other
companies, as well as a few startups. Some have begun to call the 2014 CES a "wrist
revolution" because of the amount of smartwatches release and the huge amount of publicity
they began to receive at the start of 2014. At Google I/O on June 25, 2014, the Android Wear
platform was introduced and the LG G Watch and Samsung Gear Live were released. The
Wear-based Moto 360 was announced by Motorola in 2014. At the end of July, Swatch's
CEO Nick Hayek announced that they will launch a Swatch Touch with smartwatch
technologies in 2015.The launch of Samsung's Gear S smartwatch was covered by the media
in late August 2014. The model features a curved Super AMOLED display and a built-in 3G
modem, with technology writer Darrell Etherington stating on the TechCrunch website,
"we’re finally starting to see displays that wrap around the contours of the wrist, rather than
sticking out as a traditional flat surface." The corporation will commence selling the Gear S
smartwatch in October 2014 alongside the Gear Circle headset accessory.
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Features And Applications
As with other sport watches, the GPS tracking unit can be used to record
historical data. For example, after the completion of a workout, data can be uploaded onto a
computer or online to create a log of exercise activities for analysis. Some smart watches can
serve as full GPS navigation devices, displaying maps and current coordinates. Users can
"mark" their current location and then edit the entry's name and coordinates, which enables
navigation to those new coordinates.
Although most smartwatch models manufactured in the 21st century are
completely functional as standalone products, many of the devices that are manufactured now
are required to be paired with a mobile phone running the same operating system, this allows
the watch to run not only as a watch but a remote to the phone. This allows the device to alert
the user to communication data such as calls, SMS messages, emails, and calendar invites.
Google on Oct 23, 2014 made a few big announcements pertaining to Android
Wear, one of which is the addition of a significant feature many users have been waiting for.
The company has mentioned in a blogpost that it is rolling out an update to its OS for the
Android wearables which will bring an array of new features including some major fitness
features, support for built-in GPS sensors, compatibility with Bluetooth headphones, and
offline music playback support. Also, the update brings improvements and bug fixes.Writing
on Google’s Android blog, Android Wear product manager Kenny Stoltz revealed that
Google’s first major Android Wear update adds support for devices with stand-alone GPS,
meaning that Wear smartwatches finally become useful in a variety of situations without the
need to tether them to a smartphone.
Along the same vein, Android Wear will now be able to store music locally on
supported devices so that users can connect a Bluetooth headset and listen to songs without a
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The gadget also has sensors fulfilling the following purposes:
How many calories burnt
Now that the Android Wear supports GPS-sensor in smartwatches, users will be
able to track route, distance and speed without needing their phones. Sadly, the feature will
only be available on those smartwatches which come with GPS sensor, and none of the
previously launched smartwatches have the required hardware. Sony’s SmartWatch 3 is the
first Android Wear watch to include a GPS senso
The technology used is SPOT (Smart,Personal,Object,Technology). Google says-
“Our goal with Wear is to build technology that helps you connect with others and get stuff
done. So often, technology can become something that gets in the way of everything else.
First, we're bringing offline music playback and GPS support to Android Wear.
Go for a run or bike ride with your Android wearable and leave your phone at home. You’ll
be able to listen to music stored on your watch via Bluetooth headphones. And if your watch
includes a GPS sensor, you can track your distance and speed too. The second update will
enable downloadable watch faces, so you can customize the visual design of your watch's
home screen to show the information you want to see most—like your calendar or fitness
sensors. Developers will soon be working on watch faces, making them available on Google
Last, but not least, we’re happy to welcome Sony to the Android Wear family with
the Sony SmartWatch 3. It uses a transflective display for easier readability in sunlight,
includes a GPS sensor, and will be available later this year.
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Smart Watch Use Interface
The Android Wear operating system is very different from the operating system
you’re used to seeing on tablets and smartphones. This difference is most prominent in terms
of user interface. Google has developed an entirely new user interface for Android Wear. For
now, think of this new user interface in terms of its two major components, the Context
Stream and the Cue Card.
