THE EVOLUTION OF MAURITIAN AGRICULTURE TILL 1990 Presented by: Anusha Babooa
The history of agriculture inMauritius can be said to have had four distinct periods of development:The Portuguese and the Dutch period.The French occupation period.The British occupation period.The post-independence period.
THE PORTUGUESE AND THE DUTCH PERIODMauritian agriculture started when the Portuguesefirst visited the island around the year 1507.1st Dutch settlement (1638)• Tobacco, chicken, sheep, cattle, goats, pigs,tobacco, food crops, many kinds of fruit trees andsugarcane from Djakarta (1639). 2nd Dutch settlement (1662)• The farmers were persuaded to grow rice, maize,sweet potato, banana, pineapple, vegetables and torear sheep, cattle & pigs.
THE FRENCH PERIOD French rule (1715-1810) In 1735, Mahé de Labourdonnais established sugarcane as the main crop. He encouraged the production of indigo, coffee, cotton & spices, food crops and the rearing of livestock. He set up the first sugar mill at Ville- bague and a second one at Ferney. Pierre Poivre consolidated the production of sugarcane and rice.
THE BRITISH PERIOD British rule (1810-1968) main events:• the successful efforts made by Governor Farquhar and Cole to increase sugarcane production• the reduction of the entry-tax on Mauritian sugar entering Great• Britain in 1826,which encouraged planters to increase their production• the rise in the price of sugar which helped the sugar industry to develop further• the payment of compensation to planters for the liberation of their slaves in 1835. This money was invested in their plantations• the arrival of indentured Indian labourers in 1835 to work in the fields• the replacement of coffee, cloves and indigo by sugarcane aftercyclones had damaged them• the introduction of efficient mills for the extraction of sugar.
All these events brought about an increase in:The area under sugarcane cultivationThe amount of sugar producedThe number of sugar mills
Set up of agricultural institutes: The Chamber of Agriculture (1835) The “Station Agronomique” (1893) The College of Agriculture (1925) The Sugarcane Research Station (1930)/ MSIRI (1953) The Cyclone and Drought Insurance Board (1946). Now known Sugar Insurance Fund Board (SIFB).Sources: Beintema et. al (1995); Naidu (n.d.);Corbett (2002.
In 1968:Only 21 major factories were operating and wereproducing about 700,000 tons of sugarannually. The reasons being:• The use of machines to prepare the land.• The application of artificial fertilizers to sugarcaneplantation.• The use of chemicals to control weeds, pests anddiseases.• The growing of improved varieties of sugarcane.• The adoption of irrigation methods.• The increase in the area of irrigated lands• The introduction of efficient machines andequipment in the factories.
POST-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD Sugar and tea were the only exports of Mauritius although the share of tea was quite insignificant. It can be said that when the British left Mauritius after independence in 1968, the country had a monocrop economy. Importance of agriculture in mauritius:• It occupies more than half of the land area.• It produces food and raw materials.• Majority of people are employed in agriculture and agriculture-related jobs.• Many agricultural goods are for export• The net foreign exchange earnings from the export of agriculture goods are greater than those of any other exported goods. Agriculture and land-Use• The total area of Mauritius is 194,494 hectares, out of which, about 110,796 hectares are productive agricultural lands.
AGRICULTURE CROPS FISHING LIVESTOCKS Local For 1980-Localconsumption Meat fish export production: Milk 1990-tuna Cattle, deer, production: fishing Tobacco pork, poultry, cow, goat potato & Sugarcane,tropical mutton, beef other Fruits, flowers vegetables (anthurium), tea
Crops produced in 1988Sugarcane ≈597,970 tons exported Tea - 36,162 tons(79.3% exported)Tobacco – 967 tons(all consumed locally)Potato – 12,770 tons(sold locally)Other vegetables (local consumption)Fruits – (small quantity exported)Flowers –(mainly Anthurium-5.9 million worth Rs23.2 million exported)
Production value of selected foodstuff in 1970’s 197040000350003000025000200001500010000 1970 5000 0
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT Total Home Output economyGDP = Total money value of all the goods & servicesproduced in a country in 1 year.
Contribution of agriculture to the GDPyear 1968 1976 1980 1985 1990Contribution 27.6 23.2 10.5 14.2 10.7To GDP (%)Percentage of 96.0 86.5 69.7 45.2 30.8total exports(%)Percentage of 45.3 33.5 25.9 21.6 14.1employment(%) **(establishmentsemploying> 10people) Sources: 1. Economic indicators & Digests of stats (CSO) 2. Various annual reports
4035302520 1970-4 1975-9 15 1980-4 10 1985-9 5 0 Agricultures share in GDP Source: Oconnell & Ndulu (2000)
FROM 1968-1990, REDUCEDIMPORTANCE OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY Contribution to GDP- 6 times smaller % of total exports- 6 times smaller % of employment in large establishments- 7.5 times smaller Percentage of total employment – only 11.4 in 1990 Sources: 1. Economic indicators & Digests of stats (CSO) 2. Various annual reports
WHY ?British rule(19th century) Under imperial preference system(1919) 240,000 tonnes in 1925 till 1970’s- sugar still the important economic sectortrade preferences1. sugar protocol(1975) Lome convention(ACP/EU)2. special preferential sugar(SPS) agreement(1995) duty free acess to EU stable source of earning market for fixed quantityDiversification over the years at a guaranteed price
The ups & downs in the agricultural economy • Economy open to international trade1820 • Production of sugarcane • End of Prevalence of malaria leading to the increase in the rate of population1950 reaching 3% per annum • Malthusian case scenario • James Meades (Nobel prize winner in economics) predicting a dismal1960 future leading to a positive transformation to the economy • Strong expansion of economy1970 • Number of people employed in agricultural sector-2.5 times in manufacturing • Growth of economy at an impressive rate of 6% • Gross exports of the EPZ surpassed sugar exports1980 • In late 80’s decline of economy due to labour shortage, rising inflation.. • Sign of modest recovery with solid real growth & low unemployment1990 • However Mauritius depended heavily for its supplies on imports • It imported the total amount of its 2 basic staples-rice & sugar • Over 80% of its consumption needs in milk, beef & lamb
References• http://www.mauritius-embassy.de/gif/big/html/agriculture• http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/mauritius/index.html• Country Studies Program, formerly the Army Area Handbook Program, From The Library of Congress• http://prosi.net.mu/mca_002.htm• http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/moa/menuitem• http://www.areu.mu/files/pub/areunssp.pdf• http://library.thinkquest.org/C0110237/Agriculture_/agriculture_.html?tql-iframe#Top• http://benmuse.typepad.com/ben_muse/growth/• http://www.gov.mu/portal/sites/ncb/ppp/pbiguide.htm#top• revised report of C&W growth estimate to refer to the period from 1970-1982, instead of "the 1970s".• MULTI-CRITERIA PLANNING FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: A FULL EMPLOYMENT STRATEGY FOR MAURITIUS by J. L. Clovis Vellin, Timothy D. Mount, Thomas T. Poleman• The Agricultural Sector of Mauritius,Economic Aspects,Past, present and future Pierre Dinan(DCDM)• Mauritius: An Economic Success Story ,Ali Zafar ,January 2011• AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS,ASTI Country Brief No. 7 • May 2003• The Emerging Economic Model of Mauritius ,Mr. Raj Makoond,Director, Joint Economic Council –presentation at seafood conference,03/03/06, JEC ppt