CHAPTER 9 Handlooms and HandicraftsIntroduction Under various schemes of the central and stateMaharashtra is known for its rich and exquisite Government, efforts have been made to constructtraditional handloom textiles and handicrafts. common worksheds and common facility centres.Handwoven textiles like Paithani brocades that have As a production unit, a combination of land, labour,existed for more than 2000 years in original capital and entrepreneurial skills are required inpatterns, and woven with the same techniques even order to manage the economic activity.today, are prized heirlooms and possessions for As the handlooms and handicrafts sector ismany. New techniques and products were totally decentralised, individual weavers andintroduced by different dynasties, which ruled the craftsmen face difficulties in procuring finance, rawstate from time to time. These have left an indelible material and in marketing. The wages of weavers areimpression on the history of handwoven textiles and also so meagre that they are not in a position tohandcrafted arts of Maharashtra. Handlooms and invest in any kind of change or improvement eitherhandicrafts have played a crucial role in the state in technology or in product diversification. Thus, as they are unable to sell their products at a price ineconomy in providing employment and income. order to earn the minimum wages to survive, they However, since the early 20th century, with the are shifting to other occupations, with the exceptionintroduction of mills and import of powerloom of the weavers who produce specialised products,fabrics by the British, the expanding mill and which do not face any threat from the powerloompowerloom sector in the country poses a threat to sector or those fabrics, which cannot bethe handloom sector. Despite these constraints, the economically produced on powerlooms.handlooms and handicrafts sector is an important High quality handloom fabrics and handicraftssegment of the rural economy. The immediate and were exported to England before the process ofessential requirements are careful nurturing and a industrialisation in India acquiring recognition thedevelopment plan for facing market competition. world over. Mughal emperors, feudal lords and The production of these articles is achieved aristocrats were the main patrons of handlooms andthrough labour-oriented methods by artisans/ handicrafts artisans and craftsmen.master craftsmen whose expertise and skills are The Industrial Revolution in England in thehanded down from one generation to the next, 19th century, British rule and the abolition of feudalcreating a distinctive regional identity and lords led to the decline in the patronage ofcharacteristics unique to the region. There have handloom weaving, and consequently, thebeen improvements in designs, to a certain extent in handloom industry declined in India as it was unabletechnique, and in the use of contemporary fibres. to compete with technology-driven units of production with regard to price and consistency of The use of modern technology is absent. This fabric quality.sector uses labour-intensive production technique,with less capital requirements; and it is best suited Post-Independence Policy on Handloomsfor India and under-developed countries, where and Handicraftslabour is abundant and surplus, and capital is scarce. In the post-Independence era, despite the thrust onThe technique has the potential to generate massive heavy and medium industries for economicemployment and raise the standard of living of development of the country, due importance waspeople living below the poverty line. The also given to village and cottage industries becausehandlooms and handicrafts, being cottage industries, of the large employment potential. Handlooms andproduction is carried out from household premises handicrafts sectors were the major sectors in termsor in the open. of providing employment next only to agriculture.
202 Maharashtra State Development ReportGeneration of massive employment is best-suited Section Iunder Indian conditions, where capital is scarce and Development in Handlooms Sectortechnology imports are not affordable by the nation;hence, the handlooms and handicrafts sectors are Apex Development Bodiesalso best suited to achieve planned objectives of Ministry of Textiles, Government of India“self-sufficiency” and “self-reliance.” Owing to The allocation of funds for the development ofgeographical specialisation, exports are possible, these sectors and for implementation of various schemes of the Government of India is done by theprovided the production cost is minimal and the Ministry of Textiles through the Director, Weavers’price is competitive in terms of the market. Service Centre, Mumbai and Deputy Director, Traditionally, these handcrafted products were Weavers Service Centre, Nagpur.patronised by royalty, the Indian aristocracy andforeigners. The quality of goods produced was not Development Commissioner for Handlooms, Government of Indiaavailable elsewhere. Being labour-intensive, The Office of the Development Commissioner forproduction takes its time and as there is an absence Handlooms, with its headquarter at New Delhi,of modern technology, mass production is not directs the research, development and training forpossible. It is assumed that the use of modern the handlooms sector in Maharashtra through itstechnology leads to mass production, as it invariably western region office headed by the Director withbrings down the cost of production and it is market- branch office in Mumbai and other sub-offices incompetitive because of its cost advantage, i.e. Aurangabad, Kolhapur and Nagpur.produced at the least cost. While these Department of Textiles, Government of Maharashtracharacteristics may or may not be present in the The State Textile Department is, headed by theproduction of handicrafts, with labour being in Secretary (Textiles) who is in charge for theabundance and cheaply available compared to the development of the handloom sector and assists incost of labour in western countries, this industry achieving targets through the Director ofneeds special skills handed down from one Handlooms, Powerlooms and Textiles withgeneration to the next, which are “hereditary in headquarters located at Nagpur, and regional officesnature". headed by Regional Deputy Directors at Mumbai, The Central Government, in coordination with Solapur, Aurangabad and Nagpur.the State Government, proposed a number of Department of Industries, Government of Maharashtraschemes, which included conversion to The State Government, through Secretarypowerlooms, supply of improved appliances such as (Industries) is in charge of the development of thetake-up motions, etc. to improve the quality of handicrafts sector and provides assistance to thehandloom fabrics. To provide newer designs and artisans.training for using improved appliances to the Maharashtra Small-Scale Industries Developmentweavers who were living in remote areas with no Corporation (MSSIDC)knowledge of changing trends in the cities, Weavers MSSIDC was established in 1962, initially as anService Centres were started by the Government of agency for the supply of raw materials to SSI unitsIndia in various areas of the country, beginning with and to also extend marketing assistance to theseMumbai in 1956. units in selling their products. The basic objective The use of these appliances, which were was to help small-scale industries to develop anddeveloped for the production of better quality and grow to the fullest extent, enabling them to playuniform fabrics were not adopted by the weavers their role towards the realisation of the nationalbecause of both physical and mental blocks. objective of accelerating the industrial development,However, in certain areas, for production of plain generation of employment and income.medium-count fabrics, semi-automatic looms were In the handlooms and handicrafts sector,adopted for ensuring a superior quality of fabric. MSSIDC had undertaken the project of the trainingThis chapter is divided into four sections as follows. centre at Paithan in 1973 and still continues with it.
