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  1. 1. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 1    Introduction  he current lack of dynamism in many national economies has meant there are fewer economic opportunities, while innumerable barriers, such as caste and lack of education and access to land and capital, obstruct the efforts of the poor to break out of poverty”. (Albee, 2007) This truth in the context of India that where at one hand our economy is registering a robust growth and Sensex is touching an all time high numbers on the other hand farmers have to commit suicide as they are unable to earn even their daily bread so Rajasthan is no exception. The development of any country is basically synonymous with the development of the people living in that country. The rural population which by and large undeserved constitute 72.22% or nearly three fourth of total population therefore for the country’s development all our efforts must be targeted towards rural area. Unemployment, lack of education and health facility and other needs leads towards migration of rural population for urban areas and this could be well understood as from 1950 to 2001 the urban population has increased to nearly 30% from 17% while rural population has decreased from 82% to 70%. TABLE 1 RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION 1951‐2001  Census Year AAEGR Population in million Percentage of total population Total Rural Urban Rural Urban 1951 1.25 361 299 62 82.7 17.3 1961 1.96 439 360 79 82 18 1971 2.20 548 439 109 80.1 19.9 1981 2.22 683 524 159 76.7 23.3 1991 2.14 847 629 218 74.3 25.7 2001 1.95 1029 743 286 72.2 27.78 AAEGR: average annual exponential growth rate Source: India 2005 (GOI publication) This table depicts that we are not able reach to rural areas so the need of the hour is to make these areas better by all means to make India a developed nation. The local population of our study village, situated in district Udaipur, fares poorly on indicators of education, health status and economy with women faring worse than their male counterparts. Domestic violence and exclusion of women from collective decision-making processes contribute to the poor condition of the women. The situation is compounded by the lack of inclusive, responsive and transparent institutions through which communities can plan and leverage resources to meet their developmental needs. While traditional institutions are based on principles of caste-based exclusivity and lack a developmental orientation, the state structures often lack adequate technical capacity, tend to be dominated by clienteles and do not provide spaces in which all villagers can participate equally to influence the course of their own development process. “T
  2. 2. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 2    FIGURE 1 ARAVALI HILLS OF UDAIPUR  Seva Mandir is working in the district of Udaipur from last several decades to fight the cause of these poor people, trying to make their livelihood better through several interventions possible. Our project is a step towards the same. Objective  The objective of the project entitled “Exploring Prospect for Income Generation Activity in Natural resource wise developed village” was to identify all the possible and feasible income generation activity so as to provide villagers with sustainable livelihood to decrease the fluctuation in the income pattern. FIGURE 2 SUSTAINABILITY TRIPOD 
  3. 3. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 3    This figure depicts how economy is the heart of move towards sustainable rural development. Economical well being leads to better and aware society which in turn gives birth to a good environment. Background  Udaipur district is situated in the southern part of Rajasthan and shares border with Gujarat. The village under study, named “CHALLI” is situated in the base of Aravali Hills in the western part of Udaipur District and it consists of five Hamlets. Total number of house holds in this village is 250 which is mainly consist of Rajput, Gameti and Nai. The present economic condition of the village is really pathetic as the present livelihood practices are not efficient enough to provide them with their daily bread for round the year which leads to migration. Seva Mandir has its presence there in many forms like ongoing watershed activity, NFE centre, formation of SHG’s, Gram Vikas Kosh etc. Income Generation Activities  All those activities which helps in increasing the income of house hold or supports those activities which is main source of livelihood, can be termed as income generation activity. `Income-generating activities' will be considered those initiatives that affect the economic aspects of people's lives through the use of economic tools such as credit. Other types of support affecting women's production are considered complementary to income-generating activities. (Albee, 2007). Watershed   The most useful activity of Seva Mandir in this village is ongoing watershed programme which will reduce the runoff velocity of rain water which in turn will reduce soil erosion. Also this will help in increasing water table. This watershed activity has not only long term benefits but has short term benefits also. A good number of people get work in their own village so they don’t have to migrate to places like Udaipur. TABLE 2 SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION OF WATERSHED IN INDIA  Category Number Size Ranges (‘000 ha.) Regions 6 25,000-100,000 Basins 35 3,000-25,000 Catchments 112 1,000-3,000 Sub-Catchments 500 200-1,000 Watershed 3,237 50-200 Sub-Watershed 12,000 10-50 Millie-Watershed 72,000 1-10 Micro-Watershed 400,000 .5-1 Source: Bali (1979, p.82), [Bali, Y.P. (1979): “Watershed Management- Concept and Strategy”]
