Eicc p161 smart materials for military applications
EICC- P161 1 Smart Materials for Military Application Smart Materials for Military Applications Anupam Tiwari IETE –N Delhi firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract—“Smart Materials” means incorporatingintelligence into materials, so that they behave intelligentlydesired. There are various technologies which are building blockof smart and intelligent systems. Nanotechnology (NT), ArtificialNeural Networks (ANNs), soft computing and ArtificialIntelligence (AI) are components of smart materials. Smart materials have many military applications, likethey enhance existing war machines capabilities andminiaturization of aircraft . Smart combat suit, smart clothsand smart sensors are also few examples which have militaryapplications. In Net-centric warfare scenario “Smart Dust”(Mote) can be used as distributed wireless sensors. Motes as animportant element of sensor network are discussed in this paper. Figure 1: Smart Combat SuitCanopy shield of fighter aircraft can be improved byNanotechnology, which can shield EM Waves. Modernization ofsurvival pack with smart enable items is also suggested. With the advancement of nanotechnology, chemically- protective combat suit can be fabricated which shield soldiers against hazardous chemicals and deadly micro-organisms.Keywords- NT, ANN, CNT, MAV, Dust Mote and AI “Electronic nose” consist of ANNs (Artificial Neural Networks), trained by different chemical agents can detect Smart materials are materials having intrinsic and fumes of chemical weapons and warn soldiers about chemicalextrinsic capabilities. They first respond to stimuli and attack and take suitable precautions.environmental changes and secondly activate their functionsaccording to these changes. The stimuli could originate II. SMART INSECT (MICRO AIR VEHICLES)internally or externally. Smart materials have more properties that can be Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) is a small air vehicle  assignificantly changed by external stimuli such as stress, shown in Figure-3, can be used for intelligence gathering. Antemperature pH, electric or magnetic fields. Few examples of MAV has generally been defined as having a span of less thansmart materials like, Shape memory alloys, Piezoelectric 6 inches, and a mass of less than 100 grams. They are so smallmaterials, Electro-rheostatic materials, Magneto- in length and penetrate anywhere without detection. MAVsrheostatic materials, Smart Gels, Sensitive can be deployed at combat zone to monitor troop’s movement,polymers (temperature-responsive polymer), Micro air NBC threats and battle damage assessment.vehicles (MAVs) and Smart Dust. Nano Air Vehicles (NAVs) aims at an extremely small (less than 7.5 cm wing span); ultra-lightweight (less than 10 I. S MART COMBAT SUIT grams) air vehicle system, designed for indoor, outdoor urbanA. Body Armor and military missions. NAVs/ MAVs are impossible to spot due to their small size, which makes them perfect for military NT enhances capability of combat suit. Carbon Nano applications.Tube (CNT) has very high tensile strength (11000-63000 MPa) as compared to steel which has only 860 M Pa. It is lightand strong so it’s ideal for body armor.B. Nuclear Biological and Chemical (NBC) detector NBC threat can be monitor by NT enable sensors, theychange colour indications, and detect NBC threat. Wearableelectronics fitted on combat suit can communicate with Net-centric communication room. Troops get updates from PDA(Personal Digital Assistant) or wearable computers for better Figure 3: MAV/NAVsituational awareness and react as per war scenario. “National Conference on Emerging Trends in Intelligent Computing and Communication (EICC-2012)”, on April 13-14, 2012 at Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology, Greater Noida, U. P.
