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Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book<br />By: Antonio Capozzi<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />3. Presente -ar –er –ir<br />4. Stem Changers <br />5. Irregulars –go –zco –yo<br />6. Saber vsconocer<br />7. Reflexives<br />8. ‘se’ impersonal<br />Dipthongs<br /> Verbs like…Uir/guir<br /> Verbs like…Cer/cir<br /> Verbs like…Ger/gir<br />Hace +__+ que + present/presentente<br />Imperfecto<br />
  3. 3. Ar, Er, Ir<br />Los verbos regulares en el presente<br />Ir-<br />o imos<br />es en<br />e<br />Ar-<br />o amos<br />as an<br />a<br />Er-<br />o emos<br />Es en<br />e<br />Caminar-<br />Camino Caminamos<br />Caminas Caminan<br />Camina<br />Vivir-<br />Vivo Vivimos<br />Vives Viven<br />Vive<br />Comer-<br />Como Comemos<br />Comes Comen<br />Come<br />
  4. 4. Stem Changers aka Boot verbs<br />The verbs change in the root<br />They do not change in the nosotros form or the vosotros<br />E  ie<br />O ue<br />U ue<br />Pensar-<br />Penso<br />Pienso<br />Yonosotros<br />Túvosotros<br />El/ella/utd Ellos/Ellas/Utds<br />
  5. 5. Irregulars -go -zco -yo<br />The “go” “zco” verbs are only in the irregulars in the yo form<br />“go” verbs- caer, decir, oir, puner, hacer, tener, traer, venir<br />“zco” verbs (cer/cir)- conocer, producir, conducir<br />y los demás – ser, ir, estar, ver,<br /> saber, dar<br />Yo – Tengo<br />Yo – Hago<br />Yo - Vengo<br />Yo - Conozco <br />Yo - Produzco<br />Yo - Conduzco<br />Ser- Ir-<br />Soy Somos Voy Vamos<br />Eres Son Vas Van<br />Es Va<br />
  6. 6. Saber Vs Conocer<br />Both saber y conocer translate to the English verb to know<br />Both “yo” forms are irregular<br />Saber – <br />Sé sabemos<br />Sabes saben<br />Sabe<br />Conocer- <br />Conozco conocemos<br />Conoces Conocen<br />Conoce<br />
  7. 7. Reflexives<br />Brenda se lava- se is reflexive<br />Reflexives also can be added on the end of an infinitive. Such as…- Puedo verme en el espejo<br />
  8. 8. ‘se impersonal<br />pronoun ”se” is in front of verbs to make general statements.<br />¿cómo se dice man en español?<br />In English it translates to either “you say” or “one says.”<br />
  9. 9. Dipthongs w/accents<br />Dipthongs are the strong or weak vowels in a word next to each other.<br />Strong vowel sounds are a,e,o.<br />Weak vowel sounds are i,u,y.<br />puerto, ciudad, siete, hay.<br />*two strong vowels cannot be in the same syllable <br />
  10. 10. Verbs like…Uir/Guir<br />
  11. 11. Verbs like…Cer/cir<br />Verbs that end in a vowel + cer or cir add z before the c in the yo form only. <br />Verbs that end in a consonant + cer or cir change the c to z in the yo form only. <br />conducir = conduzco<br />ejercer = ejerzo<br />
  12. 12. Verbs like…Ger/gir<br />Verbs that end in ger and gir change the g to j in the yo form only.<br />coger = cojo<br />fingir = finjo<br />
  13. 13. Hace +__+ que + Present/Presentente<br />The yo form is the only irregular<br />Hago, haces, hace, hacemos, hacen<br />
  14. 14. Imperfecto<br />The imperfect tense is used to refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly. <br />Yo caminaba todo los días. <br />Ser-<br />eraeraseraéramoseran <br />Ver-<br />veíaveíasveíaveíamosveían <br />Er/Ir-<br />íaíasíaíamosían <br />Ar-<br />abaabasabaábamosaban <br />Ir-<br />ibaibasibaíbamosiban <br />