  4. 4. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 4    The Organization  eva Mandir is a non-governmental organization working for the development of the rural and tribal population in the Udaipur and Rajsamand districts of southern Rajasthan. Seva Mandir’s work area covers 611 villages spread across 6 blocks surrounding Udaipur. The area is characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions and a highly degraded natural resource base consisting of agricultural land, forests, pasturelands and wastelands. Much of the land is under common or government ownership and is poorly managed. Due to the inadequacy of the natural resource base in providing ample livelihood options, most families engage in physical labor outside of their villages in Udaipur city itself or in the neighboring state of Gujarat, often migrating for extended periods of time. Seva Mandir has adopted a three-part strategy with a view to engendering a society of free and equal citizens who are able to come together, deliberate on the problems they face and formulate common solutions that effectively improve the conditions of the most marginal sections of society. This strategy is outlined below: Empowering Village Institutions  Through its work in empowering village institutions, Seva Mandir seeks to forge effective, inclusive and democratic local institutions through which communities are able to take charge of their own development process. While all of Seva Mandir’s work is initiated through interactions with a community group, the evolution of these groups into viable and sustainable independent institutions requires considerable nurturing and capacity building over an extended period of time. Seva Mandir launched the Gram Vikas Kosh (Village Development Fund) in 1991 to provide a commonly-owned nucleus, free from the conflicts surrounding natural resources, around which the community could come together and begin deliberating on and taking action in response to their developmental needs. The fund is composed of villagers’ own contributions and today has grown to over Rs. 20 million across 514 village institutions. These funds are managed by elected Gram Vikas Committees who are accountable to the community. Gradually, the capacity of the GVCs is built up and they take on further responsibilities for overseeing village development, with a view to becoming largely autonomous community level governance platforms that function according to principles of inclusiveness, participation and equity. A major stage in this process is the transfer of responsibility for various village-level workers; NFE instructors, day-care centre Sanchalikas, forest rangers, trained birth assistance and barefoot health workers. S FIGURE 3 WOMEN ATTENDING A MEETING 
  5. 5. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 5    The work ahead builds on past work but with a greater emphasis on building the capacity of the village institutions to function autonomously. Key new areas will include looking at how village funds can be used effectively to meet community needs, not only in times of exigencies but also in a more proactive manner to strengthen community livelihood options. Strengthening women’s participation will also be a major item on the agenda, as will strengthening community-level governance. Increased efforts will be made to connect the village institutions to existing structures of governance outside the village, particularly the Panchayati Raj Institutions, to enable communities to communicate and negotiate their needs and opinions on a broader political stage. Developing Human Capabilities  Education, Health, Women’s Empowerment & Early Child Care and Development constitute Seva Mandir’s four core programmatic areas in terms of building human capabilities. Through concerted action on these issues, Seva Mandir seeks to ensure that people have the basic capabilities to take an active part in their own development process and, therefore, to be less vulnerable. Seva Mandir’s efforts in education are centered around its community managed Non Formal Education (NFE) Centres which aim to impart functional literacy and numeracy skills to out-of school children between the ages of 6 and 11 who are unable to attend formal schools for one reason or another. Upon graduation from the NFE Centres, children are encouraged to enroll in formal education facilities. To meet the needs of those children who are not even able to attend NFE Centres, Seva Mandir organizes residential literacy camps. Over a series of these camps, children gain literacy and numeracy skills and strengthen their communication and social interaction skills. Seva Mandir also runs village libraries, which permit villagers to read newspapers, magazines and books, and to maintain their literacy skills. Seva Mandir also supports community-managed full-day care centres for children from the ages of 1 to 5, where they are provided with supplementary nutrition and given a safe environment, which will enable cognitive development and social interaction skills. These centres also enable care-givers (mothers and older siblings) to attend to important tasks – such as working or attending school rather than having to look after small children. FIGURE 5 MEETING WITH VILLAGERS  FIGURE 4  A NFE CENTRE 
  6. 6. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 6    In terms of health, Seva Mandir’s core focal areas are Maternal and Child Health, generating awareness on various key diseases (TB, malaria, diarrhoea, HIV/AIDS), and improving health seeking behavior. Trained community-level health workers function as extension workers, conducting village health meetings, visiting pregnant women, providing them ante-natal and post-natal care, conducting safe deliveries, referring risky cases, arranging immunization camps with government functionaries, providing first-line treatment for minor ailments, growth monitoring of children and providing nutritional information to care-givers. Action – Research on health issues will also be a major focus area of work. Seva Mandir’s work on women’s empowerment can be broadly divided into two interrelated categories: (1) social empowerment; and (2) economic empowerment. The first category consists primarily of its work with women’s groups, which provide a forum for rural women to come together, raise and address issues that are important to them. A number of these women’s groups are federated at the Panchayat level into cluster associations so as to strengthen women’s ability to exert influence on the formal