Handlooms and Handicrafts 203 MSSIDC has played a vital role in the revival of Annabhau Sathe Corporation are the facilitators toPaithani sarees of Paithan and Himroo weaving of industrial artisans/units/cooperative-ventures/Aurangabad. MSSIDC has also actively participated NGO initiatives, providing marketing, trainingin the area of handicrafts by arranging training facilities, loan, subsidy and credit. However, theprogrammes, sales and marketing. achievements fall far short of expectations and MSSIDC organises the marketing of handicraft expected levels of performance.items and also arranges to conduct training Handlooms in Maharashtraprogrammes in Paithani-weaving at Paithan and Handloom weavers in Maharashtra exist in pocketsYeola for the revival of this craft. scattered throughout the state. The uniqueness ofMaharashtra State Handloom Corporation (MSHC), handloom is its regional specialisation of a particularNagpur kind of product that is known by the name of theThe Corporation was set up in 1972 with the place from where it is woven, e.g. Nagpur sarees,objective of providing gainful employment to Paithani sarees, Mahendargi choli khans, etc. As thishandloom weavers not covered by the cooperative industry is totally decentralised, efforts have beensector, by supplying raw materials and procuring the made to assemble artisans under a cooperative foldfabrics produced by the weavers after paying themconversion charges. The corporation, by these so that they can avail themselves of the variousmethods, has tried to generate employment for the schemes of the Central and State Governments inweavers. This indicates that the corporation is a an organised manner.socio-economic organisation. The corporation has Maharashtra is one of the most industrialised13 production centres and 23 depots for selling state in the country today with the basicfabrics produced by the weavers. infrastructure, which can promote development. Private sector artisans and weavers are looked The state is divided into four regions, viz., Konkan,after by Maharashtra State Handloom Corporation Western Maharashtra, Vidarbha and Marathwada(MSHC), Government of Maharashtra Undertaking. with a total population of above ninety six millionThe coordination between the Director of (Census, 2001). The ratio of rural to urbanHandlooms and MSHC is secured by appointment population is approximately 5:3. The total strengthof the Director of Handlooms, Government of of handlooms and powerlooms in Maharashtra isMaharashtra, as Vice-Chairman of the MSHC. The given in Table 9.1.Chairman of Maharashtra State Handloom In view of the changes in the economicCorporation is a non-official political appointment. environment through technological acceleration inThe Managing Director of MSHC is the chief industrialisation and to maintain a balance ofexecutive of the corporation. Both the offices, viz. employment even in rural areas, it is essential to tapDirectorate of Handloom and MSHC are located atNagpur. every possible resource of production, income and employment generation.Maharashtra State Handloom Cooperative Federation Ltd.(MAHATEX), Mumbai The handlooms sector, with an employmentMAHATEX is a marketing organisation. Its main ratio per handloom of 1:3, has great untappedactivity is to procure handloom products from potential to increase income levels as well as tomember-weaver societies and arrange for its sustain employment levels and skills by appropriatemarketing through Retail Sales, Wholesale, and design inputs, technology upgradation, creatingExhibition Sales. value-added fabrics and systematic marketingGovernment of Maharashtra Schemes directed at the elite of society, apart from producingVarious schemes and subsidies are available and low and medium-cost fabrics for the masses. Aorganisations such as Khadi and Village Industries SWOT analysis of the handloom sector given inBoard, Small-Scale Industries Development Table 9.1, underlines the strength, weaknesses,Corporation, Mahila Arthik Vikas Corporation, opportunities, and threats to this sector. Keeping inMahatma Phule Development Corporation and view the intense competition from the powerloom
204 Maharashtra State Development ReportTable 9.1: A SWOT Analysis of Handloom Sector of Maharashtra Strengths Weaknesses • Skill availability • Low yield • Availability of raw material • Not much change in technology and design • Low capital cost / investment • Lack of marketing linkages • Presence of government support • Products of average quality • Work carried out from home • Varied level of artisans • Desire to upgrade • Survival on government subsidies • Supply of short length fabrics to valued clients • Absence of professionalism Opportunities Threats • Exclusive handwoven fabrics have good domestic • Competition from powerloom and machine -made and export market products • Possibility of more value addition • Moving to other occupations • Dovetailing with available government schemes • Competition of similar products from other states • Versatility in changing designs and texture with minimum investment • Product innovation