Knowledge creation in innovation processes


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A presentation of knowledge creation issue based on epistemology and conceptual spaces. Reference to Goodman, Gärdenfors, Hautamäki, Kaipainen

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Knowledge creation in innovation processes

  1. 1. Knowledge creation as a core of innovation processes EJC2010 Conference Jyväskylä 31.5.-4.6.2010 Antti Hautamäki Research professor Agora Center University of Jyväskylä
  2. 2. The characters of innovation •  Innovation is introducing something new and useful. •  It is –  process: idea -> invention -> implementation -> impact –  recombination of existing assets –  emerging of new ideas in thinking –  social thinking and communication –  answering questions –  knowledge creation
  3. 3. Different concepts of knowledge creation •  Correspondence theory: knowledge is an adequate description (reflection) of reality •  Kantianismi: knowledge emerges by applying categories to experience •  Perspectivism: a conceptual framework carves a part of reality or defines a viewpoint to reality •  World creation: we create worlds by different media (verbal, visual, musical, gestural).
  4. 4. Kant •  Distinction between a noumenal and a phenomenal world •  The noumenal world exists but cannot be grasped directly by human thought •  The phenomenal world is grasped by our senses mediating through conceptual schemas or categorial frameworks •  Categories are universal, necessary preconditions of thought
  5. 5. Perspectivism •  F.Nietzsche: –  Rejection of the distinction between the noumenal and phenomenal world –  We can construct the world in different ways –  All description of the reality are made from a certain perspective •  Scheme-content dualism and conceptual relativism •  Conceptual schemes are –  A) the principle for organizing the elements of our experience in different ways –  B) sets of basic beliefs we have about the world
  6. 6. Worldmaking (N. Goodman) •  We are constructing worlds by our symbolic systems (words, pictures, sounds) •  There is no true version of the world (the “reality”) •  Worlds are made from other worlds by –  Composition and decomposition –  Weighting –  Ordering –  Deletion and supplementation –  Deformations •  “If worlds are as much made as founded, so also knowing is as much remaking as reporting” (N.Goodman, Ways of worldmaking, 1978, p. 22)
  7. 7. Two issues of knowledge creation •  Concept formation – Similarities – Abstractions – Definitions •  Combining complementary knowledge – Identifying perspectives – Merging perspectives into synthesis – Learning new things – Finding solutions to problems
  8. 8. Concept formation •  A conceptual space approach (Hautamäki 1986, Gärdenfors 2000) •  A conceptual space (CS) is XDI where •  I is a set of determinables (attributes) •  Di is a set of determinates (values) for each i in I •  XDI is a Cartesian product of sets Di •  An example I = {color, form, length,…} color = {red, blue, yellow,…} form = {round, ellipse,…} … •  Concepts are subsets of conceptual space
  9. 9. Illustration X “Apple” An entity in the topic Conceptual space “Apple” • Form: round, • Color: green, red,… • Weight: 20-60 G • …. A representation of the entity in CP Form: round Color: green …
  10. 10. Perspectives •  Hautamäki 1986 –  A perspective P (or viewpoint) is a selection of determinables: –  P is a subset of I –  Say P = {color } –  P defines a strict subspace XDI/P of XDI •  Hautamäki, Kaipainen (forthcoming) –  A perspective P gives weights to determinables –  P = {w1, w2,…} where wi is in [0,1] –  P defines a “fuzzy” subspace of XDI •  Two Implications: –  different perspectives can be compared –  identity is relative to a perspective P: X =P Y
  11. 11. Two layered perspectivism World Topic A conceptual space XDI Subspace 1. Selection of I and Di’s (ontological perspective) 2. Selection of relevant set of determinables (epistemic perspectives) Subspaces relative to P
  12. 12. Knowledge of an agent •  Knowledge is relative to conceptual spaces and perspectives •  Let XDI be a conceptual space and P a perspective adopted by an agent A •  A uses the concepts definable in the subspace XDI/P to express his/her beliefs about a topic T •  Therefore XDI/P is the cognitive DNA of A about T
  13. 13. Complementary knowledge •  Let we have two agents A and B with cognitive DNA based on the same CS but different perspectives PA and PB •  The notion of complementary knowledge can be defined in many ways •  The one used in Hautamäki 1986 is that knowledge of agents A and B is “complementary” if PA and PB are overlapping •  Then we can form the synthesis of A’s and B’s knowledge, leading to new knowledge
  14. 14. Different DNA’s, topic computers •  A is a professional in computer technology •  PA includes –  CPU –  Operating system –  Speed (MHz) –  Openness –  Ports … •  B is a designer •  PB includes –  Easiness of use –  Design (color, form) –  Applications –  Support –  WiFi readiness …
  15. 15. Multi-agency innovation process 1.  Searching agents with complementary knowledge (cognitive DNA) 2.  Creating a common language by fixing a joint CS fitting with “subspaces” of agents 3.  Sharing perspectives (persuasion) 4.  Forming a synthesis of perspectives 5.  Creating new knowledge based on the synthesis 6.  Opening new possibilities to solve problems (innovation)
  16. 16. Summary •  Innovation emerges by connecting complementary knowledge •  We can use exact tools from logic and mathematics to represent knowledge •  Conceptual space approach is promising allowing to study the cognitive base of concept formation •  We can compare complementary perspectives and knowledge based on them
  17. 17. Literature •  Goodman N. (1978): Ways of worldmaking. Sussex: Harvester Press. •  Gärdenfors P. (2000): Conceptual Spaces; On the Geometry of Thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. •  Hautamäki A. (1986): Points of view and their logical analysis. Acta Philosophica Fennica, Vol. 41. •  Hautamäki A.:A Conceptual Space Approach to Semantic Networks, Computers & Mathematics with Applications 23 (1992), 6-9, March- May, s. 517-526. •  Kaipainen M. & Hautamäki A.: Epistemic pluralism and multi- perspective knowledge organization, Explorative conceptualization of topical content domains. Knowledge Organization vol. 38 no. 6 2011 (November), 503-514 (2011). •  Kaipainen M., Normak P., Niglas K., Klippar J. & Laanpere M. (2008): Soft ontologies, spatial representations and multi- perspective explorability. Expert systems 25(5).