government structures. To advance women's economic empowerment, Seva Mandir helps women to establish and manage Self Help Groups through which women can regularly make savings and gain access to credit and government subsidies to begin income augmentation activities. Strengthening Sustainable Livelihoods  Through its work in strengthening sustainable livelihoods, Seva Mandir seeks to restore and enhance the productivity and ecological integrity of the natural resource base and, thereby, its contribution to sustainable local livelihoods. Seva Mandir also works on private lands and conducts trainings to promote horticulture, vegetable cultivation, vermi-compost production, appropriate agricultural practices and animal husbandry. The installation of lift irrigation facilities and small masonry dams constitute an important element of the work on enhancing agricultural production by making water for irrigation available to groups of farmers during the second and third cropping seasons. Seva Mandir also comprehensively treats watershed to ensure the ecological viability of efforts to increase productivity of the natural resource base. FIGURE 6 OBSERVING A GOAT FARM AT KUMBHAL GARH
  7. 7. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 7    About The Village   The village under study is situated in North-Western part of Udaipur district in Gogunda Tehsil. It is surrounded by Aravali Hills situated at half kilo meter from the road which connects Gogunda and Undithal. These two places are of utmost importance as these provide good market for nearly all of their products. This village, named “Challi” consist of five hamlets named Challi proper, Nalka was, Bagdada, Umaria and Bhilwada. In four out of five, the main caste living out there is “Gameti” which is a tribe while challi proper is dominated by Rajputs. The other caste living in Challi proper is Ved (Nai). A school up to 8th standard is in the village. Other facilities like post office, veterinary hospital, higher secondary school etc are situated with in the radius of 6 K.M. The total population of the village is 1400 with 729 male and 671 female. The average house hold size is 5. The ST population of the village is 1003 (71.6%) with 520 (71.3%) male and 483(72%) female. The literacy rate is 36.2% with 40.7% for males and 20.9 for females.   Total male female Work participation rate (%) 59.9 62.1 57.5 Proportion of main worker (%) 54.4 59 49.5 Proportion of marginal workers (%) 5.5 3.2 8 Proportion of non workers (%) 40.1 37.9 42.5 Proportion of cultivators to total worker (%) 55.1 55 55.2 Proportion of agricultural labor to total worker (%) 42.4 40.6 44.6 Proportion of workers in HH industries to total workers(%) .2 .4 0 Percentage of other worker to total (%) 2.3 4 .3 FIGURE 7 MAP OF UDAIPUR DISTRICT 
  8. 8. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 8    Methodology  To find out possible “Income Generation Activities” in the specified area, the data was collected from two sources • Primary Data • Secondary Data Primary data  To measure the diversified nature of the information, amalgamation of many methods described below were used. Participatory Rural Appraisal  ‘The true spirit of PRA, for me… is a tool of the marginalized. And I am using it from that sense; a tool of the poor…PRA is a way of life…’ (Pathways to participation, 2007) PRA has the capability to measure those qualitative aspects that can not be measured through conventional research methods. Following exercises were performed using PRA to know the present condition and problems with probable solutions. Social Map This provides a complete picture of the village under study i.e. caste and class composition of the village, interaction among different communities of the village and many things related with their social aspects of life. Resource map This map depicts the resources existing in the village and its strategic location in case it is an asset like well. This also includes which resources were there in the past and what can be used in the future. FIGURE 8 A PRA IN PROCESS 
  9. 9. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 9    Time trend To show qualitative changes over time in different aspects of village’s life after some major natural or human interventions like drought or flood etc. The change in the scenario of availability of fodder, improvement in the life quality etc. can be assessed. Census This method is used to find out all the relevant information with the help of questionnaire filled by villagers. The total no. of house holds in the study village was not big enough so census was better suited than sampling. To do this, a questionnaire1 was developed which includes questions regarding crop pattern and production, livestock, migration pattern etc. Focal group discussion These were the most important source of information where pertinent group discussions in the form of village meeting with villagers were held many a times. In this villagers came up with different ideas of income generation, their fear factors etc. Not only in finding out the relevant information for the project but in all things starting from fishing out all the option then choosing better one then implementation and monitoring, they churned out everything for themselves. Secondary data  Secondary data as referred for missing information or for triangulation of primary data in the form of books, reports at Seva Mandir, data collected by block office. Also to have knowledge about the subject so that the design of the project remains realistic. Wealth Ranking  To know about the present economic status of villagers they were ranked on the basis of assets they were having. This ranking was done specially on the basis of land holding and livestock they have. Following point method was devised to do the same. Asset Wealth points Arable land 1pt/ 2 bigha Irrigated land 1pts/bigha Access Irrigation 1pt/bigha Ownership of cow .5pt/animal Ownership of buffalo 1pt/animal Ownership of goat 1pt/4 animal Skilled worker in the family 1pt/person Permanent job 2pt/person                                                         1 A copy of Questionnaire is attached as annex.