Rather than quitting and launching apps as you would on a smartphone or tablet,
the majority of wearable apps work around a card-based system.The heart of the Android
Wear user interface is a vertical stream of cards that appear automatically based on factors
such as location, time, and the user's activity and interests. If you're familiar with Google
Now, the Context Stream will feel instantly familiar as it resembles an automatically-ranked
stream of Google Now cards.Unlike the Google Now cards you're used to seeing on your
smartphone or tablet, Android Wear only displays a single card at a time. The user scrolls
between the currently-active cards by swiping vertically.
Scrolling between the currently-active cards
Although it's possible to develop full-screen apps for wearable devices, Google
are encouraging developers to integrate their wearable apps with the Context Stream as much
as possible. Our goal should be to create an app that generates cards and then inserts these
cards into the Context Stream at the point they become most useful. The user can then glance
at the stream and immediately see your app's timely and relevant update. You also have the
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option to add extra pages of information to your notification card. The user accesses these
pages by swiping right on the notification card.
Sometimes, the user won't get the information they need from the notification
card(s) alone or they'll want to perform a specific task. In these situations, the user can tell
Android Wear what they want by issuing a vocal command.
When the user gives the "Okay, Google" wake-up command, what they're
actually doing is launching a special "Cue Card" that receives and acts on their vocal
When the Cue Card recognizes and acts upon a vocal command, what's actually
happened is that the Cue Card has successfully matched the vocal command to a specific
Intent. The key to getting your app to respond to vocal commands is to hook into these
Launching a Cue Card
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How To Set Up Your Smart Watch
Before you can really start doing anything with your Android Wear watch, you
have to get the software sorted and set up. Luckily, that's not very difficult at all. You'll need
the companion application and the new version of Google Play Services, which should install
itself automatically once you've begun.
To begin, one needs to download the Android Wear companion application for his
phone. He'll find it right here once it's available, and it installs just like any other app.
During the installation process, you'll need to give permission for the app to do
things like recognize your contacts or track your position. Think if the settings Google Now
needs to work — these are similar for the same reasons.
Once you have the app installed, fire it up and make sure Bluetooth is up and
running on both devices. You should see your Android Wear device listed as an available
device. You might see other devices in this list, depending on what else is around you.
Choose the right device, and you're automatically connected to your smartphone through the
device's Bluetooth connection.
You're almost finished! After you've chosen a device, you'll learn about where you
can enable notifications for your Android Wear watch. A smartwatch isn't very smart without
any notifications. After that, you're directed to look at your watch and poke around to see the
various settings and functions.
The last thing to do is set a few basic settings. Want to keep the screen on at all
times? There's a setting for that. You can also choose to show calendar events as
notifications, hide cards while the screen is dim, set which device — your watch or your
phone — will receive notifications or even set up the software debugger if you need to. Of
course, the overflow menu also has a handy tutorial as well as a way to connect more or
different Android Wear device.
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Examples Of Smart Watch Developers
5.1 Sony SW2 Smartwatch
Launched in the fall of 2013, the SW2 is Sony's second crack at getting the
smartwatch right. As we've hinted at throughout the duration of this report, the smartwatch
market in general has a lot of products that contain similar features, and the SW2 is no
exception. With a touchscreen, various customizable aspects of the watch that include apps,
Bluetooth connectivity, and notifications from your phone when you have an email or
message, the SW2 contains the core of product offerings that smartwatch owners have come
to expect.However, there are some key differences with the SW2 (both positive and negative
depending on the user) from other smartphones.
For starters, the device has NFC (Near Field Communication) connectivity,
which means you can easily sync your smartwatch with a compatible smartphone without the
hassle of using any cords. Furthermore, the smartwatch is able to send you an alert when
you've gone out of range of your paired smartphone, a nice deterrent from accidentally
misplacing your phone in a public place. One potential downside users is the lack of a
speaker and voice control on the device—although this feature isn't uniform across all other
smartphones, it still could be a potential downside for users looking to make the transition
away from their phone when placing calls.