and diversification • Trust and capacity-building Fashion fabrics for middle class and eliteSource: Ramaswamy, V.S. and Namakumari, 2002and mill sector, diversified production of fashion Year 2004 scenario of powerlooms andand high-value products should be stressed upon handlooms is such that number of powerlooms arethrough channels of marketing. State Handloom 29,853 and handlooms are 32,792, both togetherCorporation were created to assist the weavers total number is 62,345, whereas in 2003 the total number of powerlooms were 153,012 andoutside the cooperative fold and to function as a handlooms 44724. The total of powerlooms andbusiness organisation in order to sustain the handlooms together is 197,736 in 2003. There hasindustry by creating better products to suit been a sharp fall in the number of powerlooms andcontemporary market needs and organized handlooms in Maharashtra. Hence, the Tables 9.2marketing. There are various schemes for (a) and (b) indicate declining trends for the sectorsdevelopment, training, social welfare and marketing, in the state.offered by the Government of India (Table 9.3) The Handloom Weavers are Coveredthrough the Government of Maharashtra for the Under Three Basic Segments inbenefit of handloom weavers in the state under the Maharashtraaegis of the State Apex Handloom Cooperative • Private Operators / Master Weavers with captiveSociety, State Handloom Development Corporation looms and weavers who work for them,and Non-Government Organisations (NGOs). • Weavers under cooperative fold, Tables 9.2 (a) and (b) indicate the total number • Handloom Corporation covering the weaversof workers engaged in Powerlooms and Handlooms outside cooperative fold.sector are 192,534 in the year 2003, respectively. Of The cooperative movement was started with thewhich 153,012 are in powerlooms and 44,724 in intention to free individual weavers from thehandlooms. In terms of percentage, powerlooms are clutches of master weavers and middlemen who77.4 per cent and handlooms are 22.6 per cent. consumed the higher proportion of the profit, thus
Handlooms and Handicrafts 205Table 9.2 (a): Production and Employment in Powerloom Sector in Maharashtra Powerloom Sector Year No. of Power No. of Workers Total Consumption of Total Production in Meters Looms Year 2003 (in kgs.) 2003 1,53,012 1,15,059 24,88,3251 272,32,4413 (59.76)* 2004 29,853 - - -Note: *Figures in bracket indicate percentage of total workers 192534 engaged in handloom & powerloom sectors in the year 2003.Source: Director of Handlooms, NagpurTable 9.2 (b): Production and Employment in Handloom Sector in Maharashtra Handloom Sector Year No. of Hand- No. of Workers Total Consumption of Total Production in Meters looms Year 2004 (in kgs.) 2003 44,724 77,475 69,9176 58,97,104 (40.24)* 2004 32,792 - - -Note: *Figures in bracket indicate percentage of total workers 192534 engaged in handloom & powerloom sectors in the year 2003.Source: Director of Handlooms, NagpurTable 9.3: Government of India Schemes for Handloom weaversNo. Name of the Scheme Implementing Agency1 Input Related Scheme Scheme for supply of yarn at Mill Gate Price NHDC2 Development Scheme Deen Dayal Hathkargha Protsahan Yojana State Govt. Agencies3 Welfare Schemes 1. Workshed-cum-Housing Scheme " 2. Thrift Fund Scheme for Handloom Weavers " 3. Group Insurance Scheme for Handloom Weavers " 4. New Insurance Scheme for Handloom Weavers " 5. Health Package Scheme for Handloom Weavers "4 Marketing Schemes 1. Scheme for Marketing of Handloom Products through Exhibitions and Fairs " 2. Scheme for Setting up of Urban Haats " 3. Development of Exportable Products and Marketing Scheme (DEPM) "5 Training Decentralised Training Programme for Handloom Weavers (DTP) WSCSource: Compendium of Handloom, Development Commissioner (Handloom), New Delhireducing the weavers to poverty. The present status markets for the products in the handloom sector byof handlooms weavers, and the existing societies (as private producers, powerloom producers andon March 2004) is given in Table 9.4. foreign producers are distinctively different in terms of quality and customer preferences. Unfortunately, the cooperative system has According to the Director Handloom,suffered because of the intense competition from Powerloom and Textiles, Government ofpower loom and mill sector, except for specialised Maharashtra, Nagpur cloth produced byor value-added products like the Paithani, top padar powerlooms is 25-40 per cent cheaper compared tosarees, tussar sarees and dress materials, wall handloom products. However, in spite of suchhangings and durries, which are uneconomical to competition, handlooms will survive because of theproduce by power looms. This is because the following advantages:
206 Maharashtra State Development ReportTable 9.4: District-wise Weavers and Handloom Co-operative Societies in Maharashtra in 2000 and 2004No. Districts Number of Number of Percentage of Percentage Number Number of Percentage Handloom Handloom Handloom of of Co-Op Co-Op of Societies Weavers Weavers Weavers in Handloom Societies Societies as as on March as on each district in Weavers in as on on March Year 2000 each March 2004 In In 2000 March 2004 District in 2000 2000 2004 Year 20041 Mumbai 451 2303 0.58 1.81 5 8 0.64 1.162 Thane 0 - 0 - - - - -3 Raigadh 0 - 0 - - - - -4 Sindhudurg 65 - .08 - - - - -5 Ratnagiri 0 - 0 - - - - -6 Nashik 1,522 4199 1.96 3.30 7 6 0.90 0.877 Dhule 1,010 277 1.30 0.22 5 3 0.64 0.438 Jalgaon 194 634 0.25 0.50 4 4 0.51 0.589 Ahmednagar 89 1490 0.11 1.15 10 13 1.28 1.8910 Pune 733 86 0.94 0.60 6 1 0.76 0.1511 Satara 474 340 0.61 0.27 1 2 0.12 0.2912 Sangli 848 501 1.09 0.39 4 3 0.51 0.4313 Solapur 15,241 13443 19.67 10.55 175 173 22.40 25.1014 Kolhapur 258 1986 0.33 1.56 70 14 8.96 2.0315 Aurangabad 707 752 0.91 0.55 2 4 2.25 0.5816 Jalna 20 1348 0.03 1.06 - 1 - 0.1517 Parbhani 142 376 0.18 0.29 1 1 0.12 0.1518 Beed 388 563 0.50 0.44 18 15 2.30 2.1719 Nanded 1,309 54725 1.69 43.06 24 23 3.07 3.3320 Osmanabad 585 188 0.76 0.14 1 1 0.12 0.1521 Latur 719 380 0.92 0.30 2 1 0.25 0.1522 Buldhana 48 72 0.06 0.05 1 1 0.12 0.4323 Akola 908 215 1.17 0.17 3 3 0.38 0.7224 Amravati 2,228 1054 2.88 0.82 6 5 0.76 -25 Yavatmal 78 - 0.20 - - - - -26 Wardha 332 544 0.43 0.43 7 4 0.90 -27 Nagpur 40,598 38,935 52.40 30.63 392 386 50.90 56.0228 Bhandara 5,400 1813 7.0 1.42 29 12 3.81 1.7429 Chandrapur 1,124 870 1.45 0.65 5 5 0.64 0.7530 Gadchiroli 2,004 - 2.60 - 3 - 0.38 Total 77,475 12,7094 100 100 781 689 100 100Source: Weavers’ Service Centre, Mumbai, 2004
Handlooms and Handicrafts 207• Handloom cloth is eco-friendly. percentage of Societies is 22.40 per cent in 2000• Handloom has great employment potential. against 25.10 per cent in 2004. Following reasons are identified for• It has immense foreign exchange potential. concentration of handloom weavers and handloom• It has local demand. Co-operatives in Nagpur and Solapur:Product Range • Historical – since time immemorial,• Paithani Saree • Market is well developed at Nagpur & Solapur since time immemorial,• Nagpur Saree • Availability of raw materials and prevalence of• Solapur Top Padar Saree Master Weavers at Nagpur and Solapur is since• Pune Saree time immemorial,• Vidarbha Tussar Saree and Dress Material • Capacity of Master Weavers to hold on in• Solapur Chadar profession at Nagpur and Solapur is extremely• Bed Covers and Towels high,• Furnishings • Absence of above reasons at other districts in• Durries and Carpets Maharashtra might explain the scanty distribution of handloom weavers in other districts of• Wall Hangings Maharashtra. Table 9.4 indicates that the total number of Problems Faced by Handloom CooperativeHandloom Co-operative Societies in Maharashtra in Sector2000 was 781 which declined to 689 in 2004 . • Handloom cooperatives are primary cooperatives Nanded registered an increase in total number affiliated with the Assistant Registrar ofof weavers in 2004 to 54,725 against 1309 total Cooperative Societies and Deputy Registrar ofnumber of weaver in 2000. Nanded has 23 Co- Cooperative Societies, which function underoperative Handloom Societies in 2004 as against 24 several constraints and officials, find little time toin the year 2000 and percentage in 2000 was 3.07 devote to the development of the handloomper cent and 3.33 per cent in 2004 in Maharashtra. sector. Nagpur is the highest in terms of number of • Members of handloom cooperatives are illiteratehandloom weavers, which was 40,598 in the year and unable to comprehend the schemes and the2000 and declined to 38,935 in the year 2004. The projects and its benefits; therefore they are notpercentage of weavers was 52.40 per cent in the year able to implement them in letter and spirit in the2000 which declined to 30.63 per cent in the year cooperative sector. There is a need to train2004. Nagpur is the first in Maharashtra State with members of co-operative societies in managinghighest number of Co-operative Handloom them effectively.Societies, 392 Co-operative Societies in the year • Powerloom cloth is much more in demand in the2000 against 386 Co-operative Societies in the year market and is cheaper resulting in accumulated2004 and in terms of concentration of Societies, stocks leading to high inventories (Ref: Write upNagpur is the first in Maharashtra State registering from MAHATEX, Mumbai and Handloom50.90 per cent Co-operative Handloom Societies in Development Corporation, Nagpur).the year 2000 and 56.02 per cent in the year 2004. • Turnover in handloom is less compared to Solapur is having second largest concentration powerloom fabric.of handloom weavers with 15,241 weavers in 2000 Due to heavy inventories and no sales,against 13,443 weavers in 2004 and percentage of cooperative handloom societies are economicallyhandloom weavers was 19.67 per cent in 2000 crippled with no resources to buy raw materials andagainst 10.55 per cent in 2004. Solapur also are consequently unable to offer work to weavers.represents second highest number of Co-operative Even Handloom Co-operatives are facing problemsSocieties in Maharashtra State which was 175 in due to heavy losses. The losses are for the following2000 which declined to 173 in 2004 and the reasons.
