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Riga2013 Symposium on Concepts and Perception

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Concepts, Perception and the Dual Process Theory of Mind

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Riga2013 Symposium on Concepts and Perception

  1. 1. Concepts, Perception and the DualProcess Theory of MindMarcello Frixione - Antonio LietoUniversity of Genoa (Italy) - University of Torino (Italy)lieto@di.unito.it9° International Symposium of Cognition, Logic and CommunicationPERCEPTION and CONCEPTS, Riga, 17 May 2013
  2. 2. Outline• Relation between Concepts and Perception• Analysis of the notion of «Concept»• Different axes explaining the – heterogeneous - nature of thisnotion• Introduction of a new axis based on the Dual Process Theory• Conclusions2Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  3. 3. Concepts and PerceptionThe problem of the relations between concepts and perception isblurred by the fact that the notion of concept itself is rather confused.i.e.: It is not easy to say whether and in which measure concept possessioninvolves entertaining and manipulating perceptual representations,whether concepts are entirely different from perceptual representationsor not, and so on…(e.g. distinction conceptual/non conceptual content as a paradigmaticexample of such a confusion: the same phenomena can be categorizedas conceptual by some psychologist and non conceptual by somephilosophers). => unshared notion of concept.3Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  4. 4. Analyzing the notion of «concept»Different axes through which to consider the nature ofconcepts:• Prototypes/Exemplars/Theories• Compositionality vs Typicality Effects• Our proposal: System1 vs System2 conceptualcompetences4Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  5. 5. First Axis: Concept Theories in Cognitive ScienceClassical Concept TheoryPrototype TheoryExemplar TheoryTheory Theory5This axis was individuated bythe works of Murphy (2002)and Machery (2009)All these approaches aim toaccount for typicality effectsMarcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  6. 6. Typicality Effects6(Rosh E., 1975)Category membership is not based onnecessary and sufficient conditions but ontypicality traits.There are members of a category that aremore typical and cognitively relevant w.r.t.others.Ex: BIRD, {Robin, Toucan, Penguin…}Studies preceded by the Wittgensteinwork (1953) and by the concept of «familyof resemblance»Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  7. 7. Typicality Theories7The different proposals that have been advanced can be grouped in three main classes: a) fuzzy approaches, b) probabilistic and Bayesan approaches, c) approaches basedon non-monotonic formalisms.Prototype theory: concept as prototype (an approximate, statisticallyrelevant, representation of a category). A “central” representationof a category.Exemplar theory: the mental representation of a concept is the set ofthe representations of (some of) the exemplars of that category thatwe encountered during our lifetime.Theory theory: concepts are analogous to theoretical terms in ascientific theory. For example, the concept CAT is individuated bythe role it plays in our mental theory of zoology. In other version ofthe approach, concepts themselves are identified with micro-theories of some sort.Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  8. 8. Multiple «conceptual» representations8The different proposals that have been advanced can be grouped in three main classes: a) fuzzy approaches, b) probabilistic and Bayesan approaches, c) approaches basedon non-monotonic formalisms.These representations are not mutually exclusive.Different studies (ex. Malt, 1989; Smith et al. 97-98) show thatpeople use different conceptual representations for dealingwith different type of typicality based processes.This aspect represents a first symptom suggesting that conceptshave an heterogeneous nature.Machery: “concepts are not a natural kinds” => 3 natural kinds.Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  9. 9. A Further Axis: «conceptualrequirements»Compositionality vs Prototypical representations9Frege’s Principle “The meaning of a complex symbol sfunctionally depends on the syntactic structure of s and fromthe meaning of primitive symbols in it.”Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  10. 10. Prototypes and Compositionality10Prototypes are not compositional (Osherson and Smith, 1981;Fodor 1981).Ex. PET FISH = PET ⋃ FISHThe prototype or “PET FISH” is not the result of the compositionof the prototypes of PET (e.g. furry, warm…) ⋃ FISH(greyish).Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  11. 