EICC- P161 2 Smart Materials for Military Application III. SMART CLOTHS environment, which can be used in a various applications. Main purpose is to collect and relay information (up to 1 Km) “Smart cloths” are combination of mobile where base station is installed. Dust motes use wirelessmultimedia, wireless communication and wearable computing communication to relay information to a base station over. They offer potential to make personal computers even distances of 10 m to1000 m.more personal. Soldiers can wear a T-shirt (Figure-4) made ofspecial tactile material which can detect variety of signals A dust mote is an autonomous node incorporating sensor,from the human body, such as detection wounds. The T-shirt computing, communications and power source in an mm3 volume. Basic mote consists of a microcontroller with sensorsfunctions like a computer, with optical and conductive fibres and communication unit. The communication unit consists ofintegrated into the garment. It can monitor the vital signs such RF transceiver, a laser module, and a corner cubeas heart rate and breathing of the wearers like security and reflector. Devices can have sensors to monitor temperature,military personnel . It can then generate signal which light, humidity, pressure, 3 axis magnetometers, and 3 axisindicates nature of injury, analyze their extent, decide on the accelerometers.urgency to react, and even takes some action to stabilize theinjury. A collection of dust motes are dispersed in area to monitor. Figure 2: Mote Motes create a wireless network. They are dispersed by UAV across a battle space, like (food packets) yielding real- time information about enemy or troops movements, remote metrological observations and tactical environment , . They use wireless peer-to-peer communication to form a self- organized network. Multi-hop routing algorithms based on dynamic network and resource discovery protocol is used for communicating from remote mote to base station. Motes have less computational ability so they use symmetric cryptography for secure communication. Steps for secure key loading are as follows:- Figure 4: Smart T-Shirt Initial loading of keys in all motes before deployment. Each node bootstraps itself by broadcasting an initial IV. S MART DUST (MOTE) key in the clear. Nodes then exchange keys and build up trust It is a nano-structured silicon senor which can structures as they do network and resource discovery.spontaneously assemble, orient sense and report on their local Table-1, summarise protocols, OS, hardware and management protocols in typical mote communication . “National Conference on Emerging Trends in Intelligent Computing and Communication (EICC-2012)”, on April 13-14, 2012 at Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology, Greater Noida, U. P.
EICC- P161 3 Smart Materials for Military Application TABLE-1 PROTOCOLS, MANAGEMENT , HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE OF MOTE COMMUNICATION. Error code correction Reed-Solomon ECC is one of the best. Reliable Datagram It allows base stations to Figure 5 Protocol (RDP) communicate with motes reliably.Security(cryptography) Symmetrical keys. Figure-5 shows sensor networks layers. Physical, data link, Operating System(OS) Tiny OS in this processor, which network, transport and application layer stack with power, task and has 3500 bytes OS code space and mobility management planes. Management planes is implemented with software and hardware. 4500 bytes available code space. Mobility support to Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) Motes protocol allows motes to register with any V. SMART MATERIALS AIR FORCE APPLICATION base station in the world. Typical Hardware of 8535 micro-controller with 8 KB A. Shielding of EM Wave mote instruction flash memory, 512 bytes RAM and 512 bytes EEPROM. Electromagnetic (EM) discharge shielding is required in Processor, 3 KB RAM One week the cockpit of fighter plane for avoiding interference with fully active, 2 year @1 % duty electronic systems and also adverse effect on health of pilot. cycle and power source. Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) coating on cockpit cover is good for EM shielding and electrostatic discharge.Power management plane This plane manages power management of sensor node. The sensor node may turn off its B. Servival Kit receiver after receiving a message from one of its neighbours. It Survival kit is an essential part of ejection seat in fighter avoids duplicated messages. Also, plane. It carries essential items for survival of a pilot in when low power level then the military aircraft in case of ejection. It contains items like sensor node broadcasts to its (knife, water purifier tablets, high calories food, and pistol). neighbours that it is low in power & It is proposed to modernize the contents of kit with can’t participate in routing following:-, messages. Remaining power is reserved for sensing, Figure -5. Nano enabled high calories eatables, Nano bandage, Nano medicine (nano-bio fusion), Nano water Mobility management This plane detects and registers the purifier, and nano-sensor (as RFID tag) war tag Plane movement of sensor nodes, so a which will carry his service number and religion. route back to the user is always PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) which will maintained, and the sensor nodes communicate with Net centric warfare control room. can keep track of who are their Pistol, knife and high quality touch with NT enable neighbour sensor nodes. By light weight battery. knowing who the neighbour sensor nodes are, the sensor nodes can balance their power and task usage (Figure -5). VI. HEALTH AND ENVIORNMENTAL ISSUESTask management plane This plane balances and schedules NT and Smart materials, health hazards and the sensing tasks given to a specific environmental issues still need research. These materials are region, Figure -5. non disposable, so it also adversely effects environment. Pollution issues, ingress of these materials inside human Application layer Sensor management protocol body via mouth or skin. Disposal and health hazards of these protocol (SMP), task assignment and data smart materials need extensive studies. advertisement protocol (TADAP), and sensor query and data dissemination protocol (SQDDP) “National Conference on Emerging Trends in Intelligent Computing and Communication (EICC-2012)”, on April 13-14, 2012 at Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology, Greater Noida, U. P.