208 Maharashtra State Development Report• Slump in the textile industry, leading to low workshops of master craftsmen. The distribution of demand for products of the corporation. handicrafts in Maharashtra is given in Table 9.5.• Corporation has huge inventories. Production in this sector is un-organised,• High rate of interest on the borrowed funds and resulting in the absence of an institutional quality of goods is poor. framework for marketing and support activities.• High cost of production and high establishment Handicrafts in Private or Cooperative cost. Sectors• Lack of professionalism in day-to-day Handicrafts are “skill-specific” and “master functioning. craftsman-specific”; training is imparted onlyCurrent Issues and Concerns of Handloom through master craftsmen and centres run by StateWeavers and Central Government Agencies under various schemes. The key input is a “master-trainer” who is• Lack of consistent work and satisfactory wages. identified as a “master-craftsman,” who is not Children of handloom weavers do not opt for the required to be qualified in terms of school and weaving profession. college degrees but possesses hereditary skills in the• Languishing traditional art, migration of weavers production of handicraft goods. Master-craftsmen to non-craft activities. train artisans. These handicrafts have local and• Lack of trust building, planned training with international markets and export potential. follow-up development, monitoring and support continuity. Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) In the absence of a corporation for the development• Poor infrastructure and support in design, of handicrafts, schemes and subsidies are offered by technology and marketing. the Government, and NGOs are free to take• Low productivity and inconsistent quality. initiatives in the sector. According to the PlanningSection II Commission, Government of India, there were 3000Handicrafts in Maharashtra NGOs in India in 1999. These are charityHandicrafts are perhaps the oldest craft practised organisations registered under the Charities Act,from the times of ancient civilisation since human Trust Act and Societies Act. The wealthy contributebeings started making utility tools. This sector is to charity via NGOs as tax concessions are availableembedded in the socio-economic and cultural milieu to those donating to NGOs. The Government ofof India. Handicrafts are “skill-specific” and “master India and especially the finance department andcraftsmen-specific”. Production of handicrafts is some activists demand accountability andbased on hereditary skills with its roots in caste- transparency in affairs of NGOs. NGOs havebased occupations and is invariably economically created a “Credibility Alliance Rating Agency” sinceand socially vulnerable. Irrespective of raw material NGOs receive tax benefits along with donors toused in the making of an article, these can be avoid collusion between NGOs and donors. Theirclassified into two groups: assessment is expected to be on the basis of benefitsa) Utility articles like utensils, furniture, bags, etc. offered to artisans / beneficiaries. There are several which are an essential part of our daily life. private agencies and IIM management professionalsb) Artifacts or decorative articles, which are used who have entered into NGO activities as foreign by practically every household for decoration. funds are also available for their initiatives. The Handicraft products are made by using the skill lifestyle difference between NGO professionals andof the artisans varying with their ability of material- artisans are glaring one and most of them arehandling capacity without much use of technology engaged in social work / welfare work / charityand is reflected in each piece they create. The quality work with organisational back up in the form ofand quantity of the product also depend on the NGOs. The NGO’s are supposed to create and setcraftsmens ability and acumen. Artisans work up Self Help Groups (SHG) of artisans but thismostly in their homes and at times in small objective has not been met by the NGO’s
Handlooms and Handicrafts 209adequately. Hence, the primary data collected for assigned funds to build “Facilitation Centres”,this project indicated that the formation of Self where artisans could interact with “MasterHelp Groups must be left with the artisans Craftsmen” and provide training to new artisans butthemselves. The data revealed that NGO’s were the NGO’s have failed in this task.Table 9.5: District-wise Distribution of Handicrafts in Maharashtra Name of Craft Craft Pockets Kolhapuri Chappals Kolhapur, Rashiwade, Sangrul, Jath, Malegaon, Bahireshwar, Miraj, Mandre, Maharashtra, Bazar, Bhogaon, Phanhala, Mumbai. Hand Block Printed Textiles Saoner, Sukhlibai, Pune, Aurangabad, Savergaon, Katol, Wardha, Mumbai, Kolhapur, Amalner. Artistic Textiles/ Paithani /sari weaving Paithan, Yeola, Pune, Ahmednagar, Nagpur; Umerd, Bhivapur, Panani, Solapur, Sangli, Aurangabad, Maindargi. Handmade Chindi Durry / Cotton Durries / Nagpur, Kamptee, Pratapgaon, Nandgaon, Chakur, Mumbai, Belapur, Punja Achalpur Akot, Amravati, Peth, Khapa, Kandhar, Pilkhod, Kasoda, Parlhi, Dharangaon, Dhule, Nimgul, Durry. Mhasadi, Varesh, Mahergaon. Silver Jwellery Kolhapur, Hupari, Sangli, Nashik, Rendal, Pattankodoli, Pune, Mumbai, Thane. Imitation Jwellery / Bead Kolhapur, Hupari, Mumbai, Jwellery, Akola, Nagpur, Khamgaon, Amravati, Chandrapur, Buldhana, Chalisgaon, Kaij Aurangabad, Nanded, Thane, Saoner. Silver Artware Kolhapur, Nashik, Pune. Terracotta / Pottery/ Ceramics Nagpur, Bhadravati, Kolhapur, Ajara, Sawantwadi, Pen, Khupire, Raigadh, Pune, Mumbai, Thane, Perth, Chikhali, Mehkar, Shegaon, Khamgaon, Darawah, Kalamb, Yavatmal, Anjangaon, Piroda, Mohadi, Jalna, Aurangabad, Hingoli. Wood