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Physiological changes of aging


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Physiological changes of aging

  1. 1. Physiological Changes Of Aging Presented by: Anuradha Yanamala
  2. 2. Integumentary System o Loss of pigment in hair and skin. o Increased nail thickness an decreased nail growth. o Thinning of the epidermis. o Easy brushing and tearing of the skin. o Reduction in blood flow to the skin. o Decreased skin turgor. o Loss of elasticity and subcutaneous fat. o Wrinkling of the skin. o Dry, itchy cracked skin. o Inadequate sweating. o Seborrheic dermatitis and keratosis formation.
  3. 3. o Changes in mental status. o Slowed reflexes. o Loss of balance. o Dizziness and syncope. o Slight tremors. o Difficulty with fine motor movement. o Changes in sleep patterns, such as decreased total sleep with earlier risings. o Increased susceptibility to hypothermia and hyperthermia. Neurological System
  4. 4. Musculoskeletal System o Posture and stature changes causing a decrease in height. o Kyphosis of the dorsal spine. o Muscle mass decreases and muscles atrophy. o Joint capsule components deteriorate. o Decreased mobility, range of motion, flexibility and stability. o Increased stiffness. o Decrease in physical strength. o Decrease in muscular coordination. o Change of gait, with shortened step and wider base. o Increased brittleness of the bones. o Decrease in deep tendon reflexes.
  5. 5. Cardiopulmonary System o Energy and endurance diminish. o Lowered tolerance to exercise. o Decreased stretch and compliance of the chest wall. o Decreased rib mobility and lung tone. o Decreased strength and function of respiratory muscles. o Decreased depth of respirations and oxygen intake. o Decreased ability to cough and expectorate sputum.
  6. 6. o Decreased size and number of alveoli. o Decreased compliance of the heart muscle. o Heart valves become thicker and more rigid. o Decreased efficiency of blood return to the heart and decreased cardiac output. o Decreased resting heart rate. o Increased blood pressure. o Susceptible to postural hypotension.
  7. 7. Hematological & immune System o Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remain within normal range but average toward the low end of normal. o Lymphocyte counts tend to be low. o Decreased resistance to infection and disease. o Prone to increased blood clotting.
  8. 8. Gastrointestinal System o Decreased appetite, thirst, and oral intake. o Decreased need for calories. o Digestive disturbances. o Decreased stomach emptying time. o Increased tendency towards constipation. o Tooth loss. o Difficulty in chewing and swallowing food. o Decreased absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins. o Decreased lean body weight.
  9. 9. Endocrine System o Decreased secretion of hormones, with specific changes related to each hormone function. o Decreased metabolic rate. o Decreased glucose tolerance. o Resistance to insulin in peripheral tissues.
  10. 10. Renal System o Decreased kidney size, function and ability to concentrate urine. o Decreased glomerular filtration rate. o Decreased capacity of the bladder. o Increased residual urine and increased incidence of infection and incontinence. o Impaired medical excretion.
  11. 11. Reproductive System o Decreased testosterone production and decreased size of testes. o Changes in the prostate, leading to urinary problems. o Decreased secretion of hormones with the cessation of menses. o Vaginal changes, including decreased muscle tone and lubrication.
  12. 12. Special Senses o Decreased visual acuity. o Decreased accommodation in eyes. o Decreased peripheral vision and increased sensitivity to glare. o Increased adjustment time to changes in light. o Presbyopia and cataract formation. o Possible loss of hearing ability. o Inability to discern taste of food. o Decreased smell acuity. o Changes in touch. o Decreased pain awareness.
  13. 13. Psychosocial Changes Of Aging
  14. 14. o Adjustment to retirement and loss of income . o Changes in role function. o Coping with change and new life situations. o Changes in social life. o Diminished quantity and quality of relationships. o Coping with loss. o Adjustment to potential deterioration in physical and mental health and well being. o Threat to independent functioning. o Loss of skills and competencies developed early in life.