  10. 10. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 10      Limitations of Methodology  Methodology adopted to find out relevant information has some limitations due to many factors which are as follows • In all data collection method the main constraint was language, which sometimes caused loss of information or half information. This was difficult for villagers also as they were sometimes not getting what is being asked. • Sometimes, the information’s were exaggerated by villagers in the hope of getting some benefit from us. • Villagers lack of information regarding exact quantitative value of their land.
  11. 11. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 11    The Village Analysis  The village under study is situated in North-Western part of Udaipur district in Gogunda Tehsil. It is surrounded by Aravali Hills situated at half kilo meter from the road which connects Gogunda and Undithal. These two places are of utmost importance as these provide good market for nearly all of their products. This village, named “Challi” consist of five hamlets named Challi proper, Nalka was, Bagdada, Umaria and Bhilwada. In four out of five, the main caste living out there is “Gameti” which is a tribe while challi proper is dominated by Rajputs. The other caste living in Challi proper is Ved (Nai). A school up to 8th standard is in the village. Other facilities like post office, veterinary hospital, higher secondary school etc are situated with in the radius of 6 K.M. The total population of the village is 1400 with 729 male and 671 female. The average house hold size is 5. The ST population of the village is 1003 (71.6%) with 520 (71.3%) male and 483(72%) female. The literacy rate is 36.2% with 40.7% for males and 20.9 for females. total male Female Work participation rate (%) 59.9 62.1 57.5 Proportion of main worker (%) 54.4 59 49.5 Proportion of marginal workers (%) 5.5 3.2 8 Proportion of non workers (%) 40.1 37.9 42.5 Proportion of cultivators to total worker (%) 55.1 55 55.2 Proportion of agricultural labor to total worker (%) 42.4 40.6 44.6 Proportion of workers in HH industries to total workers(%) .2 .4 0 Percentage of other worker to total (%) 2.3 4 .3 FIGURE 9 MAP OF GOGUNDA WATERSHED 
  12. 12. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 12    Analysis of Challi Proper  The hamlet named “Challi Proper” is mainly dominated by Rajputs with little presence of other caste like Ved and Teli. Analysis of the hamlet is done on the basis of caste, land use pattern, milk productivity which tells every story.   FIGURE 10 CASTE WISE DISTRIBUTION OF CHHALI MAIN  The above graph shows that 3/4th  of the village is dominated by Rajputs and Rajputs are in good  economic condition than that of other caste.    FIGURE 11 LAND USE PATTERN OF CHHALI MAIN  As  this  village  is  situated  at  the  base  of  hill  so  most  of  land  is  beed  land  which  is  used  as  pastureland. As these Rajputs have sufficient money so percentage of irrigated land co0mpared  to other villages is higher. 
  13. 13. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 13    The low productivity of land and animal is very clear from these graphs. The average milk production of goat is 0.1l/day per goat while that of cow is 0.2l and that of buffalo is 0.31l. the land produces 2 to 3 quintal of wheat per beegha on average.   FIGURE 12 DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMAL BASED ON MILKING              FIGURE 13 COMPARISON BASED ON PRODUCTIVITY 
  14. 14. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 14    Wealth ranking of the village was done which shows that most of the people fall in the category “A” of wealth ranking and that is between 0 and 4.This chart shows only 10% people are in the upper cluster of Wealth ranking in which they have earned more than 8 points.         FIGURE 14 WEALTH RANKING OF CHHALI MAIN 
  15. 15. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 15    Analysis of Nalka was  All residents of this village are Gameti that is a tribe while other things like land use and cattle productivity is illustrated in the following figures.   FIGURE 15 LAND USE OF NALKAWAS            FIGURE 16 PRODUCTIVITY OF ANIMALS 
  16. 16. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 16      FIGURE 17 COMPARISON OF PRODUCTIVITY          FIGURE 18 WEALTH RANKING OF NAL KA WAS 
  17. 17. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 17    Recommendations  After the analysis of the village based on caste composition, land use, wealth ranking and willingness of the villagers to do two things came out which are: Goat Rearing Dairy Farming These two interventions were chosen by villagers themselves and they seems very enthusiastic regarding these two projects. In chhali main, that is being dominated by Rajputs who are better in economic condition than the tribal the inclination was towards dairy as that is their practice and is matter os prestige for them to keep milking buffalo while in the tribal hamlet inclination was towards Goat rearing. Following is business plan for both the projects.