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Battery Life — A fairly standard complaint amongst smartwatch owners across the
board, the Sony SW2 Smartwatch experiences some problematic battery issues that
plague users of the device. Since the device uses Bluetooth connectivity in a lot of it's
applications and features, the constant connection taps into the battery of the device
and causes it to lose juice far faster than the three days Sony claims the device remain
powered. The same Bluetooth connection is used to push notifications from your
phone to your smartwatch, and therefore, a phone that is constantly receiving
notifications about emails, text messages, and social networking can drain quickly and
cause users headaches when utilizing the device.
Compatibility - For those who are not using smartphones made by Sony, the Sony
SW2 Smartwatch falls short. This means that Samsung, iPhone, Blackberry,
Windows, and many other smartphone owners will be unable to fully utilize the SW2
Smartwatch to its fullest capabilities. Fixya users reported various issues in
compatibility on the device when not using a Sony smartphone, including email being
unable to be synced, being forced to download system updates to sync apps and
features, having to download separate software to be able to use widgets, and
disruptions in the setup (and, rarer, the actual application) of your smartwatch with
your phone.All in all, these issues make the Sony SW2 Smartwatch a good pick for
users who own a Sony smartphone, but users of a different company's phone should
be aware of the limitations the SW2 has when interacting with their device.
Screen Lag - Fixya users reported issues with the response time of the screen when
using the Sony SW2 Smartwatch, as implementing actions on the screen often
resulted in lag when switching between different apps and tools on the device.
Furthermore, notifications pushed from your cell phone to your smartwatch (such as
text messages and email updates) can also both be slow to process as well as difficult
to read due to the lag inherent with the smartwatch.
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5.2 Pebble Smartwatch
Pebble has two smartwatches, the Steel and the original Pebble. Both devices
have earned some lengthy praise in the media for the device's execution, winning awards
such as Wired's "10 Best from CES 2014". Similar to the Martian Passport, Pebble got it's
start on the crowdfunding website Kickstarter where it raised over $10 million dollars from
interested consumers. This total still stands today as the most a single Kickstarter project has
For all intents and purposes, both of these smartwatches have the same
underlying software and functionality - the difference is in the hardware and construction of
the smartwatch itself. The Pebble Steel has a smaller watch face and is made up of steel (as
the name suggests), while the Pebble smartwatch relies on plastic for its design chops. Other
than that, the devices are almost identical - although the Steel received a software upgrade as
well as a dedicated app store before the original Pebble did, both devices were privy to a
software and app store upgrade earlier this year that improved the user experience. Under the
hood, both devices are now basically operating on the same playing field - the main
difference for users being in how it looks on the wrist and the quality of the construction (the
Steel holding the honors in both categories, which explains the $80 hike in the price tag).
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No Speaker/Voice Control - For all of its accolades, one of the major downsides of
the Pebble Smartwatch is a lack of a speaker and voice control. Somewhat of a
standard feature on other smartwatches on the market today (and also a common issue
for those devices), Pebble decided against implementing a speaker and voice control
apparatus for some reason. What this means is that users are unable to make phone
calls with the device or use their voice to implement commands to access apps or their
Control buttons - The Pebble's watch face is of the non-touchscreen variety, which
means all interactions the user has with the device are done through control buttons
found on the side of the watch. Aesthetically these buttons don't appear to pose an
issue for Fixya users—there were no complaints about the way the smartwatch looks
on the wrist. However, the control buttons do pose issues from time to time—users
reported having to sometimes press the button multiple times to get the smartwatch to
display what the user wants to display, and the process of flipping back and forth
between apps and other smartwatch functionality can be cumbersome when working
with the tiny buttons on the side of your watch. It appears to definitely take some
getting used to, especially in a digital world where touchscreens are almost a standard
App Implementation - Make no mistake, the creation of a centralized app store to
purchase apps on the Pebble was a welcome addition for users and put the Pebble into
a spot into the market that gave users much more utility when using the device.
