Turf grass diseases, symptoms and control


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Turf grass diseases, symptoms and control

  1. 1. TURF GRASS DISEASES, SYMPTOMS AND CONTROL Presented by1 Anusha Babooa
  2. 2. WHAT IS TURF GRASS? Turf grass is used worldwide as an alternative to traditional lawn and grass due to its uniformity and ease of care. Two distinct types: cool-season and warm-season turf grass Turf grasses are used primarily on locations that require immaculately groomed lawns and usually have extensive lawn cover e.g., airports, cemeteries, athletic fields and golf courses. The turf grass helps prevent soil erosion and provides a very aesthetically appealing look. 2
  3. 3. LIST OF DISEASES Algae Anthracnose Brown Patch Dollar Spot Fairy Rings Powdery Mildew Pythium Blight Red Thread Rust White Patch 3
  4. 4. ALGAE Algae are single-celled plants that grow on the surface of wet soils or in water. 4
  5. 5. o Symptoms: Often a dark scum may appear on the soil surface. This scum may crack and curl during dry weather.o Control: Algae can be controlled by coring or spiking to improve soil drainage. Also copper sulfate and some fungicides may be used to control algae growth. 5
  6. 6. ANTHRACNOSE Anthracnose of turf grass is most damaging on Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua) and Bentgrass (Agrostis palustris). PATHOGEN: Colletotrichum cereale (formerly Colletotrichum graminicola). 6
  7. 7.  Symptoms: Water-soaked stem lesions become dark in color and the leaf blades eventually yellow and die. Reddish-brown lesions with irregular pattern may occur when warm weather, dry soil and increased humidity within the turf canopy occur.o Control: Several contact (e.g., chlorothalonil), penetrant (e.g., trifloxystrobin), and systemic (e.g., propiconazole) fungicides are registered for control of anthracnose. 7
  8. 8. BROWN PATCH Cause: Rhizoctonia species Hosts: Bentgrass, ryegrasses, tall fescue and sometimes hybrid bermudagrass. 8
  9. 9.  Symptoms: Brown patches develop during hot, wet weather on cool season grasses. Smoke rings that are composed of grayish mycelium and dying grass often develop at the margin of the patch when the disease is developing rapidly.o Control: Good soil drainage, proper amounts of irrigation to maintain adequate soil moisture, proper soil pH and low levels of nitrogen fertilization. 9
  10. 10. DOLLAR SPOT Cause: Sclerotinia homoeocarpa (now considered species of Lanzia and Mollerodiscus) Hosts: Bentgrass, ryegrasses, bluegrass, zoysiagrass and bermudagrass. 10
  11. 11.  Symptom: Small, circular spots develop over several days on short cut grasses. Larger patches of bleached grass usually develop on taller cut turf.o Control: Adequate nitrogen fertilization and soil moisture levels will help prevent the development of dollar spot. fungicides like Chlorothalonil, Cadmium can be used. 11
  12. 12. FAIRY RINGS Cause: Several basidiomycete type fungi (many produce mushrooms or puffballs in association with the fairy rings) Marasmius sp., Lepiota sp., Psalliota sp. Hosts: All types of turfgrasses. 12
  13. 13.  Symptoms: Fairy rings may appear as small to large rings of very green grass, dead grass, mushrooms or puffballs with little effect on the grass or as combinations of these symptoms.o Control: Removal of large sources of organic matter, such as stumps, before areas are planted will help prevent the development of some fairy rings. Irrigation to keep the soil moist may prevent the development or severe damage from fairy rings. Aerification and extra watering of the rings may help the grasses outgrow the damage. 13
  14. 14. POWDERY MILDEW Cause: Erysiphe graminis Hosts: Bluegrass 14
  15. 15.  Symptoms: A white to gray powdery growth of fungus mycelium develops on infected leaves. Heavily infected leaves turn yellow and die slowly, resulting in weakened plants that may be killed by environmental stresses. Lower leaves are generally affected more than younger leaves. Control: Proper fertilization to avoid lush growth, higher mowing height and irrigation to prevent drought stress will help infected plants overcome the disease. 15
  16. 16. PHYTHIUM BLIGHT Cause: Pythium species Hosts: Bentgrass and ryegrasses 16
  17. 17. Symptoms:Pythium blight occurring in the summer firstappears as small circular patches.Gray cottony mycelium may be seen in the affectedareas during very humid weather (cottony blight). Control: Good soil and air drainage and low levels of nitrogen fertilizer will help reduce the severity of these diseases. Proper fungicides must be selected. 17
  18. 18. RED THREAD Cause: Corticium fuciforme (now called Laetisaria fuciformis) Hosts: Bentgrass, bluegrass, fescues and ryegrasses 18
  19. 19.  Symptoms: Circular or irregularly shaped patches of grass die rapidly during cool-moist weather. Patches may have a bleached or reddish color and resemble dollar spot. Control: Fertilization to maintain adequate levels of nutrients will help overcome this disease. Irrigate the turf as needed to prevent moisture stress, but avoid long periods of excess water on the leaves. 19
  20. 20. RUST Cause: Puccinia species Hosts: Bluegrass, ryegrass, tall fescue and zoysia grass 20
  21. 21.  Symptoms: Small yellow flecks are the early symptoms that develop on the leaves and stems. Infected spots on leaves become larger yellow areas with raised centers. Controls: watering in the morning. Several fungicides can be used to control this disease . proper fertilization and irrigation will help reduce damage from rust. 21
  22. 22. WHITE PATCH Cause: Melanotus spp. Hosts: Tall fescue 22
  23. 23.  Symptoms: White patch of tall fescue appears as blighted patches Patches are distinctly white with small white mushrooms developing on leaf blades of the grass. Control: Proper management practices and proper soil pH help to overcome this disease 23
  24. 24. The end 24