  18. 18. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 18    Dairy  One of the most familiar businesses for the villagers which are being practiced since man has learned to tame animals is “dairy”. The main product is milk while the by-product is manure which is good for agricultural land. Although it is very lucrative but this being unorganized and lack of good animal husbandry gives it bad shape. Proper training for better husbandry and making this practice organized may lead to handsome profit. This project can be covered under following topics: • SWOT • Process • Financial Analysis SWOT  Viability of the project depends upon the method by which strength are utilized fully, weaknesses are taken care of, opportunities are exploited in best possible way and threats are tackled properly. SWOT of this project in the area under study is described below. Strengths  1. Migration: The area for which Dairy is recommended has nominal migration as daily laborer. In dairy farming, cattle needs to be taken care of daily more than one time a day which would have not been possible in case of migration. 2. Land requirement is very crucial thing in dairy farming as 1 beegha of land can cut the fodder price by Rs.15 per day per animal for 4 animals. In this village, the average land holding of irrigated land is around 2 beegha. From 1 beegha of land the net income by agriculture is Rs.8000 in two rotations in one year while sowing of green fodder will save Rs.16000 which double of crop production. 3. Inclination: People of this village wants to increase their income in an organized and sustainable way but at the same time wants to do in which they have prior knowledge. Also they want to increase productivity of their cattle as the present condition says on average a buffalo gives .5l of milk by replacing these with improved variety. 4. Water is another important thing for buffalo which this village can support as people have wells and pumps to lift water from well. 5. Market: The milk cooperative of Udaipur “SARAS” has proper chain of milk collection at various places in of Udaipur. For the village “Chhali”, the milk collection van has reach up to a place called “Mada” that is only 2 K.M. away. Also the person will be paid by SARAS for carrying that milk from the village to the van this will support at least one person in the village for earning money. 6. Dairy an existing business It is an existing practice of the villagers but is done with poor breed of animal, under animal husbandry practices in an unorganized manner so the monetary benefit is not as apparent as should be but once it will be organized and linked with potential market it will reap benefit. Presently some of them process milk to make “GHEE” which gives good price.
  19. 19. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 19    Weakness  1. Health and Nutrition: The present scenario of health and nutrition of buffalo is not good in the village. 2. Training for good animal husbandry is required to take care of health and nutrition and to keep productivity of animal at its maximum. 3. Constant motivation is required to make the villagers to practice the best husbandry. 4. SHG: Absence of SHG in the Hamlet makes this project long term project which is one of the apparent weaknesses. 5. Unorganized entity Dairy being unorganized in the village it is a cumbersome process to organize it and make it run properly.  Opportunities  The market for milk has potential to consume as much can be produced. It is being found in one of the report that price of the milk is saturated and it will not increase further but the production can be increased which will counter balance the price being static. Processing of the milk in form of “GHEE” can lead to more benefit. This benefit will be equivalent to Rs.5/kg in monetary terms. Threats  1. Disease and mortality The most crucial factor in the decrease of the production of milk of buffalo is disease and dairy farmer gets shock by death. These are two biggest threats which are main reason of failure for dairy at some places. 2. Commitment the two stakeholders of this project are Seva Mandir and Beneficiary. Level of commitment for the success of the project in Seva Mandir and level of commitment in beneficiary will define the fate of this project.
  20. 20. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 20    Process  The process of implementation of this project has six phases starting from SHG formation to monitoring and control. Formation of SHG:  As the village Chhali does not have any existing SHG so group formation is first step towards the same. This is necessary to form an SHG or Cooperative to get the loan from the bank. Before forming the SHG the following points should be taken care of: • The number of members should be 10 to 20. There should not be any kind of force on villagers to become a member. They should accept the membership voluntarily. • The age should be between 18 to 50 years. • The group members should work with spirit of respect, faith and cooperation among the group members. They should help each other. • It is mandatory that the people of the group who want to benefit from SGSY, they should be the under the category of BPL. Others can be benefited from NABARD/FWWB. • There should be parity among the members of the group in their status, background, economic condition, etc. Members should be from one village or from the same community etc. • Only one person from a family can become a member in the group and no person can be a member of more than one group. • All the rules, regulation, way of working, meeting, savings, loan, etc should be decided by all the members by consensus. • There should be regular meetings by the group and in turn it provides the momentum to the group functioning. • The group will create a common fund (kosh) by the savings of each member.
