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Rain Water Harvesting & A Case Study of Urban Flooding in Agra


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Rain Water Harvesting & A Case Study of Urban Flooding in Agra

  1. 1.     ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  2. 2. Conserve Water, Preserve Water ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
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  10. 10. Index • • • An Introduction to water crisis Brief on Rain Water Harvesting Examples . ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  11. 11. • • Water- Do we need to give the word a thought. Water is an important ingredient for human Existence. Planet Earth contains 320 million cubic miles of water, enough to cover the entire globe 1000 feet deep. • Yet fresh water is a very scarce global resource. • Only 0.02% of the Earth's water is available for drinking. • Only Availability of Water on Planet Mars can prove the existence of Life. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  12. 12. Water- why are we getting so much concerned? • “Water water every where but not a drop to drink”. • Immense Exploitation of our Natural resources • Industrialization and Development has exploited our nature and Natural Resources for their benefits. • Rivers a source of drinking water are polluted. • Lakes and Ponds are either polluted or reclaimed. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal Underground water being the last resort is now being tapped rigorously for
  13. 13. Rain Water • It’s the primary Source of Water. • It’s the Purest form of water available • • • for drinking purposes. But it is not utilised and it go waste into the drains and gets contaminated. Its is than drawn out from rivers and lakes filtered and purified and than pumped to our household for our daily needs. Rain Water gets logged in our urban areas causing urban flooding and health chaos. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  14. 14. Rain Water • Cheerapunji receives about 11000mm of rainfall annually • compared to 570mm rainfall annually at Agra. Cheerapunji suffers from acute drinking water shortage as the rain water is not conserved for and allowed to drain away. So is our city, most of the household or rather 75% are dependent on the tubewells and bore wells. The rate at which we are extracting the Underground source of water is depleting the Levels of underground wateraquifiers and soon the water levels underground are going to diminish for our future generations to come. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  15. 15. Rain Water Harvesting • With the accent on conservation rather than distribution, Rain Water Harvesting provides a very effective technical solution to this problem of Water Crisis. • Water availability is no longer dependent on expensive and unreliable lift water schemes, or insufficient perennial springs. • Rainwater harvesting systems are proving to be a very simple solution to the water problem as it catches the water where it falls. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  16. 16. Rain Water Harvesting- An Introduction • In general, water harvesting is the activity of direct collection of rain water. The rainwater thus collected can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into ground water. • Rain is the first form of water that we know in the Hydrological cycle, hence is the primary source of water for us. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  17. 17. Need to Augment Ground Water Resource •To overcome the inadequacy of surface water to meet our demands. •To arrest decline in ground water levels. •To enhance availability of ground water at specific place and time and utilize rain water for sustainable development. •To increase infiltration of rain water in the subsoil which has decreased drastically in urban areas due to paving of open areas. •To improve ground water quality by dilution. •To increase Agriculture production. •To improve ecology of the area by increase n vegetation cover etc. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  18. 18. Design Considerations •Hydrology of the Area – nature and extent of Aquifer, Soil Cover, Topography, depth to water level and chemical quality of ground water •Availability of Source Water- Monsoon Runoff •Area Available for Recharge. •Hydrometer logical Character- Rainfall Duration, General Pattern and intensity of Rain fall Potential Areas •Where Ground water levels are declining •Where Substantial amount of aquifer has been de-saturated. •Where availability of ground water is inadequate in lean months •Where due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain water into subsoil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  19. 19. Rain Water Harvesting- How to Harvest Rain Water • How to harvest rain? • Harvesting System • • Broadly rainwater can be harvested for two purposes 1. Storing rainwater for ready use in containers above or below ground 2. Charged into the soil for withdrawal later (groundwater recharging) ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  20. 