Human Body System-Pharmaceutical Sales


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Basics of Human Body System for Fresher looking for Medical Representative job, Pharma Manager & Teacher.

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Human Body System-Pharmaceutical Sales

  1. 1. The Human Body : An Orientation
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  3. 3. Definitions • Anatomy - The study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another. • Physiology - The study of the function of living organisms.
  4. 4. Topics of Anatomy • Gross Anatomy • The study of large body structures visible to the naked eye • Regional Anatomy • The study of all structures (blood vessels, nerves, muscles) located in a particular region of the body • Systemic Anatomy • The gross anatomy of the body studied system by system
  5. 5. Hierarchy of Structural Organization • Chemical • Cellular • Tissue • Organ • Organ System • Organism
  6. 6. Structural Organization • Chemical Level • At the chemical level atoms combine to form small molecules (CO2 and H2O) and larger macro molecules
  7. 7. Structural Organization • Chemical level • Macromolecules of four classes are found in the body • These macro molecules include carbohydrates (sugars), lipids (fats), proteins and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
  8. 8. Structural Organization • Cellular Level • The cell is the basic biological unit of all organisms. • Cells are the smallest unit that can replicate inde pendently, and are often called the "building blocks of life”
  9. 9. Structural Organization • Tissue Level • Consists of groups of similar cells that have a characteristic function: • Epithelial • Connective • Muscle • Nervous
  10. 10. Structural Organization • Organ Level • A structure composed of at least two tissue types that performs a specific physiological process or function
  11. 11. Structural Organization • Organ System Level • Organs that cooperate with one another to perform a common function • Digestive system is illustrated
  12. 12. The Human Body Systems Work Together
  13. 13. The Human Body Systems Of Our Interest • The Nervous System • The Respiratory System • The Digestive System • The Circulatory System • The Excretory System
  14. 14. The Nervous System The main parts of the Nervous System are the Brain, the Nerves, and the Spinal Cord.
  15. 15. The Brain • Inside our head is the brain. It controls how our bodies work and is protected by the a thick bone called the skull. • The brain makes sure our hearts keep beating and our lungs keep working without us having to think about it. • Part of the brain makes our muscles work. • The different parts of the brain makes us think, see, hear, feel and taste.
  16. 16. The Spinal Cord • We all have a backbone, called spine. • Inside it, there is a spinal cord. • The spinal cord joins the brain at the top of our neck. • Its main function is to serve as a pathway for the messages from the nerves to travel to the brain and back so we know what we are seeing, touching, hearing, and tasting, and if something hurts or feels. • The human spinal cord is protected by the bony spinal column. • The spinal column is made up of bones called vertebrae.
  17. 17. Nerves • All through our body there are nerves which connect to the spinal cord. • Messages from the nerves travel to the spinal cord, which sends them to the brain. • The brain works out what the messages are so we know what we are seeing, touching, hearing, and tasting, and if something hurts or feels.
  18. 18. The Respiratory System The Respiratory System is what controls breathing.
  19. 19. Function of the Respiratory System • The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. • It brings in the oxygen your body needs and gets rid of the carbon dioxide that is left over • The main parts of the Respiratory System are the Nose, Mouth, Lungs, Trachea, Diaphragm.
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  21. 21. How the Human Respiratory System Works • The Respiratory System helps us breathe. • When the human body breathes air, it gets sucked through the nostrils or the mouth. • Then it goes through the trachea (wind pipe). • The trachea divides into tubes called bronchi which carry the air on to each lung. • The diaphragm pulls the oxygen down to the bronchi and into the lungs.
  22. 22. Moving air in and out • During inspiration (inhalation), the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract. • During exhalation, these muscles relax. The diaphragm domes upwards.
  23. 23. The Digestive System The Digestive system ingests, digests & absorbs nutrients for use by all body cells.
  24. 24. THE G.I. TRACT
  25. 25. First Organs of the Digestive Tract • The mouth and teeth are the first organs of the digestive tract. • The teeth are bones whose main purpose is to grind food into bits that the body can digest. • Saliva helps begin to break down food.
  26. 26. The Esophagus • The esophagus runs from the pharynx to the stomach. • The esophagus is about 25 cm ( 10 inches) long. • The esophagus is really a large muscle which pushes food down to the stomach. The Stomach • The stomach is a J- shaped muscle. • The stomach acts as a churn. • Chemical breakdown of food begins in the stomach.
  27. 27. The Small Intestine • The small intestine is the main organ of the of the gastrointestinal tract. • The small intestine absorbs processed food into the bloodstream to deliver to the cells. The unabsorbed food then passes to the large intestine.
  28. 28. The Large Intestine • The large intestine is about 5 feet long. • The main job of the large intestine is absorb water and to get rid of unwanted materials.
  29. 29. The Cardiovascular System Responsible for transporting oxygen & nutrients throughout the body, the CVS system is powered by the body’s hardest-working organ — the heart.
  30. 30. The Components • A closed system of the Heart and blood vessels • The heart pumps blood • Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body • The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove carbon dioxide and other waste products
  31. 31. The Heart : Anatomy • Approximately the size of your fist • Location • Superior surface of diaphragm • Left of the midline • Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum
  32. 32. The Heart: Coverings • Pericardium – a double serous membrane • Visceral pericardium • Next to heart • Parietal pericardium • Outside layer • Serous fluid fills the space between the layers of pericardium
  33. 33. The Heart: Chambers • Right and left side act as separate pumps. • Four chambers • Atria • Receiving chambers • Right atrium • Left atrium • Ventricles • Discharging chambers • Right ventricle • Left ventricle
  34. 34. • Circulation – In the loop, the blood circulates to and from the lungs, to release the carbon dioxide and pick up new oxygen. It is pumping of blood through the entire body by the heart. • TYPES- • Coronary circulation – the circulation of blood within the heart. • Pulmonary circulation – the flow of blood between the heart and lungs. • Systemic circulation – the flow of blood between the heart and the cells of the body. Circulation
  35. 35. The Heart: Valves • Allows blood to flow in only one direction. • Four valves- • Atrioventricular valves – between atria and ventricles • Bicuspid valve (left) • Tricuspid valve (right) • Semilunar valves - between ventricle and artery • Pulmonary semilunar valve • Aortic semilunar valve
  36. 36. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart and Lungs • Right atrium  tricuspid valve  right ventricle • Right ventricle  pulmonary semilunar valve  pulmonary arteries  lungs • Lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium • Left atrium  bicuspid valve  left ventricle • Left ventricle  aortic semilunar valve  aorta • Aorta  systemic circulation
  37. 37. The Excretory System The excretory system is the system of an organism which is responsible for the elimination of wastes produced by homeostasis.
  38. 38. THE SYSTEM • The excretory system helps to remove body waste safely. • The kidneys act like filters.
  39. 39. Components • The kidneys regulate the amount of water, salts and other substances in the blood. The kidneys are fist-sized, bean shaped structures that remove urine and excess salts from the blood. • The ureters are tubes that carry urine from the pelvis of the kidneys to the urinary bladder. • The urinary bladder temporarily stores urine until it is released from the body. • The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. The outer end of the urethra is controlled by a circular muscle called a sphincter.
  40. 40. KIDNEYS • The two kidneys are located near the spine in the middle of the back. • They are protected by lower ribs and covered by layers of fat. • Without the kidneys, it would not take long before the body’s system would be poisoned by its own waste. • It is possible to function with only one kidney.
  41. 41. How Kidneys Work
  42. 42. NEPHRONS
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