  21. 21. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 21    • The group should take decision by the consensus and the functioning should be based on democratic norms. • The group should open their saving account in the bank. Hence considering the above mentioned criteria and conditions, selection of beneficiary should be done. Grading of SHG  Grading is actually categorization. This is to evaluate the group and its functioning and to find the strength and weakness of the group. The purpose of grading are: • To identify the strength and weakness of the group. • To sort out the problems the group is facing. • Linking the group with the bank for loan. • The grading is done by DRDA/NGO, banker or by any financial institution. Points for grading • Regular savings • Regular monthly meetings • Rotation of savings • Number of females who are given the loan. • Repayment money. There are two grading after which the SHG is entitled to get the loan from the bank. First grading is done after 6 months of formation and second is done after a year of formation of the group. Loan disbursement  After the second grading of the SHG, bank is ready to finance the project. If the SHG has 70% of BPL members then the group can get the maximum subsidy of Rs.1, 25,000. Although there can be up to 20 members in the SHG it is recommended that there should be a SHG of 13 members to take the maximum benefit of subsidy. Repayment period of the loan amount is 5 years. Members are eligible for subsidy after 3 years of loan disbursement provided they regularly pay the installments. SHG does not get the subsidy directly as a subtraction from the loan amount but it gets deposited in the bank account and could be availed as the net savings after the whole loan amount is paid back. Implementation 
  22. 22. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 22    Exposure visits:  The group members should be taken to the sites where these types of projects are running. They could be taken to the dairy farms so that they can interact with the owners and know the various aspects related to this enterprise. They should be taken to markets from where the dairy are to be purchased enabling them to choose buffalos themselves under the able guidance of an expert. Training:  The group members should be given training by an expert on animal husbandry. Although they are aware of some aspects but sometimes they lack the knowledge of modern methods. This results in loss for the villagers. It is assumed they are practicing buffalo rearing since ages and they know the management of the buffalo rearing. This assumption adds to the jeopardizing of the project. Purchase:  Once the buffalo are being chosen by the group members are ready to be purchased. It is important in this step to be careful of certain points. There are brokers and middlemen present in the market who will try to make their profits. They should be avoided. Sometimes the seller tries to cheat by replacing the chosen buffalo with the poor quality, infertile or aged buffalos. Proper care should be taken as this could jeopardize the project at its inception. Insurance:  Sometimes it happens that a buffalo could not adapt itself in the new environment and they die. Mortality of buffalos can cost the project its life and sustainability. Before distributing the buffalos to the group members, buffalos should be insured and tagged. Current rate of insurance is 2.25% per annum. For insurance claim the member had to produce the tagged ear of the buffalo and a photograph with the dead animal. Vaccination:  Buffalos should be vaccinated before distribution so that they can be saved from contagious diseases. If the vaccination is not done, the buffalos can die of the disease. To prevent some common disease proper medicine should be made available to the villagers so that they can immediately administer it to buffalos. Distribution:  Now the platform is ready to distribute the buffalos to the group members. The buffalos should be distributed homogeneously. Generally three types of buffalos are available in the market depending on their age. The lot that has been bought contains these three types. They are pregnant, with off spring and buffalos that just reached maturity and are ready for mating. The whole lot should be categorized into three lots and each member should be distributed the buffalos evenly from these three lots. This will ensure that every member gets the same quality of buffalos. It is recommended to buy buffalo which has calved once as it has best productivity.
  23. 23. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 23    Monitoring and Control  • Regular meeting of the SHG is one of the most required things for better management to check many things like their regular repayment, to maintain the constant supply, to get the cattle vaccinated time to time. • The second important thing is management of the animal by practicing good animal husbandry. • The SHG is running smoothly and functioning properly with the consent of all the members and no post holder is doing any cheating. • The market linkage is constant and all the members are supplying milk through established channel. • The production is not decreasing and if it is then find out reason and solution for the same.
