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New microsoft power point presentation


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New microsoft power point presentation

  1. 1.  Cournot’s duopoly model  Sweezy’s kinked demand curve model  Price leadership models  Collusive models :The Cartel Arrangement  The Game Theory  Prisoner’s Dilemma
  2. 2. Antoine Augustin Cournot was a French philosopher and mathematician. Antoine Augustin Cournot was born at Gray In 1838 the book Researches on the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth was published, in which he used the application of the formulas and symbols of mathematics in economic analysis
  3. 3. ASSUMPTION  There are two firms each owning an artesian mineral water well.  Both the firms operate their wells at zero marginal cost  Both of them face a demand curve with constant negative slope  Each seller acts on the assumption that his competitor will not react to his decision to change his output and price
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  5. 5. Criticism  Wrong calculation about competitor’s behavior  Zero cost of production
  6. 6.  "Kinked" demand curves and traditional demand curves are similar in that they are both downwardsloping. They are distinguished by a hypothesized concave bend with a discontinuity at the bend - the "kink." Therefore, the first derivative at that point is undefined and leads to a jump discontinuity in the marginal revenue curve.
  7. 7.  Classical economic theory assumes that a profit-maximizing producer with some market power (either due to oligopoly or monopolistic competition) will set marginal costs equal to marginal revenue. This idea can be envisioned graphically by the intersection of an upward-sloping marginal cost curve and a downward-sloping marginal revenue curve (because the more one sells, the lower the price must be, so the less a producer earns per unit). In classical theory, any change in the marginal cost structure (how much it costs to make each additional unit) or the marginal revenue structure (how much people will pay for each additional unit) will be immediately reflected in a new price and/or quantity sold of the item. This result does not occur if a "kink" exists. Because of this jump discontinuity in the marginal revenue curve, marginal costs could change without necessarily changing the price or quantity.
  8. 8.  the kinked demand analysis only suggests why prices remain sticky  Only explain the stability of output and price  Price stability does not stand the test of empirical verification
  9. 9.  The firms in the oligopolistic market are not happy with price competition among themselves. They try various methods to maximize joint profits. Price leadership is one of the means which provides relief to the firms from the strains of price competition.  The firms in the oligopolistic industry (without any formal agreement) accept the price set by the leading firm in the industry and move their prices in line with the prices of the leader firm. The acceptance of price set by the price leader firm maximizes the total profits of each firm in the oligopolistic industry.
  10. 10. The main assumptions of price leadership model under oligopoly are as under. (1) There are two firms A and B in the market. (2) The output produced by the two firms is homogeneous. (3) The firm A being the low cost firm or a dominant firm acts as a leader firm. (4) Both of the firms face the same demand curve (5) Each of the two firms has an equal share in the market. The price and output determination under price leadership
  11. 11. A. Price leadership by low-Cost firm B. Price leadership By a Dominate Firm C. The Barometric leadership Criticism  Problem in pricing and output  Acceptance of small firms
  12. 12.  A cartel is a formal (explicit) "agreement" among competing firms. It is a formal organization of producers and manufacturers that agree to fix prices, marketing, and production.  Cartels usually occur in an oligopolistic industry, where the number of sellers is small (usually because barriers to entry, most notably startup costs, are high) and the products being traded are usually homogeneous. .
  13. 13. Barriers  The number of firms: As the number of firms in an industry increases, it is more difficult to successfully organize.  Cost and demand differences between firms.  Economic recession: An increase in average total cost or a decrease in revenue
  14. 14.  The classical models of strategic action and reaction  The cartel system of price and output determination.  Game theory – a mathematical technique to show oligopoly firms play their games/ The nature of the problem Prisoners dilemma Two person A and B – match fixing- arrested by CBI.  If both confess they ill get 5yr imprisoned  If both denies will be free  If one confesses & turn approver get 2yr and other gets 10 yr
  15. 15. B’s Option Confess Deny A’s OptiOn Deny A B A B 5 Confess 5 2 10 A B A B 10 2 0 0
  16. 16. THANK YOU By Priya