Carving & lacqureware Toy Kolhapur, Sawantwadi, Khed, Pune, Pen, Akhot, Ratnagiri, Gadchiroli, Umerd, Nagpur, Vanvas, Bhandara, Jalna, Solapur, Aurangabad, Hingoli, Daulatabad, Resigaon, Tanda, Ahmednagar, Badanpur, Paithani, Parbhani, Patoda, Pathari, Waithan. Brass sheet Work Pune, Kolhapur, Tarapur, Nashik, Mumbai. Copper Artware / Metal ware Pune, Thane, Murbad, Ambarnath, Mumbai, Buldhana Chitaroli, Warora, Chandrapur, Bhamragarh, Kurkheda, Jalgaon, Loni, Mardi, Parali, Tuljapur. Oxidised Silver Artware Kolhapur, Hupari. Bidriware Aurangabad. Lace / Embroidery / Patch Nagpur, Amravati, Kondhani, Hinganghat, Kolhapur, Pune, Satara, Ratnagiri, Sangli, Mumbai, Nashik, Jalgaon, Bead, Kamptee, Ichalkaranji, Aurangabad, Umred, Yerkheda, Andhalgaon, Chandrapur, Pusa-Gondi, Warora, Nandugra, Kerwadi, Chalisgaon, Rohini, Longe, Patna, Bhatpur, Parbhani, Paithan, Dharangaon. Cane & Bamboo Mul Ballarpur, Bhadrava, Nagpur, Karjat, Hinganghat, Wardha, Gadchiroli, Chandrapur, Sangli, Garghoti, Solapur, Ghoti, Jalna, Aurangabad, Hingoli, Nanded, Vaijapur, Kolhapur. Dolls and soft toys Nagpur, Akot, Chandrapur, Amravati, Akola, Kolhapur, Pune, Mumbai, Nashik, Ratnagiri, Aurangabad, Ahmednagar, Parbhani, Yavatmal. Leather Artware Nagpur, Miraj, Mumbai. Paper Mache & Plaster of Paris Nagpur, Akot, Chandrapur, Yavatmal, Amravati, Kolhapur, Pen, Nashik, Ratnagiri, Koregaon, Mumbai, Sawantwadi, Kolegaon, Aurangabad, Kannad, Sillod, Nasirabad, Raver, Wasmat, Nagar, Jalna. Warli Painting / Chitrakathai Ganjad, Pinguli, Aurangabad Paintings / Ajantha Paintings. Lac Bangles Achalpur, Khamgaon, Akola, Aurangabad, Latur, Jalna, Dhule, Pachora. Musical Instruments Miraj, Mumbai, Nashik, Udgir, Sangamaeshwar, Pandharpur, Parbhani, Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, Ranisawargaon, Bhodne. Carpet /Durries Nagpur, Pratapgarh. Cotton Wall Hangings Maindagi, Solapur. Sisal Fiber Ahmednagar, Aurangabad.Source: State Folder (Maharashtra) office of the Development Commissioner, Handicrafts, Mumbai
210 Maharashtra State Development ReportMicro-Credit Financing for Handicrafts beautiful saree or dress, an extra bed cover, anSector additional set of linen or a few more pieces ofNational Bank for Agriculture and Rural handcrafted artefacts to be proudly displayed areDevelopment (NABARD) emerging trends. Today, with extensive mediaNABARD is a national level financial bank with its exposure, the discerning customer is consciousheadquarters at Mumbai, designed to regulate about quality, value for the money spent and buyscredit/financial facilities/subsidies, etc., for the the best affordable product. Unfortunately, in thepromotion and development of agriculture, SSI, handlooms and handicrafts sector, this change hascottage and village industries, handicrafts and other not kept pace with changing times. However, thereallied activities in rural areas. It supervises national are certain traditionally crafted articles, which stilllevel cooperative structures in terms of credit and enjoy public demand having survived the vagaries ofarranges for refinance to cooperative institutes, time because of the beauty and richness fashionedkhadi and village industries and regional rural banks. by exclusive craftsmanship. While working on theseThe chief beneficiaries are the agriculture and non- products, unique selling proposition is that theagriculture sectors. Figure 9.1 presents micro-credit intrinsic aesthetic value is not diluted be it apercentages for two sectors. NABARD also handloom or a handicraft product. All this wouldprovides refinance to institutions for their lending require a carefully worked out Development Plan,activities in rural areas as well as loans to the State promotional activities and a regulated marketingGovernment for the creation of rural infrastructure. environment for buying.Figure 9.1: Micro-credit percentage for agriculture Product Diversification and Developmentand non-agriculture sectors This is a major thrust area because survival of Non handlooms is based on its inherent qualities, Agriculture asthetics and it cannot be produced on power- 16% operated machines. The specific requirement of a quality and fabric can only be delivered by handlooms. The areas of development are specified below: • Developing value-added products as per consumer demand based on continuous market Agriculture surveys conducted periodically. Consumer 84% demand for handloom and handicraft productsSource: Economic Research Publications 2001-2002, NABARD must be separately assessed every year before the Handlooms and Handicrafts sectors come beginning of the year by Governmentunder the non- agriculture sector. Budget allocated Departments concerned and accordingly artisansto the handicrafts sector is 2 per cent, and Khadi plan production. It is necessary to involveand village industries have an allocation of 10 per professional management institutes in marketcent. survey and marketing exercises. Handicrafts artisans are scattered all over the • Production of fashion fabrics by converting themState and Government of India branch offices at into high-value garments. The GovernmentAurangabad, Kolhapur, Nagpur assist in the agencies have to seek coordination betweendevelopment of handicraft sector in Maharashtra. artisans and fashion designers on continuousMSSIDC is not exclusively into handicraft sector. basis. • Diversification of present production ofSection III household linens, furnishings into qualityDevelopment Plan household linen and furnishings. TheWith the changing times, the consumer’s lifestyle Government agencies have to seek coordinationand tastes are undergoing rapid changes. Need-base between artisans and fashion designers onand secondary needs like buying an additional continuous basis.
