Physiological Changes Of
Presented by: Anuradha Yanamala
o Loss of pigment in hair and skin.
o Increased nail thickness an decreased nail growth.
o Thinning of the epidermis.
o Easy brushing and tearing of the skin.
o Reduction in blood flow to the skin.
o Decreased skin turgor.
o Loss of elasticity and subcutaneous fat.
o Wrinkling of the skin.
o Dry, itchy cracked skin.
o Inadequate sweating.
o Seborrheic dermatitis and keratosis formation.
o Changes in mental status.
o Slowed reflexes.
o Loss of balance.
o Dizziness and syncope.
o Slight tremors.
o Difficulty with fine motor movement.
o Changes in sleep patterns, such as decreased total sleep with
o Increased susceptibility to hypothermia and hyperthermia.
o Posture and stature changes causing a decrease in height.
o Kyphosis of the dorsal spine.
o Muscle mass decreases and muscles atrophy.
o Joint capsule components deteriorate.
o Decreased mobility, range of motion, flexibility and stability.
o Increased stiffness.
o Decrease in physical strength.
o Decrease in muscular coordination.
o Change of gait, with shortened step and wider base.
o Increased brittleness of the bones.
o Decrease in deep tendon reflexes.
o Energy and endurance diminish.
o Lowered tolerance to exercise.
o Decreased stretch and compliance of the chest wall.
o Decreased rib mobility and lung tone.
o Decreased strength and function of respiratory muscles.
o Decreased depth of respirations and oxygen intake.
o Decreased ability to cough and expectorate sputum.
o Decreased size and number of alveoli.
o Decreased compliance of the heart muscle.
o Heart valves become thicker and more rigid.
o Decreased efficiency of blood return to the heart and
decreased cardiac output.
o Decreased resting heart rate.
o Increased blood pressure.
o Susceptible to postural hypotension.
Hematological & immune
o Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remain within normal
range but average toward the low end of normal.
o Lymphocyte counts tend to be low.
o Decreased resistance to infection and disease.
o Prone to increased blood clotting.
o Decreased appetite, thirst, and oral intake.
o Decreased need for calories.
o Digestive disturbances.
o Decreased stomach emptying time.
o Increased tendency towards constipation.
o Tooth loss.
o Difficulty in chewing and swallowing food.
o Decreased absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and
o Decreased lean body weight.
o Decreased secretion of hormones, with specific changes
related to each hormone function.
o Decreased metabolic rate.
o Decreased glucose tolerance.
o Resistance to insulin in peripheral tissues.
o Decreased kidney size, function and ability to concentrate
o Decreased glomerular filtration rate.
o Decreased capacity of the bladder.
o Increased residual urine and increased incidence of infection
o Impaired medical excretion.
o Decreased testosterone production and decreased size of
o Changes in the prostate, leading to urinary problems.
o Decreased secretion of hormones with the cessation of
o Vaginal changes, including decreased muscle tone and
o Decreased visual acuity.
o Decreased accommodation in eyes.
o Decreased peripheral vision and increased sensitivity to glare.
o Increased adjustment time to changes in light.
o Presbyopia and cataract formation.
o Possible loss of hearing ability.
o Inability to discern taste of food.
o Decreased smell acuity.
o Changes in touch.
o Decreased pain awareness.
o Adjustment to retirement and loss of income .
o Changes in role function.
o Coping with change and new life situations.
o Changes in social life.
o Diminished quantity and quality of relationships.
o Coping with loss.
o Adjustment to potential deterioration in physical and mental
health and well being.
o Threat to independent functioning.
o Loss of skills and competencies developed early in life.