  24. 24. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 24    Financial Analysis  The lactation period of a buffalo is of 9 months, even in these nine months the milk production is not constant. For first 4 months after giving birth it will produce 8 L of milk per day, next 3 months 6 L per day then for 2 months only 4 L per day. A buffalo needs fodder and concentrate of Rs.25 per day to produce the same as described above. Cost of one buffalo is Rs.15000. taking all these things in to account the financial analysis is as follows (all the figures are in Rs. term): year Mother Unit production per unit total production of milk Income from he- buffalo Gross income gross expense Net Income Monthly income 1 2 22600 45200 0 45200 28750 16450 1370.833 2 2 22600 45200 0 45200 29975 15225 1268.75 3 2 22600 45200 3000 48200 34850 13350 1112.5 4 3 22600 67800 3000 70800 44325 26475 2206.25 5 4 22600 90400 3000 93400 53800 39600 3300 6 4 22600 90400 6000 96400 56850 39550 3295.833 In this calculation by products like manure has not been taken into account which has monetary value equal to Rs.12000 by two units of buffalo.
  25. 25. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 25    Goat Rearing  Goat is a very useful animal and a milk giving cattle that has a very low cost of rearing. That is why it is sometimes called the ‘poor’s cow’. Goat’s meat is also very popular. Apart from milk and meat, manure is also obtained from goat. In India goat rearing is mainly done by poor and landless farmers. In various parts tribal engage themselves in goat rearing. But it is a matter of concern that for lack of proper knowledge and information the poor goat-rearers suffer from great monetary losses. By rearing goats of good breed with proper medical care and maintenance, mortality among them could be reduced. Thus the monetary gains could be increased easily. Considering the economic viability of Goat Rearing, this project seems feasible in the four hamlets of Chhali. On the basis of funding, two different models for the project have been formulated. To substantiate the above project, it would be pertinent to discuss the project on different aspects to make it more realistic on ground level. The coming paragraphs would deal with the SWOT analysis and the process of implementation of the project. SWOT Analysis  Strength  Existing practice:  The practice of Goat Rearing is very much prevalent, though not of good breeds, in the four hamlets of Chhali namely Bhilwada, Bagdada, Nalkawas and Umaria. Every household on an average has 2-3 goats. They have been keeping goats for a long time. Among the tribal, having a goat is a measure of social status. Though they are not aware with the modern goat rearing practices but they are quite familiar with their traditional goat keeping measures. Hence acceptability of the project is high among the villagers and they do not feel that something totally new has been imposed on them. Rich in natural resource  The village is situated in a valley surrounded by Aravalli Mountains. The area of the village constitutes the watershed. The natural vegetation is capable of providing sustainable supply of the fodder for the cattle. There is also a small river passing through the village, on the banks of which there is abundant natural vegetation. No stall feeding is required  A goat generally requires open grazing and no stall feeding. This reduces the burden on the farmer for the procurement of the fodder for the cattle.
  26. 26. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 26    Less water requirement  In contrast to the dairy, goat rearing requires less water. Since they are out for the grazing for the day time, they drink water from the ponds and anicuts etc.   Large chunk of beed land  The villagers have their own large chunk of beedlands. Beedlands are mountainous tract of land where no agriculture activities is possible and only grasses grow there. Therefore grasses can be utilized as the green fodder for the cattle. Readiness of the villagers  The most important factor for the feasibility of this project is the readiness among the villagers. Moreover the emergence of the goat rearing project has been facilitated by the active involvement of the villagers only. They are highly motivated by the improved variety of goats and improve their existing stock. Weakness  Late return on the investment  Considering the reproductive cycle of the goat, goat rearing fetches the first tangible return after the 18-24 months. Due to this factor villagers may get demotivated during the first 18 months. Poor animal husbandry  Although they are familiar with practice of the goat rearing but they are not aware of the modern goat rearing practices. The areas of vaccination, timely treatment of diseases, insurance etc remain neglected. Reluctance among the very poor  The target group of this project is the weakest section of the village. Due to the long return period, it becomes difficult for them to sustain them.
