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This review considers the application of CASE systems to a series of examples in which the original structures were later revised. We demonstrate how the chemical structure could be correctly elucidated if 2D NMR data were available and the expert system Structure Elucidator was employed. We will also demonstrate that if only 1D NMR spectra from the published articles were used then simply the empirical calculation of 13C chemical shifts for the hypothetical structures frequently enables a researcher to realize that the structural hypothesis is likely incorrect. We also analyze a number of erroneous structural suggestions made by highly qualified and skilled chemists. The investigation of these mistakes is very instructive and has facilitated a deeper understanding of the complicated logical-combinatorial process for deducing chemical structures.