EICC- P161 4 Smart Materials for Military Application  Joel M. Grasmeyer and Matthew T. Keennon, Development of the Black Widow Micro Air Vehicle. American Institute of VII. CONCLUSION Aeronautics and Astronautics  McMichael, J.M., and Francis, M.S., Micro Air Vehicles – In the paper applications of smart materials in Toward a New Dimension in Flight, DARPA, USA, 1997.military field are discussed. Smart materials are intelligent.  Steve Mann, communications of the ACM., AugustNT, AI and soft computing are most important components of 1996/Vol. 39, No. 8.“Smart materials”. MAVs/NAVs will be use as sensors for warfare.  0. Sahin, 0. Kayacan, E. Yazgan Bulgun , Smart Textiles for Soldier of the Future Defence Science Journal, Vol. 55, No. 2,Smart combat suits and smart cloths enhance solider April 2005, pp. 195-205 O 2005, DESIDOCcapabilities and improve situational awareness. “Motes” aresmart sensors which can be used as wireless distributed  Brett Warneke, Sunil Bhave, Smart Dust Mote Coresensors network for military communication. Architecture Smart materials are designed to reduce weight,eliminate sound, reflect more light, strength and handle more  Ross Anderson, Haowen Chan and Adrian Perrig, Keyheat. Smart structures and systems enhance quality of life of a Infection: Smart Trust for Smart Dust. CS252, Spring 2000: Projectsoldier. Report Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, 497 Cory Hall, In future, development of the high- tech textiles, Berkeley CA 94720.battle uniform can be hardened into an instant shield with the  I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E.push of a button. There can be chameleon-like battle suits that Cayirc, Wireless sensor networks: a survey, Computer Networks 38can change their colour depending on the surroundings and (2002) 393–422.camouflage. If a combat soldier is hit in the leg, sensors relayinformation about his injury and location to the fieldheadquarters. Sensors inform the field headquarters about the IX. ABOUT THE AUTHORsoldier who is the closest to the wounded soldier; new ordersand the targets position appear on the rescuers head-updisplay for better situational awareness. MAVs/ NAVs will be extensive sensors in warscenario for unmanned and undetected missions. Smart Dustas an autonomous sensor will be the important of wirelessdistributed network. Deployment of motes, communication security, protocolsand management of motes are open research areas. ExtensiveR&D is required to study the side effect of Smart Materialsand NT products. Anupam Tiwari is Member of IETE New Delhi. He has received B.E (Electrical), M Sc (Disaster Mitigation), IETE (E&TC) and M.Tech (Modeling & Simulation) in Applied Mathematics from DIAT – DU Pune. His main interest includes Mathematical Modeling and simulation, Fractals, Radar and Communication, Antenna and Networks. VIII. REFERENCE Georges Akhras, Canadian Military Journal, page 25-31 GAutumn 2000 “National Conference on Emerging Trends in Intelligent Computing and Communication (EICC-2012)”, on April 13-14, 2012 at Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology, Greater Noida, U. P.