11. A New Axis: Dual Process Theories11We propose to consider a further axis in order to classifyconceptual abilities.It is inspired by the “Dual Process Theories” born in the field ofthe psychology of reasoning and rationality (Stanovitch and West,2000; Evans and Frankish, 2008; Kahnemann 2011).According to the dual process theories two different types ofcognitive processes and systems exist which have been calledrespectively system 1 and system 2.Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  12. 12. System 1/System 2 featuresSystem 1 (Implicit) System 2 (Explicit)Unconscius ConsciousAutomatic ControllableEvolved early Evolved lateIndipendent from Language Related to LanguagedParallel, Fast Sequential, SlowPragmatic/contextualized Logical/AbstractMarcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  13. 13. Dual Process Theories and Reasoning13The dual process approach was originally proposed to accountfor systematic errors in reasoning tasks: systematic reasoningerrors should be ascribed to fast, associative and automaticsystem 1 processes, while system 2 is responsible for the slowand cognitively demanding tasks and logical activity.Ex. Conjunction fallacy (Tversky and Kahnemann, 1983).In our opinion, the distinction between system 1 and system 2processes could be plausibly applied also to the problem ofconceptual representations.Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  14. 14. Dual Theories and Conceptual Representations14There are some crucial conceptual abilities that can be seen interms of system 1/ system 2 distinction.For example:Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, LatviaSystem 1 System 2Most Non MonotonicCategorization(Use of PrototypicalKnowledge)Monotonic Categorization(based on slow, sequential,deliberative processes)
  15. 15. Ex. Monotonic Categorization15??????19Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  16. 16. Ex. Monotonic Categorization16EXAGONPRIMENUMBER19Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  17. 17. Ex. Non Monotonic CategorizationX {hasFur, WagTail, Woof}???17Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  18. 18. Ex. Non Monotonic CategorizationAn element X is categorized as a DOG because:X {hasFur, WagTail, Woof}No one of these traits is definitory of DOG18Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  19. 19. Dual Theories and Conceptual Reasoning19If we consider the conjunction fallacy problem from the point ofview of a theory of concepts, it can be interpreted as an exampleof the strong tendency of human subjects to resort to prototypicalinformation in categorization (Non Monotonic Categorization)alsEx. Conjunction fallacy (Tversky and Kahnemann, 1983).A version of the Linda example:- Pippo weights 200 Kg- Pippo is 2 metres tall- Pippo growls and roars- Pippo has robust teethsMarcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, LatviaPippo is a mammalPippo is a mammal and heis wild and dangerous
  20. 20. Non complete overlapping among theseaxes20These three axes probably do not coincide.Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, LatviaAxis 1 Axis 2 Axis 3Classical Concepts Compositionality System 2Prototypes Typicality Effects System 1Exemplars Typicality Effects System 1Concept as Theory Typicality Effects,Compositionality ???System 1 and System2
  21. 21. Concepts/Perception and Dual Process Theory21In our opinion it is plausible that, in light of the distinctionbetween type 1 vs. type 2 systems, certain aspects of conceptualknowledge pertain type 1 systems, while others pertain type 2.Perception (or, at least, the so-called low-level perception) ispresumably "closer" to type 1 processes, and more remote fromtype 2 ones.Therefore, those aspects of concepts (if any) that are related toperception presumably pertain type 1 processes.Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  22. 22. Dual Theories and ConceptsThe system 1/system2 distinction could also be useful to clarify thedifferences between philosophers and cognitive psychologist on thenotion of «concept».Philosophers tend to privilege system 2 aspects of this notion.For the Psychologist, on the other hand, the system 1 aspects haveto be considered as conceptual.Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  23. 23. Conclusions23We propose to support the hypothesis of the heterogeneousnature of concepts resorting to the dual process theory of mind.In our opinion, this axis can be fruitful in order to consider therelations between concepts and perception.In this sense, we believe that the problem of the relationshipsbetween concepts and perception is in some sense ill-posed; asatisfactory solution should presuppose a better understandingof the notion of concept.Marcello Frixione and Antonio Lieto - 9th International Symposium of Cognition, Logicand Communication, 16-18 May 2013. Riga, Latvia
  24. 24. Concepts, Perception and the DualProcess Theory of MindThank you for your attention Questions/Comments…Antonio LietoUniversity of Torino (Italy)lieto@di.unito.it

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