20. Methods & Techniques • The Methods of Ground Water recharge mainly are. Urban Areas Roof Top Rain Water/Storm runoff harvesting through • A. Recharge Pit • B. Recharge Trenches • C. Tube well • D. Recharge well. • Rural Areas a. Gully Plug b. Contour Bund c. Gabion Structure d. Percolation Tanks e. Check Dam f. Recharge Shaft g. Dug well h. Ground Water Dams ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  21. 21. Rain Water Harvesting- How to Harvest Rain Water Rainwater can be harvested from the following surfaces • Rooftops: House, Commercial Complexes institutions etc. • Paved and unpaved areas i.e., landscapes, open fields, parks, stormwater drains, roads and pavements and other open areas • Waterbodies: The potential of lakes, tanks and ponds to store rainwater is immense. • Stormwater drains: Most of the residential colonies have proper network of stormwater drains. If maintained neatly, these offer a simple and cost effective means for harvesting rainwater. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  22. 22. Rain Water Harvesting- Store or Recharge • Whether to store rainwater or use it for recharge: Depends on the rainfall pattern and the potential to do so, in a particular region. The sub-surface geology also plays an important role in making this decision. • In places like Kerala, Mizoram, Tamil Nadu and Bangalore where rain falls throughout the year barring a few dry periods, one can depend on a small sized tank for storing rainwater, since the period between two spells of rain is short. • Wherever sub-strata is impermeable recharging will not be feasible. Hence, it would be ideal to opt for storage. • In places where the groundwater is saline or not of potable standards, the alternate system could be that of storing rainwater. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  23. 23. Rain Water Harvesting- Should we Store or Recharge? • In Agra where the total annual rainfall occurs during 3 or 4 months, Hence groundwater recharge is usually practiced. Rainfall Pattern of AGRA ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  24. 24. Rain Water Harvesting- Potential and Scope Potential of rooftop water availability in Agra Roof Area in Sq.m Annual rainfall in (liters) Quantity of rainfall available for harvesting (liters) 50 29,550 17,700 100 59,000 35,400 500 295,000 177,000 1000 590,000 354,000 (Note: a. Annual average rainfall of AGRA=590 mm; b. runoff coefficient is assumed as 0.60;Sq. m to be read as square meter). An analysis done based on the rainfall availability and demand supply gap shows that even 50 per cent of the rainwater harvested could help in bridging the demand supply gap ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  25. 25. Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting through Recharge Pit Recharge Pit May be of any Shape or Size. Desirably 1-2 m Wide and 2-3 m Deep Back filled with Boulders, Gravel and Coarse sand in Graded Form. Suitable for Small Structures and Residences ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  26. 26. Roof Top Harvesting Through Recharge Trenches Recharge Trenches May Be of any Shape or Size. Desirably 0.5-1 m Wide and 1-2 m Deep and 25-100 m Long depending on the capacity of recharge Back filled with Boulders, Gravel and Coarse sand in Graded Form. Suitable for Medium Structures and 0f 1000-2500Sq m ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  27. 27. Percolation Pits Recharge Trenches ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  28. 28. Roof Top Harvesting Through Tube wells and Dug wells Redundant Tubeless and Bore wells Can effectively be used for the Recharging Facilities. It Serves as a very effective measure to cater to recharging facility for campuses and complexes ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  29. 29. Rain Water Harvesting Through Contour Bunds Suitable for Low Rain Fall Areas where monsoon run off can be impounded by constructing bunds on Sloping Ground Flowing Water is intercepted before it Attains erosive velocity. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  30. 30. Rain Water Harvesting Through Gabion Structures and Dams It is kind of check dam commonly constructed along streams to conserve stream flow The excess water overflows this structure storing some water to serve as a source for recharging ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  31. 31. Rain Water Harvesting Through Percolation Tanks and Shafts Percolation Tank is artificially created surface water body in a highly permeable land so that surface runoff is made to percolate and recharge the ground water storage. A Recharge Shaft Can Serve as the Most Efficient and Cost effective techniques to recharge unconfined aquifer overlain by poorly permeable strata ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  32. 