Handlooms and Handicrafts 211• By bringing continuous change in design and • Deliver the same to the consumer. colour. The Government agencies have to seek • Making a profit for survival and future growth at coordination between artisans and fashion the level of break-even point. designers on continuous basis. • Entrepreneurship training programme for artisans• Improved colour fastness is needed. The are encouraged by the Development Government agencies have to seek coordination Commissioner for Handicrafts, Government of between artisans and fashion designers on India, similar initiative by Maharashtra continuous basis. Government is necessary component of• Revival of traditional sarees, maintaining its Maharashtra Development Plan. richness of workmanship and design. The Development of Showrooms Government agencies have to seek coordination The showroom need not be like departmental stores between artisans and fashion designers on a but it should be a show case where the beauty, value continuous basis. and aesthetics of each unique piece is availableUpgrading Entrepreneurial Skills of under one roof for consumer selection. Setting upArtisans few showrooms with the right assortment of• A massive Training Programme has to be products, ambience and environment at convenient undertaken to develop entrepreneurial skills of location is appropriate for a city of Mumbai as it the artisans so that they are self sufficient in the serves domestics and international clients. profession. Purchasing power of consumer at a place like Mumbai is extremely good, this opportunity could• This is one of the oldest industries in the country be exploited by offering the best of handlooms and and has remained significant in the 21st century. handicrafts of Maharashtra in the right ambience. 21st century development plan is incomplete without the application of latest entrepreneurial Revamping of Corporations into Business and marketing skills. The handloom sector be Organisations given "production priority” and assured market as Most Corporations under the State Government are in the past. running into losses, it is essential to strengthen and• Artisans, government agencies and private revamp them into business organisations manned by initiatives have to pay more attention to the professionals with a clear vision of what to produce, changes to be brought about in the process of where to produce and where to market the production and marketing. Research & products. This requires a strategic planning and Development input should be given top priority. developmental thrust. Marketing is managed by managing quality of The Government Officials from the State production and price is an important factor in Cadres, who are in direct contact with artisans, must consumers’ decision to buy goods. The traditional be well versed to develop awareness and utilisation philosophy that brand name, aesthetics and local of various schemes available for the artisans in the specialisation would bring consumers to them is Handlooms and Handicrafts sector. They must have not valid in 21st century as the tastes and detailed knowledge about nitty-gritty’s of the preferences of consumers have undergone radical scheme. Empowering the artisans is going to changes due to global competition. happen only when the officials are knowledge-• Global competitive environment is based on the based and well-informed. “marketing concept”, which not only begins and One window clearance of the projects ends with the consumer but marketing thrust is submitted by the artisans totally “consumer-oriented” based on four pillars The problems faced by artisans relate to delays in viz. sanction of assistance for their projects under the• Understanding the needs of the target market. various schemes, and therefore, one window• Translating needs into meaningful products and clearance should be setup to overcome such services that fulfil them. problems.
212 Maharashtra State Development ReportCoordination between various Government Foreign Universities, such as Illinois Institute ofDepartments Technology, Chicago and Massachusetts Institute ofThe State Departments involved in the development Technology, Boston, devoted to Research andof artisans are listed below : Development of Technology in Handlooms and Handicrafts Sector. Coordination with such• Maharashtra State Handloom Corporation organisations is necessary. Government of (MSHC), Nagpur, Maharashtra may set up a corpus for undertaking• Maharashtra State Handloom Cooperative the work of coordination with foreign universities Federation Ltd. (MAHATEX), and artisans as UNDP definition of handlooms and• Development Commissioner for Handicrafts, handicrafts accepts technological upgradation. A Government of India, Regional Director, study should be conducted on the state-of-art on Handicrafts, Western Region, these sectors in foreign countries and to have buy-• Maharashtra Small-Scale Industries Development back arrangement for goods produced by Corporation (MSSIDC), Maharashtra artisans. The benefits of export• District Project Officers / Project Officers for promotion council for handicrafts are confined to Tribal Development, private sector agencies and steps should be taken to tap this export potential by the Government• Financial Institutions like Banks, National Bank functionaries. Maharashtra Government should take for Agriculture and Rural Development steps in modifying the pattern of “Kolhapuri (NABARD), Chappal” for export market. “Kolhapuri Chappals”• The Corporations designed for the development need to be more soft and fashionable for export of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, market. A State-level Export Council should be set other Backward Classes, up for handicraft exports e.g. Sawantwadi and other• Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, artisans from Maharashtra.• Department of Textiles, Government of Maharashtra, Utilisation of the Services of Weavers’ Service Centers, Handicrafts Marketing and• Khadi and Village Industries Commissions. Service Extension Centers All the above functionaries have same objective There are two Weavers’ Service Centers underto develop Handlooms and Handicrafts Sector, but Development Commissioner for Handlooms,there is a lack of coordination between them as they Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, infunction as individual entities. They must draw a Maharashtra, one at Mumbai and the other atcomprehensive plan together and implement it so Nagpur, which are equipped to meet thethat results in terms of developments are visible. It requirements of training, product development andis essential that the officials of various departments designs for developing handloom textiles in a moremeet together and work hand-in-hand at village- need-based manner. Similarly, the Office of thelevel, block-level, district-level, divisional-level, Development Commissioner for Handicrafts,state-level and at the level of Government of India Ministry of Textiles, Government of India with its regional office at Mumbai has its marketing andTapping the Export Market services extension centers at Aurangabad, NagpurThe private initiatives in the handlooms and and Kolhapur. Their services can be utilised for thehandicrafts sector are highly successful in tapping development of handicrafts sector in the State as itthe export potentials, but the government is exclusively for that activity.departments have not been successful in tapping theexport market. It is evident that a beginning is made The various schemes for development ofto showcase for the first time handloom and handlooms and handicrafts sectors meant forhandicrafts products in Dubai Exhibition in 2004. improving the living conditions of the artisans, mustSimilar exercises are required to tap export market be tapped in right earnest to make both thesefor the products and artisans. There are some industries sustainable and subsidy-free.