However, much like the Sony SW2, there is a limit on the number of apps that can be
held on the device on any given time (eight, in fact
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Advantages And Disadvantages
1. It delivers notifications straight to your wrist, and allows for the wearer to not have to
check their phone so often. You can get quick access to many functions that would
otherwise require a connection to a smartphone. This avoids digging into a pocket or
purse for the smartphone once you get a notification, either on a Bluetooth-connected
smartwatch or by hearing a tone on the smartphone, of an email or a call. Studies
show that users check a smartphone dozens of times a day, and a quick glance at a
watch would be more convenient.
2. Options within the archive or delete the e-mail notification is so satisfactory.
3. Speech recognition is one amongst the most effective options to date, that is healthier
than humanoid smartphone.
4. To correct misheard words "no I said" perform, terribly natural, however conjointly
simple to use. Some most common words like this, and will be auto-corrected.
Microsoft wants bring word prediction. But this is not actually word prediction. It is
5. Fast Google search perform is incredibly powerful and might facilitate users to
quickly solve the matter.
6. Obviously, you can use your smartwatch even when you are in the meeting. Just start
typing – forget voice command. To handle those types of situations, Microsoft has
developed a third party analog keyboard that works by handwritten recognition. You
can use this great handwriting keyboard to do.
7. Smartwatches could potentially help people with their health and fitness tracking.
This is already true of some of the smartwatches being released, and we are sure to
see more smartwatches with fitness capabilities in the near future, especially because
of the fact that many smartwatches are including things like accelerometers.
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8. Some smartwatches already include the use of a SIM card, and can make or take calls
on their own without having to be paired with a smartphone. While most
smartwatches are currently not like this, it is expected that more and more will have
this capability in the near future.
9. Dim the screen at once: Android Wear can be quickly dim the screen to save power,
but you can also manually accelerate this process. Just dial the entire cover with the
palm, and then after the equipment vibrates, the screen will be dimmed.
10. The steps and set daily goals: Android will Wear automatic tracking steps you
through every day, and keep track of your overall performance. You can see this
information in fitness applications, and set up the goal of every day. When you finish
after the targets set by the system, the system will also issued a circular to remind.
11. Close the screen: “Always open” display is one of the features of Android Wear, but
even in the dim of black and white mode, the screen is still in power. If you for life,
some worry, you can choose in the Settings menu of closed always open options
screen. But want to wake up the screen, you can click on the screen with your fingers
or will tilt to his wrist.
12. Change the dial: Don’t like Android Wear the default dial?You just need to press the
screen with your fingers for a few seconds, you will see more dial to select. In
addition, you also can realize the operation in the middle of the Settings menu.
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1. Hardware costs might be the biggest worry for users of a standalone smartwatch with
all the bells and whistles of something like an LG Watch Phone, initially listed at
$800. That price is more than a high-end unlocked smartphone costs today just for the
hardware. In fact, that's more than the cost of a Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphone and
the original Bluetooth-connected Galaxy Gear smartwatch for $300. AT&T on
Thursday said it will cut $50 off the $299 price for the Bluetooth-connected Gear 2
for a limited time when a customer also buys a Galaxy S5 smartphone for $200 plus
2. Battery Drain: Battery life could be a bigger challenge than any other hardware
concern. As the Android Wear is constantly connected to your phone and most likely
via Bluetooth, battery drain could be a major issue. Even in regular use, smartphones’
batteries might not even last couple of hours. Pair it with an Android Wear and say
goodbye to that as well.
3. Size and weight are one thing, and both point to, perhaps, the ultimate question about
styling. Since many people compare smartwatches to wristwatches and therefore
jewelry, the styling question could be paramount. Most female customers will have to
decide, "Can I wear this?" the same way they would evaluate a bracelet, giving more
attention to styling than they ever gave to a smartphone, which can be buried in a
purse or pocket out of view.
4. Android Wear has to be coupled with your Android phone/tablet: Understandably
Android Wear enabled devices cant work on their own and it has to be paired with
either your phone or tablet. So if you’ve forgotten your phone at home, that smart
watch is pretty much useless.