  27. 27. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 27    Opportunity  Improved breed fetches better price  Existing stock of the cattle is of local breed.the bucks do not fetch good price in the market as their weight is less and the quality too. On the other hand the improved breed of goat, gives the high return and the doe are also capable of giving more milk compared to the local breed. Number of mother unit increases fast after two years  The goat gives three offspring in two years and an offspring is ready to bear child after 12 months. The gestation period of the goat is six months. Therefore after two years the mother unit increases at a rapid rate because the offspring of the first mother unit also reaches adulthood. Poorest can be motivated  If the project is successful then the poorest of the poor can be motivated. He can see himself that after 1.5 years the benefits start to come although the wait period is bit long for this project he can be included in the next phase of the project. Replicable  Once the project is successful, it can be replicable to other areas also where the social, economic and geographical conditions are same. Threats  Mortality and Disease  Sometimes the improved varieties of the goats find it difficult to adjust to the new condition. Also due to the presence of some poisonous plants makes it dangerous for the new breed of goats to exist. For example the species of Sitafal, they are very much dangerous for goats. The various diseases take a heavy toll on the number of goats. Loss of interest  Due to the long gestation period of the project, villagers can loose their interest. They have to take proper care and the repayment loan amount from the very first day and they will get return after 18 months. Malpractices  There are also some cases of selling the mother unit by the villagers in the want of money. Also there is also a general feeling among the villagers that insurance will cover the damage, so they become lax in the proper care of their cattle and hence the productivity is reduced.
  28. 28. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 28    Process  The process I this intervention is nearly same as it is in Dairy Farming. There are few differences like there is a SHG which more than 5 years old and is working properly which can go for 2nd grading directly and get the loan sanctioned easily. Also this SHG named “Sheetla mata sva- sahayata samuh” is a BPL SHG and is eligible for subsidy of Rs.10000 per member or Rs.125000 to the group. For rest of the process of formation of SHG to monitoring and control every thing is nearly same.
  29. 29. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 29      Financial analysis  The by products as milk and manure has not been taken into account in monetary terms in this goat rearing project. The intervention is for tribal and the existing SHG has more than 70% member below poverty line so they will get subsidy. Year MU Loan insurance Doctor Fodder Gross Expenditure Income Net Income MI 1 5 600 225 150 900 1875 0 -1875 -156 2 7 1600 315 210 1260 3385 6000 2615 217 3 10 1480 450 300 1800 4030 8000 3970 330 4 12 1360 540 360 2160 4420 8000 3580 298 5 15 1240 675 450 2700 5065 10000 4935 411 6 15 1120 675 450 2700 4945 10000 5055 421 The above matrix tells about the loan repayment and other expenses and net income at the end of every year. In the first year, table shows that beneficiary has to invest money and he will get nothing in return but as we consider male goat as product only and other things like milk and manure whose monetary cost will be Rs.13500 and Rs.8000 respectively has not been considered in this analysis but basically he will benefit from these by product also. This being BPL SHG, it will have subsidy of 50% so on taking loan of Rs.10000 they will have to pay only Rs.5000 which can be paid back in six years. year PA remain Interest to be paid PA to be paid Annual Repayment 1 5000 600 0 600 2 5000 600 1000 1600 3 4000 480 1000 1480 4 3000 360 1000 1360 5 2000 240 1000 1240 6 1000 120 1000 1120 All figures in Rs. Cost /goat 2000 Vaccination/goat/year 30 Cost/buck 3000 insurance/goat/annum 45 Fodder
  30. 30. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 30    Now, the financial analysis for the model which is being funded is based on the condition by the donor which are as follows: Beneficiary will return the same number of goat as he was given and of same quality. These returned goats will be passed to another beneficiary with same constraint of returning it. Till the time he does not return it he ahs to pay rent for the goat that is Rs.10/month The cost of vaccination, buck and insurance will be taken care by beneficiary. At the end of second year, beneficiary can return 5 goats to the intervening agency by taking some profit of 6000. So the basic cost structure, for the beneficiary and donor will be as follows year rent insurance doctor buck contribution total 1 600 225 150 600 1575 2 600 225 150 0 975 For the donor it is equal to donating money for 50 goats that is Rs.100000.
  31. 31. Seva Mandir, Udaipur  Page 31    Bibliography Albee, A. (2007, May). Evaluation and worlking paper, series 1. Retrieved Month 2007, from UNICEF website. Baba Amte Centre for People Empowerment. (July 2006). Watershed Works Manual. Ballabh, P. Land, Community and Governance. Seva Mandir, Udaipur. Dairy farm management. (2006). Anand: National Dairy Development Board. Anand. India 2005. GOI publication. Mukherjee, D. A. Participatory Rural Appraisal. Vikash Publishing house Pvt. Ltd. Patel, B. M. Project Management. Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Pathways to participation. (2007). Retrieved from IDS website. S.N.Bhise. Decolonizing the commons. Seva Mandir. Sankar Datta, V. M. (2004). A resource book for livelihood promotion. New Economics Foundation. Shephered, A. Sustainable Rural Development. Mac Millan Press Ltd. Y.P.Bali. Watershed works manual.