Handlooms and Handicrafts 213Organising Exhibitions and Festivals and Post Liberalisation EffectsPromoting Advertising Private operators in handicrafts are able to exportThe Corporations, Departments and Commissions through Export Promotion Council. Artisans fromtogether must organise exhibitions, festivals etc., Maharashtra should be organised by Governmentpreferably at local, National and International levels Agencies for export purpose.so that the market is available to the products Organised Productionproduced by the artisans of the handlooms andhandicrafts in the State. Handicrafts sector is totally unorganised in Maharashtra and Government agencies should toOrganising Exhibitions in Foreign take care of this sector to convert it into well-Countries organised sector or assign this task to someFrequent exhibitions for handlooms and handicrafts interested management institutes.products by the State must be held in foreign Statistical data and economics related tocountries to tap export market. A beginning is made handlooms and handicrafts are not available for thein this direction by organising a festival in Dubai, State, and therefore, policy and strategy forecast forsimilar initiatives go a long way to tap international the sector are not possible. Continuous, reliable andmarket. authentic data generation is required for Awareness of brands like MAHATEX and development of this sector.Indrayani be enhanced and new brands beintroduced for State of Maharashtra by the Handicraft SectorGovernment Agencies. • This is a need for setting up of a Board for handicrafts Development for Maharashtra.Advertising Campaigns through Net • Artisans cannot handle big orders due to theirSince the professional channels are expensive, the limitations like illiteracy, small size. Hence,cheapest is net advertising. Net Advertising can Management Training Programmes for artisans toreach global market, which must be utilised for the equip them with basic skills need to be organisedbenefit of the sector. A comprehensive web site by the State.development is necessary for this sector. • Co-operative Societies, Self-help Groups inApex Body and Self -help groups Handicrafts should be setup with the help ofThere is need for formation of an apex body and Government agencies.Self-help Groups formed by Artisans. Apex Bodies • Enhancement of micro-credit facility and budgetlike co-optex in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and for the development of this sector is required.Tamil Nadu are necessary for the State ofMaharashtra. • Inadequacy of training inputs and design specialists in handcrafts sector has restricted its Provision of common facility centres at district growth, hence, it is to be rectified.level or convenient places is required as theyprovide interaction and training between Master • Common facility Centers are very few and notCraftsmen and new artisans. effective and they have to be geared up to meet Audit and accounts are not maintained by the the need of employment generation.artisans and the same training be provided by • Ambedkar Hastkala Vikas Scheme 2003 is aGovernment functionaries to them. comprehensive scheme and artisans can benefit Design Specialists are available with the from this, provided awareness and utilisation ofDevelopment Commissioner of Handicrafts. schemes by artisans is ensured by GovernmentSpecialists from Indian Institutes of Technology, agencies.Foreign Universities are also available. Government Field Visits Observationsbodies must provide for collaboration betweenartisans and technologists to give boost to this • The relationship between artisans and officials ofsector. Government agencies is strained and inter- personal
214 Maharashtra State Development Reportrelations among officials are not smooth. This is • Intellectual property rights should be protectedleading to “gaps” and “barriers” in the for artisans viz., Paithani and other products andimplementation of the schemes and procedures. handicrafts artisans where skills are on the verge• Training provided to artisans is restricted to few of extinction. artisans and mass training for employment • Minority Commission’s Report about minorities’ generation is necessary to justify need for earnings indicates that compared to general development of this sector. population in similar activities, Muslims earn less than Christians and Jains. The F.A.O. reportBrands states that SC and ST face worst fate and their• MAHATEX, Indrayani, paithani brands exist in participation in common facility centres is not handloom sector in Maharashtra State, similarly ensured. Therefore, efforts should be made to brands like “Kolhapuri Chappals” are well have common facility centres for SC/ST artisans received in export market besides existing brand and minority artisans. enhancement and there is scope for creation of new brands in handicraft sector. Undertaking Section IV campaigns, exhibitions, festivals fairs etc. have to Conclusion be ensured for development of this sector. Maharashtra, a highly industrialised state in India,• Formation of atleast 150 retail outlets in Mumbai with its rich cultural heritage and natural beauty, to sell all products at one place viz, handlooms boasts traditional age-old handwoven and and handicrafts produced in Maharashtra State is needed. handcrafted articles along with the availability of most advanced technology. Handlooms and• Handloom Textile Zones, at Nagpur, Solapur and Wardha, and Handicraft Zones at Districts/ handicrafts have the potential to provide gainful divisions, having concentration of handicrafts, employment to thousands of weavers and craftsmen should be given priority. with a minimum financial investment. Developing• Government Agencies, Cooperatives, NGO’s and and exploiting these inherent skills in producing artisans operating in this sector lack consumer-oriented merchandise, with design and professionalism and training in communication quality intervention, and marketing in the right and managerial skills etc. and the same be environment, would better sustain this industry. The introduced to them with the help of interested tradition and richness of the handmade textiles and prestigious Management Institutions. handicrafts must survive along with technological• Entrepreneurial skills of the artisans should be advancements in order to bring an economic developed through specially designed balance and maintain job opportunities in rural programmes, on priority basis, involving areas. Mumbai, with about twelve million people, is Management Institutions. itself a big market. It is, therefore, imperative to• Handlooms and handicrafts products should be sustain this industry with careful nurturing and moved from lower-end to upper-end market create an awareness for appreciation of the value of through niche marketing. our traditions in future generations.