5. Constant notifications can be annoying: Having an Android Wear worn around your
wrist means, you’ll be constantly notified of Text messages, Emails, Google Now
preference and whatnot. Too much of it can get a little bit graveling. There might,
obviously, be a Discreet feature but we all know how tempted we’d be to see what
notification just popped up on a phone put on discreet mode.
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6. Google Now can act a little weird at times: Google Now can still be considered to be
in its infancy. Irrelevant things often pop up from time to time. Its a long way from
being perfect. Imagine getting updates for the last movie you’d seen when you are in
7. Traditional Watch: Whatever be, how much ever they claim, an Android Wear
watch’s quality can never match as that of a high end traditional watch.
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While some may argue that further integrating technology into our bodies could
distract from our day-to-day interactions with other people, wearable technology can actually
enhance our lives
These are some of the points how Education can benefit with Android Wear.
Get Real time notifications about classes and exams: Android Wear powered smart
watches can be connected with school management apps that will notify students of
classes in a day and changes in schedules in real time.
Assist teachers in marking attendance: Apps for the school management systems can
integrate with Android Wear and assist teachers to mark student attendance by
tracking student presence in a classroom.
Plan daily study routines during class: With the easy access that these devices provide
students can immediately note down and plan activities & assignments created by
teachers in classes.
Keep track of fitness during exercise/games: With inbuilt sensors in the devices,
students can keep track of their workout in school games/gym and school physical
instructors can plan specific regimens for their students using this data.
Voice Recording: Students can record lectures right from the Android Wear without
fumbling with recording devices and later transfer to their phones or PCs for future
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It’s always tough to review a new platform in its early days. How does one
weigh its potential when drawing a conclusion? Because excluding that, Android Wear is no
better or worse than the operating systems powering the other smartwatches in the market. As
the smartwatch industry continues to grow and more products are released, we are sure to see
that list of disadvantages shrink and the list of advantages grow. Touch screen was introduced
several years back and since then, it has been trending on almost all types of mobiles. But,
there is a lot of changes in touch screen journey. Today’s touchscreen is either very small or
comparatively bigger. For example, just check various smartwatch. You can find a 1.63-inch
display in Samsung Gear Live. On the other hand, you will get 5.5-inch display in Apple
iPhone 6 Plus.
Android Wear is a great platform for smartwatches. Android Wear is being
developed by Google and as of now, Samsung Gear Live, LG G Watch and Moto 360 are
launched with Android Wear. Actually, smartwatch is a great device one can own. It will let
you notify for every call, SMS, email and so on. On the other hand, you can also use it like a
Generally, Android Wear based smartwatch does anything using voice command. Whenever,
you need to do something with your watch, you can give a command and your devoted
gadget would do accordingly. But, you cannot use voice command all the time. Under such
circumstances, you can use the latest keyboard app developed by Microsoft.
But Android Wear has more promise than those efforts, not only because it has
the backing of Google and major hardware partners like Samsung, LG, and Motorola, but
also because Google has a clear vision of what it wants Android Wear to offer: concise and
useful information for the user, pushed out to the user, when the user needs to see it, all
available at a glance.
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1. Trew, James. "Sony SmartWatch 2 review". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
2. Jump up^ Cooper, Daniel. "Garmin's new app turns Sony's Smartwatch 2 into a tiny
sat-nav". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
3. ^ Jump up to:a Doensen, Pieter. "Q.5 Watches with Memory and
Database". WATCH. History of the modern wrist watch. Pieter Doensen.
Retrieved 17 September 2010.
4. ^ Jump up to:a b c d "Seiko Computer Watch Fun". Retrieved 17 September 2010.
5. Jump up^ "SEIKO D-409". Digital Watch Library.
6. Jump up^ Simon Dingle (5 September 2013). "A history of the smart watch and why
nobody wants one". Medium. Medium. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
7. Jump up^ "History of Smart Watches". Retrieved 13 September 2013.
8. Jump up^ Canadian Patent 2275784, filed 1999 June 29, Issued 2000 Oct. 24