32. Role of Citizens • The most important role in this Has to be of the Inhabitants. • The initiative by each individual/ Social Organizations and Resident Welfare Associations for augmenting Rain Water Harvesting Scheme. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  33. 33. Role of Authorities The Local Authorities have to play the most strategic role in the initiative for Implementation of this Scheme . Proper guidelines should be framed for the implementation of the RWH both at micro and macro level. Awareness Programmers for disseminating the importance of RWH for sustainability. Incentive and Rebates in Taxes for promoting the Implementation process Creating Panel of consultants and Experts to monitor the Implementation Process ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  34. 34. Rain Water Harvesting for overcoming Urban Flooding in the Areas of Ram Nagar and MG road Objective Objective of the study is to counter the problem of urban flooding during Rains at the junction of Bagh Muzaffarkhan Crossing Nagar Nigam Crossing Ram Nagar Colony and Front of St. Paul’s Church and VC Residence ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
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  36. 36. Identifying the Sources of Problem 1. The flow of sewer lines is combined with Rain Water Drains for all the constructed areas. Hence during the rain the amount of water passing through these sewer exceeds its capacity thereby over flowing at the low lying junctions. 2. The storm water drains provided of the catchment of the surface runoff also becomes insufficient to cater to the sudden down pour because of its decreasing capacity due to siltation and choking due to garbage dumping. 3. Rain water from rooftop of the Ram Nagar Colony , bagh Muzaffarkhan, civil lines , Nehru Nagar, shah talkies , Surya Nagar, Hariparbat and parts of Wazirpura , Sanjay Place and near by Areas flows into the sewage Drain culminating at the Junction of Ram Nagar Crossing / Nagar and Sanjay Place. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  37. 37. VC COmplex Nagar Nigam St. Johns Sanjay Place ADA Hous’g ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  38. 38. 4. The surface drain of the Area as marked in the Enclosed Map Describes the Surface Run Off the Adjoining areas being directed towards the trough region created in the front of Nagar Nigam and Ram Bagh Colony Road 5. The Problem of flooding occurs due to excessive flow of the nearby surrounding rainwater flowing into the sewer from the adjoining areas, the capacity of the drains to cater to the flow being not sufficient results in the overflow of the drains and flooding junctions in low level areas. 6. The level of the water in the final discharge drains thereby stopping the outflow and results in water logging in low lying areas untill the water level decreases in the final discharge drains and letting the water flow from the low lying areas ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  39. 39. Approach to the problem Identifying the water catchments affecting the area of urban flooding. Determining the quantities of the flow of water during the Rainfall. Water sampling and testing for the contents and contamination of the surface runoff and overflow from drains and sewage. At all points considered for recharging. Determining the geological strata’s and aquifer levels, quality, content and properties. Identifying areas and points for recharging of the storm water. Developing viable technologies for filtration and treatment before recharging in accordance to the water sample test reports. Formatting guidelines for the operations and maintenance of the system developed. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
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  42. 42. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 1. Design of drain based to only allow the flow of water and not the sewage and garbage. 2. Designing systems using locally available technologies for easy maintenance and Operations. 3. Integrating the storm drains in the street fabric and existing buildings thereby making its implementation easier. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
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  44. 44. Settling Tank ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
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  46. 46. A Story of A well doing Water Harvesting A well In Front Of Sheela Talkies ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  47. 47. In Shambles and Poor State ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  48. 48. Filled with Garbage from the Nearby Residences and Garbage of Commercial Set up in the Area ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  49. 49. The Well in Infested with Garbage. Poisioning the Under Ground Water Source. The Water in the radius of around 500m in toxicated high Percentage of Chemicals and is so acidic that it burns the vegetation if used. ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal
  50. 50. THANKS Ar. Anurag Khandelwal M-+919927092009 ARCHITECT Anurag Khandelwal